Autumn — harvest time. It is the most abundant and nourishing to go. But the harvest is important not only to gather but also to maintain, preserve vitamin reserves in the long winter months.
Onion removed from the ridges necessarily in a dry sunny day. Readiness is determined by the pen: it must lie down and turn yellow. In many areas it for better ripening bulbs specifically knocked — crush his hands to the ground, trying not to break the pen.
Torn onions spread in the sun for 2-3 hours, warmed to the bulb. Before laying on storage onions should be drier for 2-3 weeks in a well-ventilated warm room. This can be a porch, summer kitchen or attic. And can be dried in the sun, but only if there is no risk of fog and rain.
Onions spread in a single layer. The larger the bulb, the more time is required for drying. We dried out bulbs pen is easily separated from the turnip. Store bulbs in a dry place in baskets, boxes or hung in nets, braided in plaits.
Tomatoes shot in various degrees of ripeness: green, milk, brown (pink) and complete. In the food used fully ripened fruit. But for all the pieces fit and others. For example, it turns from green tomatoes very tasty eggs, and milk are better suited for savory snacks.
Most often harvested tomatoes brown. They reach maturity in the container, but to transport them more convenient than ripe. Collection of brown tomatoes promotes increased growth of the remaining fruit on the bush.
At the beginning and end of tomatoes harvested fruiting one once every 3-4 days during ripening mass — in a day. Shoot them better without the stem, so they do not hurt each other during transport and storage. Before severe frosts remove all remaining fruit on the plant.
Fresh green tomatoes are good for 2-3 months in a cool place in wooden or plywood boxes, pour sawdust. Instead of sawdust, you can use shredded peat. You can put boxes in a dry cellar, cellar or basement. At moderate temperatures, tomatoes will slowly ripen until December. Ripe and under-tainted tomatoes have to choose from a regular mailbox.
The hardest thing to preserve fresh cucumbers. The optimum temperature — all from +6 to + 8 ° C. If it is higher, cucumbers lose their useful qualities or even fade.
After harvesting cucumbers not wash. They are placed in a pot with water tails down. Cucumbers should be water 3/4, it must be changed every day. You can wrap cucumbers in a damp cloth, put in an enamel pan and put it in the refrigerator. Lid cover is not necessary. And another way: put a plastic bag at the bottom of damp cheesecloth, then — cucumbers, close the top with a damp gauze and store in the refrigerator. These methods can be stored fresh cucumbers 2 weeks.
Taste and useful qualities of root crops is largely dependent on how much time and quality were harvested. Early-maturing varieties dig in 2 months, middle— 3, and later — through 4. The main sign that it is time to clean carrots — to begin to turn yellow tops. At this time the roots have accumulated nutrients, but have not yet cracked.
Carrots should be clean, dry in the sun. It is desirable in September, after a few sunny days. When podkapyvanii shovel should be placed vertically, 5 cm from the row that you do not accidentally cut the carrots. With one hand holding back at the root of the earth, and the second pull of the tops. Fold pulled out of the ground roots row in the garden to have a little dried out the land. When dig carrots, shake off her from the ground and cut the tops. Cropped roots once lay in storage.
Belated or premature picking apples affects their appearance, taste and length of storage.
Apples are harvested at different times, depending on the characteristics of the aging grade. Maturity summer and autumn varieties determined by the fall off of the first fruits. Winter lay and collect deposited long before the onset of maturity.
To pluck the fruits correctly, you must firmly grasp the apple, the index finger should lie on the stalk. Apple lifted up and turn to the side. Ripe apples are separated easily.
Fruits of one kind, but different sizes stored in different ways. Therefore, after harvesting they should be sorted out immediately. For storage suitable only healthy fruit without damage. They lay in boxes, pouring peat, sawdust, sand. You can create a layer of paper. Store in a subfield, dry basement or cellar.
Going Mug Everyone knows how much can be scratched until gathering gooseberries. And leave the berries on the bush too sorry. I would like to share their way as much as possible to simplify the task and did not hurt too much hand. It would take a half-liter aluminum mug and canvas gloves.
The upper edge of the cup opposite the handle, it is necessary to cut large teeth. About 2 times greater than that of the saw. On the one hand put on a glove, raise a branch gooseberry. In his other hand holding a mug and take her teeth on the underside of the branch. All the berries will be in the circle. However, then they will have to sort out, shake out the litter, leaves. But it’s not as scary as thorns.
Pepper and eggplant
Peppers and eggplants save fresh as long as tomatoes, impossible. Even in the refrigerator they are a little more than a month. As a rule, the peppers are best eggplant.
Unlike the tomatoes and peppers Buckle Jany for storage, it is impossible to tear by hand. They need to be carefully cut with scissors or a knife, along with the stem. Stow them in the stage of technical maturity. Overripe eggplant taste bitter, and peppers are perishable.
Eggplants and peppers removed every 4-6 days. Ripe fruit — elastic to the touch, have a distinctive color and luster.
Early cabbage and other cabbage varieties ripen in August. Stow it when it reaches a weight of 400 g and more.
Red cabbage stored in a cool place 3-5 months. The late varieties of cabbage are longer. They were taken to clean up in October, in the first decade.
In Brussels sprouts in late July — early August, pinch out the tip of the stem. This limits its growth and allows a larger form kochanchiki. Stow them in 2-3 hours, vylamyvaya first lower, then the upper as growth check. This increases the yield.
Stebleplod kohlrabi removed when they reach 6-8 cm in diameter. Overgrown become tight inner walls, deteriorating taste.
Cauliflower better pritenit. Otherwise, it could fall apart or turn yellow. Bits 4-5 are cut off together with leaves when they reach weight 250 g
Broccoli cut with a part of the stem (10-20 cm), which also goes into the food. To begin harvesting when the heads reach the size of 8-25 cm in diameter, before blooming buds.
After cutting broccoli and cauliflower of lateral buds will grow new heads (4-6 cm in diameter).
Winter (arrow) taken to remove the garlic in early August, the summer — in the end. It is important not to miss the moment to do it before the heads begin to fall apart, Ina Th-1 it will be bad to lie.
In winter garlic signal the beginning of harvesting is the disclosure of wrappers on the bulb ‘and yellowing of the arrows. First collected intended for planting the bulb. Arrows are cut 1 cm above the bulbs associated snopiki and hung under the roof to completely dry. After that, the bulb threshed and planted simultaneously with winter garlic.
Garlic dig fork, shake off the ground and spread out to dry in the shade or under a canopy. In the sun Bulbs zagrubeyut and acquire a greenish color.
Store garlic in a box, carton or other container with a moisture content of 75%, without changes in temperature.
Different vegetables require different storage conditions. But it is not always possible for them to create such conditions. It can help some of the techniques used by experienced vegetable growers.
It is best stored at a temperature of +2 to + 7 ° C and humidity of 70-75%. If cellar damp, must be equipped with an extractor fan, you need to put the dry humidifier. It could easily replace a bucket of water or moist sand.
Before laying the deposit of potatoes need to sort out, damaged and diseased tubers are removed. Hold it up to frost in a cool place, and then poured into the cellar. So it will be better kept. If potatoes are dug out of damp earth, it must be pre-dried, and if there are signs of rot free from residues in the soil and wash potassium permanganate.
Good potatoes dispersed on boxes or covered with a layer of 1-1.5 m. Different varieties of potatoes are best kept separate. To make a particular seed is closed.
Beets and carrots
When cleaning carrots and beets is important not to damage the roots. The leaves of the beet crop is not at the root, you need to leave 1-3 cm. At the tops of carrots cut completely, partially cutting off the upper part of the root, otherwise it will go to growth.
If the cold cellar, beets and carrots can be stored in all directions, like potatoes. Normally, root vegetables are stored in rows of boxes filled with sand, but you can rinse thoroughly, dry them, and showering in paper bags and put them in plastic and tie tightly.
Part of carrots can be left for the winter in the ground (if not rodents and climate allows). In the spring, once thawed earth, it must dig until sprouted. The carrot is juicy, tasty and keep howling vitamins.
Courgettes and pumpkins
For storage suitable only ripened fruits without damage. At the ripe squash skin is not pressed with a fingernail. Ripeness is determined by the pumpkin stalk: it is easily separated from the stem.
To vegetables wintered well, put them on a month to draft. It will shrink by about 10%. After that, they can be stored in a warm-premises schenii (not below + 15 ° C).
Green pods and beans can be harvested several times in 10-12 days after the appearance of the ovaries. They practically are not stored and can be prepared at once, freeze or preserve.
Ripe beans harvested grain after drying wings. You can remove the matured pods and remove them for a while in a dry room to dosohli. Extirpation beans stored in hermetically-sealed containers, or salted linen bags in a dry place (can be at room temperature).
Cabbage fresh stored in the cellar, remove the outer leaves and hung so that it does not touch the walls or shelves. If cabbage is lying, then gradually in the point where the shelf will start to rot. High humidity in the room it is not harmful.
With Cauliflower, if the harvest is great, you can proceed as follows. You-dig the plants up by the roots and store it in the basement until stable cooling.
Cabbage landed in a deep greenhouse. Deepen the shed in the furrow and sprinkle the ground to the lower leaves. Insulate the greenhouse, cover with wooden boards or other opaque material (rearing takes place without light). On top lay a straw or leaves to keep warm. Before the New Year pick the greenhouse and eat cabbage (usually triples its weight). If the climate does not allow such a greenhouse or not, do the same in the basement, prikopat roots moist earth and close the newspaper. Make sure that the temperature does not fall below zero.
CHINESE in the garden
That the «beast»?
This is not the name of the variety, and their actual origin, because they come from China. There landowners huge cucumbers grown to 1.5 m in length. With such huge amounts Zelentsy remain soft and not overripe. They have excellent taste and aroma, flesh is firm and sweet, and the narrow chamber in the heart of occupied small seeds.
On the beds «Chinese» can be identified immediately. He gives little lateral lashes. It prefers to grow in a single stem. On the nodes generates a lot Netherbloom and few female flowers.
Planted in greenhouses
Farming growing Chinese cucumber is somewhat different from the usual. They show the best results when grown in a greenhouse.
— An empty wooden box without a bottom height of 40-60 cm 2-3 days before sowing the seeds of early cabbage or pick tomatoes I put the high pile of manure mixed with straw, says Marina Protasov, our reader, a cucumber-growing third year. — Well watered with hot water and close the top film. 2-3 days «caught fire» bunch distributed throughout the hotbed and spread on top humus layer of 15-20 cm.
I watered solution of potassium permanganate, and sow the seeds of cabbage or tomatoes dive. Hotbed of covering non-woven fabric type Span Bond, a top film. When the threat of frost has passed, shelter rented.
When sowing cabbage 4 sow cucumber seeds by placing them in a row in the middle of the greenhouse. After transplanting cabbage in a little spud pound cucumber plants are races, and pour in the vacated space humus.
SECRETS OF GROWING
I for some reason such cucumbers 8-10 liters of water. Ready to make it as much as possible perekladinok supports for cucumber lashes.
"A note that this year’s G Chinese cucumber whip were too thin and small leaves. And the harvest is, of course, affected. What happened to the plants?
— Most likely, there is a lack of nitrogen plant. To remedy the situation, it was necessary to feed the cucumbers with a solution mullein, made from 1 liter of mullein, and the mixture had to pour 1 L under every bush.
They say that . from the Chinese cucumber, you can cut a piece, and it will continue to grow in the garden. It’s true?
— To a large extent this is true of lagenarii, which is also called Chinese cucumber, zucchini Indian or calabash. But this is another plant — the fruit of his resemble a cross between a cucumber and zucchini and reach a length of up to 1.5 meters!
Cucumber on a pumpkin
Try to instill a cucumber on a pumpkin. What for? Cucumber thermophilic, growing at soil temperatures of 20-25 ° C. By late summer, cucumber roots begin to die. If you apply the vaccination thermophilic cucumber on cold-resistant plant pumpkin, cucumber will have a strong root system, and as a result, the period of fruiting of cucumber increased. And I noticed, increases their productivity and reduces time-to maturation of the plant. The case is troublesome. For information on how to do this can be found in the literature. Good harvests all!
Almost a meter!
Svetlana Mityukhin from Novokuznetsk grows cucumbers are not the first year. Her favorite brand — «China heat-resistant.»
— This fragrant cucumber, — she says. — Fruits are very dense and crisp. And what they are delicious in a preserved! I remember when I opened the jar, they exceeded my expectations: ordinary proved tastier and more aromatic, «dragged» to all notes of spices.
The planting and care, I think, they are not picky: only watered and closes the cold. And the longest cucumber was 70 I see!
FEATURES OF CABBAGE
Cabbage seeds formed in the second year. It is not always possible to keep the head intact before landing. When he began to deteriorate, cut the damaged area, cut off the head of cabbage with a lot of leaf and stalk, wrap in a paper bag and store in the refrigerator. You can put it in a flower pot, and then transplanted to a permanent place.
Note that on the remaining stalks should be preserved leaf and flower buds. It is not necessary to clean it, you’re not going to eat it.
Radish, daikon, green radish
The seeds of these crops can be obtained in the first year of planting. Often, due to weather conditions the plants emit arrows. But if that does not happen, select a healthy plant is a medium-sized regular shape. Cut the leaves to 1 cm from the root, the root nadsekite. Poza wee the plant to a new location in the fruit and native soil. After a while, there will be flower stalks, and the seeds will have time to mature.
Many gardeners to speed up the process designed to clean planting seeds for 3 days in the refrigerator.
In the bulb of garlic arrows are formed, which are planted before winter. During the summer they grow into large enough odnozubki. Already have obtained the normal garlic with teeth. Odnozubki easy to clean, so many specially bred for their preparations.
With onion blackie arrows collected seeds (they are black). From them grow onion sets. From planted the following year, grows onion turnip. To shed their seeds, you can tie gauze or an inflorescence pull onion, when it begins to turn yellow pen and hang to ripened seeds.
Cucumber seeds are selected from well-ripened fruit from the yellow-brown skin. Cucumber cut lengthwise, remove the seeds with the pulp is placed in a small container and allowed to ferment for several days. After this they are washed and spread out to dry.
Seeds of other pumpkin is removed and washed immediately, and then spread out to dry. Sometimes they are simply dried.
Seeds selected from well-ripened soft flesh with the fruit. They are allowed to ferment for a week, then washed and dried.
One of the important autumn works in the garden — planting flower bulbs and winter garlic. This is usually done in October, at least — in November (depending on the region). It should be adjusted so that bulbs planted 3 weeks before severe frosts. Then the bulb will have time to take root, but does not go into growth, it is dangerous to freezing.
Spring flowering bulbs should be planted in autumn, autumn flowering — in late spring — early summer. Cold-Summer bulbs can be planted in early to mid-autumn, and heat-loving — in early spring when the soil warms up to + 12 ° C.
For podzimny planting garlic and onion choose a sunny place. The soil is treated in advance, add compost and potash fertilizers.
The soil should be light, permeable.
Cloves garlic, intended for planting, are to be large, with no damage. At the same time it can be planted and grown on the bulb arrows. But the onion plant should be fine.
They are planted vertically at a distance of 20×20 cm, 2.5 cm deepening in the ground. When planting, you can add wood ashes in the hole or it pollinate seed.
Try to take to plant local varieties cultivated. As a rule, they seem to tolerate the vagaries of the weather and give better yields.
Good precursors for the garlic and onions are tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers and other cucurbits.
Acting on PLAN
Select a location for planting bulbs. The first condition — sufficient light, the second — the permeability of the soil. Stagnation of water should be avoided, otherwise the bulbs sopreyut. Remove weeds, prepare the ground. Most bulbs unpretentious, and you are content with the usual garden pound.
Make the desired depth of the hole. Usually calculated so as to be recessed into the onion pound on three of its height. The distance between the bulbs depends on their size (from 2-3 cm between the crocuses to 20 cm between the li-liyami). Pour into well 1 tsp. Of wood ash and lower the bulb bottomed down. Sprinkle with the ground and tamped. After planting all the plants on this place Zamulchiruyte garden soil with compost.
How to choose?
Choosing a place for planting bulbs should be based on the time of their flowering period and vegetation adjacent plants.
Primroses bloom among the first in the garden, and in the beginning of summer in their place are either wilting yellow leaves or bare vacant land. Therefore it is best to place them among the spreading or sprawling perennials. Spring onion is enough sun, because in the garden at this time is not enough that the wakes. And then the grown herbs close the empty gaps.
Flowering bulbs in the autumn should be placed where the time they bloom in the flower beds a gap.
HOW TO STORE?
I would like to share their experiences of storage Bulbs of flowers in winter. Firstly, there should not be too dry: so the bulbs will lose a lot of moisture. There should not be too wet they can become moldy and will lose their germination. They do not like when it is very cold (freeze) or warm (may be too soon to get under way in growth).
The room should be quite warm, moderately dry and well ventilated. Suitable warm cellar, it is possible even in the apartment, away from the battery. I use the cardboard boxes in which to pour peat. This material protects the bulbs from drying out, prevents the spread of diseases, if they suddenly appear, and is a good thermal insulator. So problems with hibernation at my color does not happen.
END OF SEASON
The best time for sowing podzimnih to the establishment of sustainable cooling. Although some crops may be sown later, shortly before the snow. Typically, the top layer of the earth at that time already freezes. To seed is not terrible, but it is very difficult to tillage. So it makes sense to prepare beds for planting and furrow in a flower bed in advance. Pre-need to stock and materials that you will sprinkle the seeds sown.
In the autumn seeds are sown slightly larger than the vein, but not as deep. They do so, given that some of the seeds may not come up, and when snow melts, they will drop slightly deeper water.
During the winter in the ground formed a hard crust through which the seed is difficult to hatch. Therefore, they are sprinkled with a thin layer of peat or humus. Watering autumn planting impossible: an unexpected warming may cause the seeds hatch in a moist environment. And in the spring they will have enough melt water.
TO EARLY bloom
Planting flowers before winter accelerates flowering 1-3 weeks. But you can make sure that they wake up and bloom earlier. For this spring plantings over once the snow melts, set the arc and cover them with foil.
This method, incidentally, will help to avoid the cultivation of flower seedlings. Planted by winter asters bloom almost at the same time with those who planted seedlings since March. Another advantage podzimnih landings — high resistance to adverse weather conditions and disease.
Many flowers can breed self-seeding. But the tender shoots of most of them can not withstand spring frosts and die. Therefore recommend sown under winter poppies, alyssum, asters, cornflowers, baby’s breath, godetsii, Iberis, calendula, cosmos, lavateru, Nigella, eschscholzia and others.
These flowers do not like transplanting, it is better to sow directly to a permanent place in the flowerbed. If the seedlings are too friendly, they need to be thinned out. But aster spring need to hide the film.
Some seeds require stratification of perennials, so they must be sown before winter. Of course, you can wet them and place for 1-3 months in the refrigerator. But it is better to plant them in the fall immediately to a permanent place.
Require stratification lavender, gentian, Aquilegia, Delphinium, primrose, hellebore, hardy cyclamen and others. Carnation, Gaillardia, campion, doronicum, lupine, bellflower and persicifolia, chamomile, yarrow, arabis, erigeron, and others can sow in the spring, but podzimny planting is preferable: the plants will be stronger and more resistant to adverse factors.
Practice shows that planted before winter vegetables will harvest 1-2 weeks earlier than planted in mid-April. And most of us do the first landing on the May Day celebrations.
First of all sow lettuce, dill, parsley, celery. A good result is obtained by planting podzimny carrots.
And, of course, do not forget about winter garlic. And can be planted onion sets, but it must be recessed slightly stronger than the spring planting.
It makes sense to plant the seeds before winter cold-resistant plants, which is the deadline date. Firstly, in a warm apartment for winter germination is seriously reduced, and secondly, in the spring you will see whether there is sprouting, and you can sow fresh seeds, if not available.
This culture was planted in the autumn, in September. You can sow the seeds, but much easier to dig and divide the rhizome. Sit it on a prepared site, where there is no stagnant water.
Do not forget that rhubarb grows in one place for 8-10 years, the rhizome has big, powerful. Therefore, the soil dug deep and make a large amount of humus and compost.
Last year saw the neighbors by giving an unusual shrub-like raspberries: shoots are long and curved, covered mnogochis-lennymi spikes and black berries, as if covered with wax. Please note that the cuttings had not. Tell me, what kind of berry, and how it can be diluted?
Marina, likely a black raspberry. Often confused with blackberries, but berries blackberries have larger and more brilliant and completely different taste.
What makes it interesting? In this berry yield surpasses almost all other kinds of the best varieties of raspberries. Yields subject of farming to 7 kg per bush. She has virtually no pests, and should not peck poultry.
Indeed, root suckers black raspberries does not. Therefore, the best method of reproduction is considered rooting the tops of annual shoots in July — August.
Most of the shrubs growing over time and forms a bush with a lot of radical offshoots. This jasmine, lilac, snowberry, garden roses, bobovnik.
What to do? Around the bush dig the groove depth of 20-25 cm. Then, holding the shovel vertically, sharp blow and cut off part of the bush. It can then be divided into smaller parts.
On isolated from de-ment of the bush, cut the shoots (you can cut 1/3 of the escape or leave 5 cm).
Layering reproduce almost all ornamental shrubs and especially fine curling, as well as those who have had a long length flexible branches (japonica, buldenezh, jasmine).
The most effective method: proliferation of Chinese horizontal layering.
What to do? Spring bush, when he is still in the stage of rest, cut very short «on the stump.» In the summer the plant will grow a lot of young shoots of annuals. The next year around the bush dig the groove depth of 15-20 cm. Strong shoots bend down and sprinkle ground.
In autumn these plants can be planted has a permanent place.
Propagation summer (green) and woody (autumn) cuttings.
What to do? If in-shall prepare green cuttings, cut them during budding or early flowering plants. Do this early in the morning. Divide the shoots on the cuttings with 2-3 internodes. Plant them in a greenhouse in the sand at a depth of 1.5 cm.
Winter-shall prepare for the stalks before the arrival of cold weather with strong young bushes of the first year, well matured shoots. Planting them in soil in specially prepared beds. In winter, stored in the basement in moist sand or snow.
In recent years, one of the most fashionable shrubs — Chekalkin nut. What he is so fond of? He whimsically curved trunk, dense crown, large blooms amazing brushes up to 25 cm large white flowers with red throat, dotting the entire tree. Some dendrologists generally considered him one of the most beautiful flowering shrubs. After flowering forms around the capsule, the size of a walnut, of which when ripe and cracking poured dark brown nuts, reminiscent of hazelnuts with a small thin-skinned. Edible nuts in raw or roasted, and contain up to 64% fat.
From diseases and pests
Do not forget SOIL
In between the rows of fruit trees, the soil dug up by 15-20 cm, and in circles around the trunks — 10-15 cm. Pere kapyvat ground next to fruit trees experienced gardeners recommend using a fork along the root, so as not to damage them. To the soil was fertile garden to make digging in it mineral and organic fertilizers. And in order to reduce the acidity of the soil, proizvestkuyte it. Organic fertilizers may be scattered on top. Typically, tree trunks left for 4-5 kg of fertilizer, while the remaining areas — per 1 m2 of 2-3 kg.
FOR THE WINTER
In the autumn garden accumulates many pests. In anticipation of the winter they hide under leaves, go into the topsoil or climbs under the bark. At the same time pathogens are moving into a stage of hibernation on fruits, shoots, or leaf litter. That is why it is important cleaning section from fallen leaves in the garden, which is better to burn in a special place. Do not forget to remove from the garden, and various types of garbage, cut twigs and branches, and dry plants. Dried and diseased branches and better burn.
APPLE AND PEAR
Crowns of trees treated with a solution of urea (500 g in 10 liters water). This helps against scab spores of which are on the leaves. If the harvest of apples and pears was struck by the fruit rot and scab, after the trees opal foliage, their crown should be treated with copper sulfate (100 g per 10 liters of water).
Remove the trapping zone, clean shtamby fruit trees in the garden of lichens, moss and dead bark. Patients fruit and howling mummified fruit rot and collect and destroy.
A branch with dried leaves, twigs, bark beetles damaged and pro-Chimi diseases cut.
After the foliage gooseberries, currants and raspberries completely opal, cut the tops of the shoots of shrubs that are affected with powdery mildew. Fallen leaves from the bushes zakompostiruyte or burn to destroy overwintering them female spider mites, pathogens rust, powdery mildew, anthracosis. Dried branches should be cut to the ground and burn if they were damaged by various diseases. To branches of bushes in the winter breakage of the snow, tie them with string. After the onset of persistent frost raspberry shoots need to bend down to the ground, tied into bundles and leaving spaces for ventilation.
When digging the soil under the berry bushes gardeners recommend to pour under every bush of 100-150 g of superphosphate, 300 g Fruit and Berry mixture or 50-60 g of potassium sulfate.
For warming the roots of berry bushes sprinkle pristvol-WIDE circles humus or peat layer of the high-7-10 cm.
In order to protect the branches and trunk of the tree from extreme temperatures, paint them with a solution of lime (10 liters of water 2-3 kg of lime, 300 g of copper sulfate, 1 kg clay) or water paints containing rodent repellent substances. Trunks of young trees will not be superfluous to tie the branches of a raspberry, tar paper or mesh, to protect against rodents. At the bottom of a harness should be embedded in the ground 10 cm. Ensure that the fall in the garden soil is not dried up, as this may lead to peremerzaniyu roots of fruit trees. To do this for about 2 weeks before the onset of frost-resistant should be abundantly watered trees in the garden.
HARVEST FOR THE FUTURE
The most active time for the care of the fruit is the Autumn. We need so much to do! Especially it is necessary to pay attention to their health: because it affects the future crop.
Even before the snow collect all the foliage and burn it. But the leaves and needles of ornamental trees and shrubs, you can not throw out and used as mulch to cover some of the plants from frost. Autumn clearly visible dried and broken branches of fruit trees and shrubs, which should also be removed.
Autumn gardening also involves cleaning the trunks of old bark. This work should be carried out every three years. Dead bark scraped off with a wire brush or scraper. This should be done gently, without damaging the living bark of fruit trees. Such operation, moreover, allows to destroy is lying on the winter under the bark of harmful insects.
In autumn remove from the earth all the props for the branches and trunks of trees. Backups can be treated with a disinfectant solution and clean for the winter in a dry room. After collecting the currants, raspberries, gooseberries, disassemble, process and store for winter frame used to contain the bushes.
What else to do?
Some gardeners recommend prikopat until spring tree seedlings, which has less than a year. In fast-growing young trees can be prischipnut shoots to suspend their growth. When autumn was dry, it should be well watered fruit trees.
In autumn you can enjoy planting or transplanting fruit bushes: currants, raspberries, gooseberries. You should carefully pour the young shoots. After that, together with a lump of land is necessary to transfer the young bushes in the pre-prepared planting hole.
Often write that the trees in the winter it is not necessary to fertilize, not to cause their strong growth, but still does not hurt fertilizing fruit ordinary wood ash.
Explore the autumn each tree. During spring and summer it can get a lot of different injuries from cutting or breaking branches from partial damage to the bark and wood, hollow, wound up infectious diseases, bark and wood.
These wounds must-treat! Treatment always begins with the removal of damaged, otmerzshih and rotten pieces of wood and bark to their healthy part. This removes all located within the wound protruding part of the timber and shoots — hemp and made it a thorough cleaning. Treatment of wounds should start in the spring or early summer. The wounds received in the second half of summer, autumn, winter and early spring, should be roughly processed (remove broken parts) and immediately to temporarily cover up garden pitch.
It’s time to dig potatoes. Often many of the vegetable crop — one of the most important in the garden. Most of us sadit potatoes traditionally. But there are many «non-traditional» methods of cultivation of this vegetable.
— If you have a little space in the garden, do not worry — says Irina Maskva-on from Omsk — even 1 m2 you can get a good harvest. How? Take a large tuber, and for 40-45 days before planting it across the notch, so that there is a small bridge 1 cm thick. Keep it up until not germinate. Dig a hole: depth of 50 cm long and 75 cm wide. It put a shovel well rotted manure, a handful of ashes and superphosphate 30-50 g. All of this mix: your «bed» is ready! Now plant the tuber to a depth of 8 cm. When the stalks rise 10 cm above the ground, cover them on 15 cm of loose soil. Stems again pulled out of the ground, but as soon sprout tops by 20 cm, pour it again. And so a few times until the sprouts will not rise above the pit. Then okuchte potatoes several times. Every time he fell asleep plant, Feed the its dung, ash and Superfos-8 sulfate. During the summer watering potato bush, and tear off the flowers still in bud in a box
An unusual method of landing shared with readers of Ivan Smirnov from Vologda.
Dig a small hole the size of 0,8×0,8 m and a depth of 20 cm. Shots from the inside polyethylene or set to the corresponding dimensions of the trough. At the bottom in the center of the tube set (1.5 m), which should be a plurality of holes. Trough filled with small gravel and cover with water-permeable ma-terials.
Next to this construction, set a box without a bottom 1×1 m and a height of 40 cm. At the beginning of April in the box, pour about 30 cm when wet fertile soil warms up to 7-8 ° C in a box will land 8 tubers to a depth of 10 cm. Cover with foil .
Every 5-6 days in the rubble fill water through the central tube, but so that between the surface of the water in the gravel and the soil in the box remained about the air-mezhutok filled with gravel.
Who grew up on the tops of 15 cm pour about half a damp fertile soil. And so a few times before the end of July. The walls of the box built up gradually, so as not to obscure the tops.
Under the film?
The experience of growing potatoes under the film. Last year, Sergei Uvarov from Nizhny Novgorod first tried this method. And that’s what he writes: «To start so decided to plant a small plot and compare it with a potato growing ordinary way.
In the spring of land dug up and covered it with a black film, which make a hole for the tubers in two rows. These holes and planted potatoes shallow, lightly covering with soil.
At both sites the seedlings were green and friendly. Several times the potatoes under the film watered all: no weeding, no spud or loose — beauty! As a result, it is ripened before and tubers were greater than potatoes planted in the usual manner.
My conclusion: Care-minimality of harvest above, but using this method is better for large and narrow beds.
3 kg from the bush!
Galina Lutsenko from the Kirov region prefer the classic method of growing potatoes. Selects grade «Nevsky» and «Empire-matrix.» From the first grade get to 3.5 kg with cous-ta, and the second — up to 3 kg!
— And I grow it, as usual. Germinated three weeks before germination soaked in potassium permanganate for half an hour. We put it on the combs, because the summer is often rainy. The hole is required to rolling in a handful of ashes as fertilizer, and from wireworms is very good. And during the summer to weed, spud. Before you dig, Weeks two circumcised tops. That’s all the wisdom!
Flowers in the garden
Fall color is given a lot of attention: some plants are seated, others cut, planted bulbs for the new season, many are covered with flowers for the winter and, of course, form new beds.
MAIN WORK coldly, but frost-free room.
It now is the time to change the flower beds and flower arrangements: fill in the blanks, add bright colors to the place where they are not enough to close the bald spots and replace the failed areas. How to do it correctly? By selecting a «replacement», rate it on the same principles by which you have formed a new flower bed.
What to plant?
In autumn remove all annuals in flower beds. Cut all the aerial parts of perennial plants that will bloom longer and are already losing decorative sheet. Dig in the ground all nezimuyuschie bulbous, tuberous and klubnelukovichnye floral culture. It gladiolus, dahlias, tuberous begonias and cannas, Galton, atsidantery, Crocosmia and large-Tigridia. Gladiolus and Crocosmia after cutting the aerial parts and roots of the air dry at room temperature, the rest of the material immediately store it in a cool but frost-free room.
It now is the time to change the flower beds and flower arrangements: fill in the blanks, add bright colors to the place where they are not enough to close the bald spots and replace the failed areas. How to do it correctly? By selecting a «replacement», rate it on the same principles by which you have formed a new flower bed: in color, height, shape and size of leaves and flowers, use a combination of classical-cal plants.
If the bed seems too dull in texture plant plant above the other on a bed or change the culture in the foreground on the carpet ground cover, if all the color come together, choose the opposite to the main range of colors from the color wheel, and with the domination of the flowers of some form, add contrasting larger or smaller.
What to plant?
Tulips. They planted them in the furrow. It is important to sustain and planting depth, which depends on the size of the bulb: large bulbs are planted at depths of 15 cm, well, fine — 12 cm.
Daffodils. Not bad feel daffodils and in partial shade, so they can be planted around trees and shrubs, protected by strong cold winds.
Hyacinths. They should be planted on the sheltered from the wind into the soil, which in previous years has been well filled up with organic fertilizers. After planting hyacinths Nestle dry leaves in several layers.
Daylilies. They multiply by dividing nests bulbs, bulbils «baby» and the bulb, as well as the individual scales of the bulbs.
Autumn divide peonies, phlox, Astilbe, delphiniums, poppies perennial, yarrow and other perennials. Pre-pruning is carried out faded flowers, which can be made in September. And then the compost is well fed.
Now is the time to lay the flower beds and planting flowers in the garden wintering. These include both bulbous perennials, among them a prominent place occupied by tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocuses, Proleski, daylilies and many other perennial flowers. Choosing the timing of planting, keep in mind that plants have to take root until frost.
The stage in the new flower bed must not only advance to dig, but also take care of micro- and macro-enrichment, growth substances. The land fill leaf humus, peat, compost, humus algae, lime and mineral fertilizers, in proportions according to the nature of the soil (dry, hard or peat).
How to rejuvenate a flower garden?
Just recently bought a plot. The former mistress has paid much attention to the colors: it was a huge flower garden. Many plants have «aged.» Tell me, how can they rejuvenate?
Perennials without wintering basal leaves (nard, delphinium, rudbeckia, phlox), dig, cut their withered stalks and share with your hands or a sharp knife garden. Selected on the landing of the young, who laid the big full bud. The plots should have 3-5 buds with a piece of rhizome and roots, or just with the roots.
Perennials with wintering in a rosette basal leaves (Bergenia, doronicum, iris, bluebell, coreopsis, daylily) divided knife, keeping the leaves. Each plot should have rozetochki leaves with a piece of rhizome and roots, or just with the roots.
Sweet flower DREAMS
There are perennial flowers that dig for the winter, but most perennials overwinters beautifully on a bed. You just only their right to shelter.
In autumn weather is dry hydrangea bushes okuchte or backfill to the roots of fresh soil. Cover the young plants a nonwoven fabric, folded in several layers, or cover the «hut» of the twigs. Adults can simply okuchit hydrangeas and shelter.
In Aquilegia, Astilbe, delphinium, iris, bluebell, peonies, primroses, rudbeckia, phlox and other flowers, remove the above-ground part. You can leave low stumps up to 5 cm. Then pour into the place where they grow, compost or garden soil loose. This is especially important for helenium and bearded irises that emerge from the ground, exposing the roots.
Most melkolukovichnyh — muscari, Proleski, snowdrops, Pushkin, crocuses and other bulbs hardy cover is not necessary. Planted to 20 September at the required depth, the bulbs of these plants have time to take root well and does not freeze in winter. However, later planting the bulbs on top of the best zamulchirovat.
If you fall planted winter-hardy bulbs Dutch (lilies, tulips, daffodils), then nestle them spruce branches. And on top of spruce branches, close the foil and cut shoots of perennials, that is, do a «dry shelter.» In no case do not Cover the planting Lou kovichnyh straw otherwise create excellent conditions for breeding of mice.
Before the shelter for the winter the lower parts of branches rose clear of old leaves. For chaynogibridnyh pitch critical temperature is -10 ° C. Hybrid Tea Rose Shorten a height of about 45-50 cm from the ground. Cut out all the young shoots and nevyzrevshie. Sprinkle the bush and the soil beneath a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate (against fungal infections). Then okuchte bushes to a height of about 20 cm. Polyanthas and miniature roses just cut inflorescence (less branching), then okuchte. Stam roses showered to the ground and sheltering spruce branches or well insulated trunks and branches of the crown. Better insulation for roses air-dry shelter. Keep warm spruce branches and oak leaves. They can throw a roofing material (not paper).
Do not forget the winter shelter chrysanthemums. Cut them almost at ground level, pour mulch. Then top build something like a roof to keep out excess moisture. You can use wood panels, boxes, plywood — all depends on the available capacity and the size of the plants. If you do not build a roof over them, then the chances of waterlogging. However, the shelter should not be too thick, the flowers are not vypreli.
But if you are not sure what sort of cold-resistant, safe and try one of the plants planted in a pot and put in the cellar for the winter.
Quilts for hydrangeas
For special hydrangeas I sew «blankets.» For large bushes using geotextiles density of 300-350 g / m2. I sew a two-layer blanket with an air gap. It is able to pass moisture and trap heat at low temperatures and little snow cover. It would not be spring and damping off. And for the single standing bush sew cap.
Before the shelter Cut off the leaves, the tops of flowers. Stems associate. Bend down to the ground and shrub prishpilivayut material. Bare root shoots from cover each material. For example, the dry peat. Next, the ranks of low teplichku arcs, fastening them with sticks and tape. Top sprinkles blanket ends prishpilivayut.
Single standing hydrangea bush harboring similar, but doing a pyramid of three or four sticks, linking them with tape. I spread a hood and two pins at the bottom.
To prepare your lawn for winter, require forks, mower, rake and a broom to clean the lawn, a mixture of mulch (2-3 kg per 1 m2), potash (2-4 kg per 100 m2), a mixture for overseeding.
Soil aeration is called piercing ordinary garden fork to a depth of 10-20 cm. It is necessary to drain water into the deeper layers of soil, drainage, improve air and moisture exchange.
It is especially necessary to carry out aeration, where there were a lot of lawn. After piercing the lawn a few days looks a bit scruffy, but recovers quickly, improving its appearance.
Last season clipped lawn at a height of 4-6 cm.
In the autumn after the aeration is necessary to make fertilizer. The nitrogen content in them should be minimal, but potassium and phosphorus — high. It is necessary to strengthen the growth of the root system, which will increase the stability to freezing, drying and disease.
The next stage of treatment. It is necessary to collect the accumulated organic layer (fallen leaves, grass clippings, etc.). It is poorly watertight, air and makes the lawn ventilated. Moisture collects in it during heavy rains, promotes the development of diseases. For cleaning use a garden rake or a fan, a broom.
To fill any irregularities in the change-mulching. Composition of the mixtures depends on the type of soil in your area. You can buy ready-mix or make it yourself.
On heavy clay soils a mixture of 5 parts sand, peat and 2 parts 3 parts garden soil. In light sand composition used 4 parts peat, 4 parts garden soil and 2 parts sand. If you can not determine the type of soil, make a mixture of equal amounts of these ingredients. Mix well and evenly spread on the surface of the lawn. Mulching prevents the evaporation of moisture from the soil and improves the density of grass.
If you want to overseeding, choose a time after the rain. Make the seeds on moist soil, rake Zagreb and possibly firmed. Seeds should contain the same kinds of herbs as the original lawn, or external differences may occur.
In the autumn reduce watering and cut any lawn. Shear lawn 1 every 2-4 weeks. It rolled down the grass drain. Before the snow falls, the processing is carried out by a fungus. This will help prevent yellowing grass in spring. Weeds are best left alone: in the spring to cope with them will be easier. Before the snow falls, it is desirable to collect the last trash rake and mow the grass.
November — the most effective time in the fight against rodents. To the mice did not spoiled the lawn, spread around the perimeter of poison baits. From moles can use special sulfur checkers.
UNDER ice crust
Lawn, covered with snow, does not require maintenance. However, problems may arise in areas where trodden paths, and under piles of thick snow to shake off the cleared track. The ice, which appeared on the lawn because of frequent changes in temperature can damage it. Try to break through the ice crust conventional ski poles or scatter a small amount of potassium chloride, his ice pellets burn through. NATIVE grasses
Many believe that the lawn at the cottage — it is troublesome and expensive. And this is true, if the contact with the seeds or rolls. But it is better not to do!
Lawns our parks are composed of different kinds of herbs. In fact, it is from the lawn grasses. Such a lawn does not require special care. Mow it quite 1 every 2-3 weeks, and the fall is even rarer. To you on the site] had such a lawn is not too shall need a lot of effort. Instead Tyapa, bevel the weeds. They are adapted to the treated soil, Meadow they do not happen. After a while you will notice that the weeds are gone and in their place appeared meadow. When this happens, do not bevel the lawn in late August. Herbs throw small whisk sufficient to dissemination. But after 2-3 years you will have a real lawn, no worse than the expensive, but more adapted to local conditions.
I at the site is almost no vacant land, either a bed or lawn. Even the track is partially filled with fine grass. And weeds is simply nowhere to live.
Every autumn, fallen earth sheltering layers of colorful foliage. But the beauty of this will last long: long rains begin, and trim the carpet under your feet will be wet and messy-brown. But until that happens, you can use the benefit of autumn leaves.
REMOVE OR NOT?
Some are of the opinion that it is necessary to clean the leaves: it overwinter numerous pests and rotting leaves can be a source of various infections. Others are reminded that fallen leaves are covered with tree roots and one-lagayas, improve soil structure. Autumn leaves can be used to cover the beds with podzimny crops in the spring rotted leaves useful for warm beds for melons, squash and pumpkins.
Each owner can decide how to use the leaves: leave as is, collect, add compost heaps or make leaf mold. However, some important points need to be sure to take into account.
This is an excellent tool for improving soil structure, good mulch and weak acidifying the soil. But the nutrients it contains almost no so the use Call-leaf humus as fertilizer is impossible. His dignity is in excellent conditioning qualities. Soil with humus sheet becomes pronitsaemoi for water and air, it helps plants to survive the summer drought and attracts earthworms. Ne semi-Regna added to the garden compost, to improve its quality.
Firstly, you can not leave windfalls under the bushes and trees. It must be disposed of, but not in the compost heap, and dig deeper in a hole somewhere in the side.
Secondly, the fallen leaves should definitely clean (better burn) if the garden this year, suffered a scab, powdery mildew and other diseases, pathogens which are stored on the leaves.
Third, you can not leave the leaves on the lawn. Soaked in the rainy season the leaves will turn into a crust, under which lawn grass quickly preet. Therefore, with the end of the mass leaf fall lawn should be cleaned of leaves.
HOW TO COOK?
Collected leaves are necessary to moisten and put in net bags, plastic bags dense garden fenced or any improvised material pile. Mesh bags need to add somewhere in the shadows in an inconspicuous place. When folded in plastic bags, they should be pierced in several places. For tie-close or not need: access to air and moisture will quickly develop fungal cultures that preview inverting leaves into humus.
Prepare the mold can be of any leaves. But they will decompose at different times, depending on the type of wood. If all conditions of the fastest (per year) decompose the leaves of most deciduous trees: birch, oak, maple, hawthorn, mountain ash, linden, alder, hornbeam, hazel. The leaves are evergreen trees and pine needles decompose 2-3 years.
After 1-3 years ready to leaf mold you will use as needed. And another plus: you will always have «a fresh tab» in the fall, and you do not have to burn the leaves and smell the pungent smoke.
If we add the leaves canted green grass, the process will go faster.
Leaf mold can be used for different purposes: to add a pound when digging and hoeing, used as mulch in the beds, under shrubs and trees, fill in the grooves to align the lawn. In addition, you can add humus to improve the structure of the pound at sowing seeds and growing seedlings in pots for indoor plants. For this sheet humus mixed in equal parts with garden compost, fine sand or loam.
Between the bushes and in flower beds to collect leaves best with a hand-held fan rake. They are compact and do not damage the plants. On the lawn, the lawn or other open space use garden rakes fan. On smooth surfaces and paths, you can use a broom or a stiff broom. If the area close to nature (the trees in the garden, in the coniferous and mixed plantings), more convenient to use classical rake.
The advantages of manual assembly is that you can work in wet weather, which often happens in the fall. And wet leaves rot faster.
OWN BODY OF WATER
Recently, ponds and pools of different configurations are increasingly decorate our garden. To successfully wintered small pond, you need to take some measures. Ready for winter
How to prepare a small pond for the winter, depending on how it is inhabited, and you get down from it water. From a small pond, not populated by fish, the water may be better later. But it is not suitable for those ponds, which are used when creating a film or a geotextile. If such ponds for winter pour the water, the bottom may be deformed, cracked, and rise above the ground level. It is better to take measures that reduce the pressure of the ice on the walls of artificial reservoirs, and leave the water.
From fish ponds stocked for the winter «resettled» in the tank if there is a danger of freezing. You also need to take care of special conditions for thermophilic aquatic plants.
Reservoirs with a concrete floor and walls in need of measures that reduce the pressure of the ice. Prevent overpressure caused in strong soil freezing, help pochvopok flat-plants planted along the banks. Another way: «Insulate» shore, put on the edges of the pond mats, stuffed with straw. But from the pond with steep concrete walls (in the pool) will still have to drain the water. For him critical severe frosts, when there is danger of freezing and deep heave.
If the winter water from the reservoir you keep, the main concern becomes the cleaning. Any organic residues during decomposition will consume the oxygen needed for normal functioning of fish, amphibians and plants. Therefore, it is necessary to clean up not only the leaves but also overgrown filamentous algae, duckweed. Clean the surrounding area to the trash with it not hit the water.
Yet the main problem is the leaves. In water they quickly become wet and settle to the bottom.
In the summer, we bought plastic molds and make the pond We were told that in the winter the water drained from it do not need the plastic stand. But suddenly it is not so? Will you need to change the water in the spring?
Plastic molds for the mini-ponds calculated that the water is completely frozen. They have a special safety factor. It is advisable to buy them in specialty stores.
Water can not be drained, but the reliability for the dip on the bottom package with some load and empty closed plasvode they become wet and settle rapidly to the bottom.
The easiest tool to clean the leaves — net Pond. But you have to remove the leaves almost every day.
To save time, buy plas-tick grid and cover the surface of the pond. Fix on the shore with the help of pegs. This prevents falling of leaves in water. A grid is not to sink to the bottom, throw on the surface of the pond a few inflatable balls or empty plastic bottles.
Most aquatic plants overwinter without trial-lem. Typically, the containers in which they grow up, just be accorded Perez-deep. Most of the plants die back in the fall leaves. They need to be removed.
If you grow heat-loving plants (rare varieties of nymphs, water hyacinth), then you need to take care of them too much. For Eichhorn (water hyacinth) need to find an aquarium and pond nymphs shove. Part of the water drain, and to add 1-2 buckets of water from a nearby natural pond. Live micro-flora quickly make your water clear.
Containers carry with them into the basement and put in a barrel of water. You can hide the containers moist sphagnum moss and to make sure that it does not dry up. But in many areas nymphs hibernate safely next to the pond, if their roots are below the freezing point of water (usually at a depth of 70-100 cm).
Bag of tricks
HOW TO DETERMINE ACIDITY?
Most garden plants do not like acidic soil. Therefore most often bring it to a neutral state. The first signs of an acidic soil — the presence in the area of herbs like horsetail, buttercup, common violet, plantain.
The home can determine acidity with acetic acid. Enough to drip a few drops on the ground. If it starts to «boil» (on it there are small air bubbles), it means that you have the soil is neutral or even alkaline. If nothing happens, the acidity is high. To fix this, bring the chalk, lime, wood ash, dolomite flour.
DIG DIG OR NOT?
Previously we recommended to dig almost all the land twice — in spring and autumn. Now the approach has changed: dig recommends a minimum and only when necessary.
Digging breaks dense clumps, enriching the soil air and improving the structure of heavy soils. But the negative effects occur simultaneously: drying and soil erosion, destruction of organic matter contained in it, partial destruction of worms and an increase in weeds. After the soil seed bank. They can be stored for years in deep ground, in a state of rest. When digging the seeds fall close to the surface and begin to grow. Therefore perekopok at least — one of the principles of organic gardening.
If you have heavy soil, dig site, planned for planting, a time for a few weeks before. Dig under suitable weather conditions: the ground has to be easily separated from the shovel and breaking up clods should not be difficult. When digging make organic fertilizers and substances that contribute to its improvement (garden compost, leaf mold, straw, seaweed, crushed bark, wood shavings). Cover the treated area of non-light-transmissive material and leave for a few weeks, so that the soil has settled. If you do not plan to use the land in the near future, plant green manure to land is not left bare for a long time.
In the garden
When you collect the harvest from the beds and remove annuals, just dig a bed hoe or a pitchfork. Your goal -gluboko loosen the soil without turning layers. Then spread it evenly over the surface of the compost, and if the soil is sandy, then immediately add the mineral powder. After this fertile land is necessary to cover for the winter so as not to have sprouted weeds. This is best done using the plant material: fallen leaves, grass clippings, chopped firewood. This will facilitate your work in the next year when they start planting. You will need to loosen a bed, prepare wells or grooves and how to throw them.
Compost improves the structure of any soil, making it fertile and friable. Leaf compost contains a lot of nitrogen and potassium.
Rotted manure enriches the earth with nitrogen and improves air and water permeability of the pound.
Sand was used as disintegrant. Preferably a large grainy. It helps make heavy soils lighter and improves their water permeability.
Peat is also used to increase the permeability of the soil to absorb moisture and improve. It is recommended to use heavy and dense pounds.
Lime funds do neutral acidic soil, flora and contribute to enliven the easier absorption of nutrients by plants.
Mineral powder is recommended for use on poor sandy soils. It increases the ability of soil to retain moisture and improves its nutritional characteristics. Select the desired mixtures containing clay.
We take care IN TIME
September — an active harvesting and processing. Earlier this month, dig potatoes, carrots, beets, the second clean zucchini, pumpkin, white roots, cabbage.
When the vegetables are cleaned and laid in the vault tops are going to stay and lay in the compost. Good to have some compost boxes to use them interchangeably.
Usually only three: over 3 years in the first box of compost has time to mature, and you can use it in autumn to refresh the soil in the beds and zamulchirovat tree trunks of trees and shrubs. This will enrich the ground with nutrients and protect the roots from freezing. A vacant compartment Down plant residues.
In August, it should stop land application of nitrogen fertilizers, because they — growth stimulators, while new shoots will not have time to prepare for winter. But by making potash and phosphate fertilizers should not give up.
In addition, in the fall, you can make organic manure, humus. Under the fruit trees are useful to add dolomite flour: it limp-one to the ground.
Beds by the rules
The beds are best done in late autumn. After the spring you will have many other concerns and ready to dig a bed, you can not only proryhlit and used for planting.
To bed was warm and fertile, you need to follow a specific sequence when its tab. There are 2 types of fyadok Ye-sokaya, raised above the ground, usually just above ground level. In the first case it is desirable to build a bed frame, which fits drainage, etc., and in the second trench is dug, the depth and width of at least 40 cm. Then drain placed in the trench. If you make high ridges, they do not require digging, as the soil in which the bulk. Such beds easier to handle (no need to stoop to the weeding), which is very important for the elderly.
Remember that it is necessary to alternate layers of plant organic layers of the earth, it will accelerate the decomposition process and improve the quality of the pound. The bottom layer consists of small branches, sawdust and wood chips (about 30 cm), then pound layer (6-10 cm). The next layer — straw, hay, leaves, manure and other organic matter. It is desirable to add the soil layer. Height — about the same. The last layer — compost. It should not be less than 20 cm. The finished seedbed should be well cast, and the top covered with earth: the seeds will germinate easier.
This bed is 5-6 years, then it will need to be updated in the same sequence. Weeds on it — the minimum number, especially if you zamulchiruete already germinated or rooted plants. The beds require copious watering, and in autumn they need to be loosened (10 cm) and pour the compost and earth.
Mulching using different materials: peat, wood chips and sawdust, fallen leaves, bark, rotted organic matter. Fits all layer 5-10 cm.
Planting strawberries and Victoria harbor a carpet. Seeds cous tarniki mulch within a radius of 50-75 cm, and fruit trees — in a radius of 1 m from the trunk. You can fill mulch mesh bags and put them around trees and shrubs. This is useful if you use a mulching as an anti-freeze and use dense materials imbues moisture (peat, sawdust). Due to their low thermal conductivity, they prevent the soil to warm up. A bag you can easily and quickly removed.
Autumn mulch will help keep the roots of the plants in the winter with little snow.
The perfect day to relax sit down and plan where you need to land. Note Compatibility blizkorastuschih crops and rotation features. And if you have a site there is a specially made water system, it is possible to consider the location of the beds to save their own.
If you spill from a well with a hand pump, it is reasonable to place locks around the well thought-out system of passage between them. You can arrange them radially (in a circle), or create a «radiation system.» So you’ll be less to go, and hoses require shorter.
Walkways between the beds definitely close. Suit boards, stones, dust and covering material. But do not cut away the ground, so as not to leave her weeds.
Bought land, most of the garden filled the cow parsnip. They tried to fight, but he was stronger. Is there any effective ways to destroy this plant?
Rather, it is about hogweed Sos-ray. Its sap causes painful burns and is extremely resistant to chemicals. The surest way to combat it — a black opaque film or similar material (rubber, roofing material).
In the spring of the first year of overgrown land cover film and press it. Can this be done and in the autumn, but the plant is not necessary to pre-cut. Remove the film only in the second year until the middle of June. This is the time required to cow parsnip has spent all of his kidney, trying to grow through the film. Other weeds, too, will die.
A single plant can be carefully cut down a few centimeters from the root, and the hollow stem pour vinegar essence or strong herbicide. Cover the stem with polyethylene and fix rubber or wire. The work is a compulsory gloves and protective clothing, trying to juice hogweed not hit on the face.
Do not rush to throw out the old leaky hoses: they can be used to build an excellent system for watering flower beds. Need tube adapters, leaky hoses and whole. r Cut a piece of old hose the desired length (guided by a flower bed). Do it more holes, and then wrap it with a thin layer of nylon or similar fabric. This is to ensure that the holes are not clogged ground. On one end of the insert tube adapter. Place the perforated tube in such a way in the middle of the beds to a depth of 7-10 cm. To the adapter, connect a hose connected to the plumbing.
Now, for watering the beds you can simply turn on the tap, water will be consumed sparingly and come directly to the roots. Do you prefer other things.
Tapestry and frameworks
Many climbing and crawling vegetable plants can be grown on vertical surfaces. This will help to save space and make some decorating flair in the usual gardening interior.
Autumn — the best time to build the desired structure. Think about the place where you want to grow vegetables this way. Trellis frames and should be oriented north-south. Otherwise, they will create a large shadow zone where other plants will be uncomfortable for the same reason, from the north to the south have made rows of trees trellis.
Note that the curly beans, melons and pumpkins suited small-fruited well-lit fences and walls. Suffice it to them to fix the garden net.
And SEEDING AND PLANTING
To save time and maintain a reasonable garden, get yourself a special notebook. In it you will celebrate sowing and regurgitates, plan the beds and beds. Indeed, sometimes it is more convenient to operate, based on a visual scheme. And you will be able to advance to consider several options and choose the best. In addition, your records will help you analyze what sort preferable for your site.
Sow green manure
After harvest, the best thing you can do for the soil, sow green manure. After all, the land must not be empty. It just flooded weeds, and you have to fight with them this season and next.
Green manures offer a triple benefit: in — First, the soil is filled with organic matter, and if the sow beans, then nitrogen. Second, purified siderates better soil fungicides. Third, improving soil structure (due to the root system of the plants) increases its permeability to water and air.
The seeds germinate faster, the more narastet green mass. It can mow, or leave in the winter.
Two things at once
The year before, bought a small plot. For several years he was not processed, and the garden is almost entirely sucked cherry. At first we were confused what to do, where to begin. And then you decide what you need to act wisely.
First they dug up a small portion, and then dug a shallow trench and put them in the branches carved cherry (large branches and trunks for firewood drank). On top of the trench covered with earth, sketched leaves, crop residues and again sprinkle. In high beamed neat beds. They are quite narrow, but are even easier to handle. That’s how we made new beds, and a large number of branches escaped. Nina Rozanov
Protection from the cold
In most parts of the country curly-1 races Zteniya need additional shelter for a period of cold weather. Otherwise, they simply vymerznut. Therefore, growers use a variety of techniques to «northern creeper» safely through the winter.
In the Far East, where he came from, magnolia grows exclusively on the eastern slopes of the hills. Therefore, it is necessary to plant it so that it sheltered from the west «hill» — a wall of the house, barn, fence.
Lemongrass necessarily need the support height of 3 m, as the berries had formed only in the branches above 2 m below — only male flowers. The first years, there is no-monnik stronger, it must be removed from the support and the cover (as well as grapes), and then it is normal winters without special shelters.
All parts of the plant useful. Tart sour berries have a tonic effect, and the leaves and flowers can be brewed and drunk as a tea. It gives energy and strengthens the immune system.
If you dream of a hedge or a green arbor, then this plant is for you. It grows very quickly, over the year is incremented by 1 m and more.
I took refuge in the winter all the roses, or else they will die. But long lashes climbing roses require special care.
Before the shelter is required to delete all the leaves and damaged shoots and branches treat copper sulfate. The roots pour fresh soil, put spruce branches, and on him — the whip shot from the support. They need to fix the boards or staples to avoid inflated by the wind. I do it at temperatures above zero.
When the temperature steadily drops to -6 ° C, the whip of covering leaves and spruce branches on top, was covered with burlap and put a wooden box. You can cover and film, but between her and the roses should be air. Roses are not more likely to die from the cold and from damping off during thaws or in the spring.
Actinidia IN THE GARDEN
The fruits of the vines in form and taste very similar to the kiwi. And it is nice to grow in our conditions. You can put Actinidia along the sunny side of the arbor or pergola to build. Then the green wall reliably protects from the wind.
To Actinidia PLO-Donoso, you need to plant one male plant for 2-4 female. Adult vine heavy, powerful, so she needs a strong support. Make sure wood, in other constructions whip freeze. Actinidia planted away from trees that she did not strangled. The first years until the plant survives, it must cover. Then it overwinters quite well.
There are many varieties of clematis. They may have different flowers, and they can bloom at different times. But they were pleased to have in the next year, they must be shelter for the winter.
Clematis, flowering on shoots of the first year (until August), is cut, leaving the ground node 2. Under each poured a bucket of compost and cover with leaves, and an inverted flower pot or box. Top additional sheltering foliage, wood shavings, sawdust (a layer of not less than 20 cm) and cover with foil.
Clematis, flowering on shoots of the previous year (from August and later) is cut at a height of 1 m from the ground. The shoots are placed on a layer of leaves, and then the harbor, as well as the previous ones.
DRY or wet
The best shelter for dessert grapes, some species of Actinidia and clematis is considered «dry». Liana is placed directly on the dry ground and covered with a layer of leaves and sawdust (20 cm), and the top covered with a waterproof sheet. A layer of insulation remains dry all winter and does not conduct the cold to the plants.
For roses and hardy grapes and clematis suitable «wet» shelter. Poured from the surrounding bush land planted to a height of 30-40 cm. The plants are ready for such wintering ahead of time by cutting the ends of the shoots in September to better ripened bark. So it remains center of the bush, which will recreate the spring plant.
High temperature and humidity in greenhouses, not only conducive to good plant growth and development, but also to intensify the development of diseases and pests. So at the end of the season it is necessary to put things in order and disinfect them.
Before disinfection, must be cleaned of all greenhouse plant residues. Remove organic waste. If the greenhouse there were some potted plants, bring them.
Remove the top (most contaminated) soil layer 10-15 cm. Take away the land from the greenhouse. It can be used on beds. Dig the ground for about a bayonet shovels, selecting roots and weeds.
Backfill fertile soil and dig again to loose soil better chilled winter.
After digging the ground in the greenhouse or shed Bordeaux liquid copper sulfate solution (the work should be done with gloves). These drugs are actively struggling with phyto-ftorozom, rust, spotted-mi, gray rot, scab and false mildew. You can then make organic fertilizer.
Be sure to perform fumigation with sulfur. This will help in the fight against bacterial and fungal infections, insects, mites. For fumigation Komkova burning sulfur or sulfuric checkers. The procedure is carried out at a temperature of 10-15 ° C, pre-sealed all the cracks, cover the vents and doors to achieve maximum effect. After 3-5 days the greenhouse open and airy.
Wash and decontaminate
Metal racks and parts need to pour over boiling water, wait until they dry completely, clean the rust (if any), and treated with a special tool (converter), and then paint. Loop handle engine oil.
Wooden frames, racks and shelves should be disinfected with a 10% solution of copper sulfate or whitewash. To use the whitewash lime solution with copper sulfate (1.5-2 kg of lime per 1 bucket of water and 100-200 g of copper sulfate).
Transparent surface it is necessary to wash up on both sides. Polycarbonate is better to wash with soap and water, then rinse with hot water. Glass wash special means to clean and disinfect with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Most often the plants that we grow in a greenhouse, suffer from the genus Phytophthora This lower fungi. The spores of the fungus, hit the ground, remain viable for several years, they are not afraid even severe frost.
Phytophthora can ruin the whole crop. It is therefore important to regularly disinfect the soil and the greenhouse itself.
Be sure to remove the film or covering material for the winter. Otherwise, the cold, the snow and the wind will turn them to spring into rags.
Clean and disinfect the cage, fabric or film wash with soapy water, treat with copper sulfate, dry and fold, too. Even if there is damage, these tools still serve. You can use them as an additional shelter during frost in the spring and late summer.
Last winter we have a greenhouse mangled, and quite another to break. In ashrme told that we are to blame Tell me, how to prepare a greenhouse for the winter?
Elena Kazakevitch Frame Polycarbonate greenhouses are usually two types of injuries: broken, crumpled profile (on the severity of the snow) or polycarbonate breaks. To avoid this, before winter, after the harvest and cleaning, put inside the greenhouse throughout the length of the T-shaped props. Move the bar at the top of Gori-tal profile and strengthen its vertical columns.
To avoid tearing the winter polycarbonate, carefully crafted open channels. On the one hand they are sealed vapor-permeable tape, and the other — the sealing and then closed end profiles. It does not allow moisture to accumulate in the channels, and damaging them freezing.
Keep in mind and features a polycarbonate mounting with screws. Holes which should be 2-3 mm greater than the diameter of the screw, and it should have a washer and the rubber gasket. Since polycarbonate is not deformed or damaged as a result of temperature changes.
TRANSFER heat-loving plants
SUITABLE FOR POTS
We have to go home almost no space, just a fence, and behind it — the road. Even a small garden not break it. I want to decorate the entrance to the house with flowers in pots, but do not know what should I use?
To create a floral arrangement in pots, use plants that complement each other in size, texture, color and the leaves and flowers, growing conditions and time of flowering.
The most popular plant for pots: fuchsia, pelargonium, lobelia, petunia, verbena, alyssum, balsam, heliotrope, nasturtium and others.
For hanging baskets and boxes of select plants that have a tendency to sprawl. After 2-3 weeks of active growth of them will hang cascades of greenery.
In large containers can be planted sapling of a large plant. A mature tree will compact size, because its roots will be limited by the size of the pot. You will be able to give the desired shape of the tree, if you cut it properly.
IN THE WINTER
In the autumn necessary to reduce watering plants in pots so they are better prepared for winter. And with the onset of cold weather to move into a room with a temperature suitable for the winter. If you have a cellar or basement relatively cool, you can move the plant in the winter there. If no such place, will have to make the winter shelter.
In cold weather, the plants in the pots carry into the room. They will remain in a state of sleep. Light and watering at this time they do not need. The ideal temperature for the winter — from 8 to -5 ° C. To improve the thermal insulation of flower pots need to put on a layer of foam, and the plants themselves is necessary to hill land to protect the center of the bush.
Place for winter Prikope grown in pots shrubs should be well illuminated by the sun. Note that groundwater should be far away, otherwise the plants will die. If you find such a place, start to dig a trench.
TRANSFER heat-loving plants
The depth of it should be at 10-15 cm below the high-bush, which you will need to hide it. The width and length depends on the size and quantity of the plants and pots.
The finished trench, set the pots, cover it with boards or specially made grill with wide slats, put a covering material, and on it — a layer of fallen leaves at least 20 cm. In order to improve thermal insulation above the foliage set Upside-down boxes, crates. They also poured foliage, which is pressed against the boards and fill up the pound, so as not blown away.
Persistent low temperature and low humidity ensure a prosperous winter potted plants.
When the snow melts, start periodically to open and ventilate the Vat Prikope. But be sure to close for the night, so as not to pomerzli awakened the kidney. You can remove a layer of leaves, and instead cover the trench with the glass frame. It protects plants from cold and provide the access of light.
Transfer to the garden and set up permanent overwintered plants only when the threat of frost has passed. Do not forget that the pots or boxes must be set to bars or flat stones: this will ensure a good flow of excess water when watering.
Potted plants that adorn the gardens and the house from the outside, need special care. They will consume the nutrients and moisture, so the pots should be large, they need to be watered regularly and abundantly, and 1 time in 2 weeks you need to feed. You can use liquid is-feeding for indoor plants by adding water half the norm, on the packaging. Withered flowers should be cut, this will ensure the formation of flower buds.
GETTING POT If you decide to decorate your house or garden with decorative bushes and trees in pots, prepare them for planting. The height of the pot must be not less than 40 cm. Preferably clay (ceramic) pots: their porous walls, and oxygen is supplied to the roots.
The pot must have drainage holes. They are covered with pottery shards, a flat stone or something similar. Above is poured a layer of drainage — small pebbles, sand or expanded clay. It is required to put a piece of non-woven fabric to prevent land in the drainage layer. After that partially cover the pot soil, planted a plant and fill up the soil, compacted and well shed.
Unpretentious and moodiness
Cabbage — seems to be the most unpretentious vegetable, yet it delivers a lot of trouble gardeners. That cabbage is not fastened, the crack, the rot. How to grow so well-liked vegetable?
Why not fastened cabbages from cabbage and cauliflower?
— The main reasons: heat and drought. Cabbage and cold-resistant culture does not tolerate heat. The optimum temperature for growth is 16-18 ° C. For plant growth and formation of heads and cauliflower heads, besides moderate temperatures, it is necessary that the soil moisture content and was not less than 70—90%. If the summer is very hot and dry, even abundant and regular watering can not provide it.
To form the cabbage yield and still needs large amount of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, and micro-elements. However, plants assimilate them only in dissolved form. Therefore, in the dry summer feeding must be carried out not dry fertilizers, and dissolving them in water and give a liquid.
It is said that only • that appeared to head cauliflower should be pritenyat. What for?
— In the formation of cauliflower heads observed in diffused light conditions and reducing its intensity. But when cauliflower begins to tie a head, it must cover (shade) of the lower leaves. And, once the head has formed, it is necessary to immediately clean up, otherwise it will darken and begin to divide into florets, the fiber will become rough.
Some modern varieties of cauliflower leaves themselves are closed over the head and protect it from yellowing and decay.
Whether there are frost-resistant varieties of cabbage?
— Fully hardy cabbage does not exist, but the late varieties of cabbage can withstand minor frosts, and can hold up to cover and head out to the first snow.
Small sprouts can withstand freezing, by them it becomes even more delicious, especially for pickling, through the optimal for the accumulation of sugars. But it is better not to abuse and cut the cabbage, as soon as the threat of a strong decrease in temperature.
Why early cabbage gives the arrow?
The main reason — failure to comply with planting dates. Pick up the correct varieties of cabbage. There are varieties for spring planting, there for the summer and autumn. If you have sown spring autumn variety, there is a high probability that he will go to the arrow, as the sprouts do not like too hot weather and long days.
Another reason why the landing overgrown seedlings stretched.
-Why cabbage cabbage crack? What to do?
— Cracks often sprouts early and some of the old middle-grades. The most common causes cracking of heads: changes in temperature and humidity. Especially great is the danger of cracking at the end of the growing season, when the head completes its development and forms a dense, strong outer leaves.
To avoid cracking, try to provide uniform watering cabbage and choose appropriate varieties for planting. At the end of the growing season, so if there was a gap in the re-watering at the wrong update them.
Kochan at the Brussels sprouts loose. Why, and what to do?
— Firstly, she «loves» the heat, drought, and fresh manure. Secondly, it is more capricious than cabbage and require careful to himself «attention»: a well-convenient rennoy soil, frequent feedings, hilling.
Thirdly, we need to remove this cabbage apical growth point. This is usually the case, the end of August, with the (1-1.5 months before harvest u yield. As a result, the crop reception, suspend INDICATES-vegetation of plants and accelerated ripening kochanchiki.
Finding that the cabbage is still began to crack, take measures to other plants consume less water and not cracked. To do this, take each head with both hands and gently pull it up or turn in both directions at 40-50 °. Thus you will break small suction roots and sprouts cease to absorb a lot of water.
FROM watering cans to DRUMS
Wash hoses running water and dry. Be sure to drain the water from them, which often remains after watering. Froze, the water may break the hose. Remove them better in dry weather. The hoses can simply be folded up and put away by rodents, but can also use a special coil. Coils of some models is fixed on the wall, and there are mobile on wheels. In such way, much easier to store long and heavy hoses (they do not have to «carry on their hands», removing, or, on the contrary, laying on site).
Wash with baking soda and dry watering. Pour the water from the barrels or other containers where rainwater is collected. Turn them upside down. If they dug into the ground, then wash and dry them in dry, then cover with a sheet of roofing material or roofing slate and put on top of a couple of bricks to cover not blown away by the wind.
Before cleaning the utility room in the garden tools and wash the brush. Then lower for 5 minutes in boiling water cool for disinfection. Air dry. Metal parts carefully brush with oil, and treat the wooden handles with linseed oil or paint. To quickly sprucing up a metal tool, you can in a bucket of sand splash of oil, and then several times to stick the tool in the abrasive mixture, and to move up and down, thus removing the oxide film.
Cutting part of hoes and shovels sharpen with a file, clips in a vise. Secateurs rub sandpaper. Saw after sawing branches tar brush clean with detergent to the plate, wash and wrap in waxed paper or cloth.
In gasoline-powered tools sure to check the air filters, the cooling fins of the cylinder, spark plug and cutting equipment. Clean as recommended in rukovodsovet to this topic
If the indoor humidity is very high, you can wrap the tools in waxed paper or place them in a sealed box, put the same piece of quicklime or bag with silica gel.
We have a small plot. Always wanted his unusual decorate. My wife often said about the mills. Little did not want to, and it was a great pity to give as much space. I came up with this: decided to combine the mill and barn. I have started construction.
The result was a very massive structure, which is perfectly in line with our plans: a roomy shed area of 4 m2 (1,8×2,2 m) and the height of the ridge of almost 5 meters. The ground floor housed garden tools and various accessories for the care of pool. And on the second floor there is a place for a small intimate rooms.
Do not forget lawnmowers
Before preservation mower for the winter except for normal cleaning experts recommend to carry out additional operations. The petrol models fuel should develop «dry» to the spring does not have a problem starting the engine. Depending on your lawn mower or the oil is drained, or left until spring. In some lawnmower lubricate axis and other parts in accordance with recommendations of the Guide for their operation.
Also, clean or completely replace the air filter, spark plugs. All rusty and damaged areas on the body clean with sandpaper, paint and apply a prime coating. At the mower blades with a file or abrasive bar gently remove burrs without affecting the entire metal blade. Power fold in oily paper or cloth, packed in individual protective covers and to the same place the bag with silica gel or a piece of lime. Batteries for the winter is better to move to a warm place
In addition to the house on summer cottage there are other important buildings, which also should not be forgotten in the preparation of the site for the winter.
Often gardeners there is a question, and whether to close for the winter veranda? Debatable. Here is what they write our readers.
— This year, built a house in the country, we have decided not to make a separate gazebo, attach to the house porch. Size veranda 2,5×6 m, — says Ivan Somov from
— Bottom stitched lining, and the top, after the rains, close shields, frames made of polycarbonate.
— I Attached house veranda: 12×3,5 m, — shares his experience Alexei Ivanovich of their wines. — Not once in 20 years did not close it for the winter: no problem arises, the WHO, the snow a little stoned. But with painting floors need to be careful: it is better to paint a good waterproof paint. And again, the tree is desirable to process the protective coating from rotting and varnish.
The outdoor gazebo to shelter in the winter? There are many options. Pergolas can cover the film, but not entirely, and only the main openings. It is also recommended that the film lying loosely in order to ensure the entry of air. Nor should we cover and the floor, otherwise the sun will linger perspiration that can cause damage to flooring. The most important thing to consider: the inside is not exposed to snow and rain, and at the same time it should be a good air flow through.
One option is to protect its gazebo shelter curtains and awnings made of PVC, and the use of a special acrylic fabric. The material itself is translucent, breathable, but do not miss a drop and snow.
BATH together at home
In winter we often go out to the country to take a steam bath. In order not to waste time on the heating at home, that’s what I came up with. I build more Insulated bath with relaxation room, a shower and a veranda. The bath was built from logs 24 cm thick. The size of the bath — 11×3 m. Lounge has an area — 5,5×3 m, shower — 3×3 m, sauna 2,5×3 m and a veranda 5,5×3 m.
The lounge has a second stove, put a sofa, a TV and refrigerator, desk. I’ll tell you: it is very convenient! Maybe my experience to someone and come in handy.
Terraces and verandas
POOL FOR WINTER
This year installed an expensive pool at his dacha. Show you how to prepare it for the winter?
The basic rules of conservation pool:
• need to conserve the pool before the first serious frost;
• Do not leave the pool for the winter empty — fill it with new clean water;
• before re bay water to thoroughly clean the bottom and walls of the pool;
• remember that the cleaners for the sides and bottom of it is usually pretty harsh chemicals, so the process should be conducted in compliance with safety regulations, work in rubber boots and gloves to avoid an uncontrolled leakage of solution into the environment;
• set in the pool water before its freezing compensators volumetric expansion of freezing water. The compensators are used as objects that can be compressed with increasing external pressure and take on the load of ice formed in the basin.
BUILDING in the winter
Not all of the completed structure in the country: a house or a room. Many are in the construction phase. How to prepare such structure for the winter? Methods depend on the phase of construction.
Most susceptible to precipitation pit. The bottom of the pit filled with water saturate with water. Under the influence of water and frost soil liquefies at a depth of 50 cm below the pit. Therefore, in the spring, before continuing the construction work will have to strengthen the pound sand, pebbles or gravel. This additional cost. Efficient and cheaper methods of preservation of the pit does not exist. Therefore, if time does not permit to complete the construction of the basement before the onset of winter, covered pit is better not to start.
Only the foundation
Carefully inspect the foundation for the presence of places where water can collect. Cracks and other defects seal the waterproofing. The entire foundation of carefully nestle roofing material. But that spring snowmelt and groundwater are not harmed (which is the main danger for the foundation), performed a number of events: first find the lowest relative to the foundation of the place and make this place a water tank, and then around the perimeter of the foundation dripped ditch making it a little deeper closer to the tank, it is this system will help melted and pound waters drain into the tank, do not harm your buildings.
If you need to preserve the basement of a house under construction, it is necessary to complete all the work on the construction of the foundation. Perform waterproofing work and make backfill soil. The surface of the foundation nestle with roofing material or film. Strengthen them with a brick. If the foundation is made of bricks, you first need to hide it with a layer of straw and then roll out the roofing material or film. Straw will allow construction to breathe and will not allow condensation to penetrate the brick. The law served this way the foundation will stand the cold of winter and thaw.
In this case, try to make sure the winter window and door openings, and at least a temporary roof — only in this case, the foundation successfully perezimuet, experts say. Temporary roof can be constructed of cheap building materials and be in the form of lattice covered with a layer of roofing material.
The main thing — to close the horizontal part of the walls, which can get into the water. Openings windows tightly hung and stabbed polyethylene boards. But to make a temporary doorway door from scrap materials.
If your house is built of wood, in a special cover and plugging it does not need as wood to breathe. Otherwise, when the cluster condensation and moisture, which will have nowhere to go, the construction may start to rot. Besides, as you know, very sturdy tree species are very resistant to frost, but some use to their antiseptic treatment, especially if the material is purified from the bark.
Stops it work?
The easiest way to preserve the house, which has a roof, installed windows and doors. In principle, this house does not need preservation. Here in the first place there is the question, and whether to stop the work?
Those who built the house in winter, it is advised to set the time in the house of thermal units. It could be heaters, stoves or stove. When the house is warm, you can continue to work in it all winter. You can mount the heating system. Make wiring electrical wiring. Plastered walls and ceiling. And most importantly — it will protect the house from the attacks of vandals.
HOUSE TO PREPARE «hibernation»
To the first spring meeting with the sa-Tzom was enjoyable, be sure to properly prepare the house for the «hibernation» to a snowy winter brought him considerable damage.
In addition, you need to first pour the water out of all containers, do not forget the water: because he, too, be sure to drain it, and ball valves at the same time, experts recommend not to leave open completely, and approximately 45 °. Why is that? At the moment of opening the tap water enters into the gap between the lock ball and the valve body. There she sealed washers and upon the occurrence of frost breaks the valve body, causing it to be defective. Incomplete opening of the cavity of the tap remains open, water from a partially drained, and the remains of a dry.
REMOVE CHANNELS and canopies
Not to watch the spring plucked a thick layer of snow ice chute crumpled and bent brackets, gutter better to remove, especially in the almost horizontal roofs, characteristic, such as a veranda or terrace.
To dripping gutters without water is not smashed concrete, tile, you can lay on it strips the place of the old linoleum. They can also be placed under the roof, gutters, outdoor faucets on the site.
If there is a possibility that the pressure of snow your visors and sheds broken, they are better off.
Clean in closed cupboards all utensils hanging on the wall in the summer ladles, spatulas and the rest pans. Simply get it all clear from the cabinet in the spring, to carefully wash up.
You can add up all in a box where it will be inaccessible to rodents.
If the house remained dry products, put them in glass jars tightly closed in order to avoid a collision with mice.
Cabinets, chairs and other furniture cover with foil or cloth. Unplug all appliances, and especially valuable is better to take away with them.
Mattresses, pillows and blankets lift to the upper floor of the house — there are less otsyreyut.
And, of course, would do well to tidy up the house!
Make sure to disconnect the holiday home. This is important because a fault in the wiring often lead to fires. Simply unscrew the plug or turn off the power at the switchboard.
Pay attention to your windows and doors. Are they reliable? Are there locks on the shutters? Do lattice?
This, of course, better to worry in advance.
Some craftsmen design that imitates the human presence in the house. For example, low-power light bulb is connected to a battery with a photocell. At nightfall, this light is automatically switched on with the dawn fades.
To keep the building materials can be made as follows: pull together circuits boards, which are then bonded to the castle. A brick save even easier. With the onset of cold drench water reserves bricks until they turn into a single monolith. In the spring all melted.
If the shutters on the windows not, cover the windows from the inside with sheets of plywood or fiberboard. For the safety of the basement and the interior cladding close all veins tilyatsionnye-holes.
Make sure in advance
On the list of a lot of damage and hassle garden gardeners bring rodents. Eaten by mice shrubs, trees podgryzennye spoiled favorite lawn — all this can overshadow the opening of the spring season. To avoid this, take care of the Tes-protection from rodents advance in the autumn.
Put in order
How would it not sound corny, but first of all you need to bring in the autumn garden in order: to remove all plant debris that may become food for mice, branches after pruning trees and shrubs, remove all food stocks at home.
Favorite rodents fruit trees and shrubs should be protected. Ways to protect the set: it is tying trunks of plants grid roofing felt, roofing felt, spruce branches; trunks and painting special paint that contains in its composition of matter, scaring rodents and birds; and being covered with clay mortar barrel (it is made from equal parts of clay and mullein with the addition of a bucket for each 1 tbsp. tablespoons of carbolic acid).
Most often used for catching mice mousetrap. But they require regular inspection, replacement of the bait, removing dead mouse. Chances are there and hit a neighbor’s cat and bird. Try instead of the traditional mouse traps is-polzovat milk bottles.
They are placed in the room and under the house so that the inside of the bottle did not get rain and melt water. The bottle is poured into 100 g of crude sunflower oil. He also smeared and an inner wall of the neck. Tilt the bottle neck is attached planed strip width of 4-5 cm, length 50-70 cm, drip a few drops of oil. Bottle strengthened so that it fell and overturned.
Annoying and often behave moles. Against these underground dwellers, damaging the root system of plants gives a good effect vetryachok normal children.
Attach it to a pole and dug into the ground at the site where the mole has left a heap of twisted out of the soil. Sound is transmitted over a pole on the ground vetryachka resembles a weasel running worst enemy moles, and therefore they avoid settling where found is frightening.
By the way!
Spread the ointment Vishnevsky warm water until creamy consisting of 1, and the resulting slurry obmazhte flower bulbs from all sides before landing. The smell of the ointment scare mice away from your flower garden, except for the plant will be protected from diseases antiseptic ointment.
Obsolete section of moles and common beans are planted next to the potatoes, which often settles mole.
Birch bark for rodents
Perhaps someone my good experience in dealing with mice and useful. Beforehand, I harvested birch bark. Cut it into squares with a side of 15 cm with the expectation that enough to wrap the bottom of the trunk with a small «allowance» for its further thickening.
Bark dipped in hot water and put on to the bole of the tree. It does not require any binding: bark and twisted itself tightly to the trunk. It not only protects the fruit seedlings from rodents, but also serves as a trapping bands.
In the spring shoot bark, I look around, destroy pests and pile up «shirt» for storage until the autumn. Besides elm replaces and whitewash, saving from sunburn.
With a little imagination
Modern cottage — not just a piece of land planted with vegetables and flowers, but above all — a place of rest, and … imagination!
This amazing dragon made of tires Vladimir Zhuravlev from Moscow. The larger tires, the longer will the dragon. To start in a pre-dug trench laid tail. The most difficult thing in making monsters
— is the head.
— For me it was the most trudnym- cut the dragon’s teeth of the tire from a tractor T-25, — says Vladimir. I cut my long knife with soap
— so it is easier to cut the rubber (this is the power of men). In this series of two tires inclined spikes of them need to form teeth cut tire a little more than half its diameter. To dragon’s mouth was open, the other is inserted into the tire with a diameter slightly larger than the inner diameter of the tire to the teeth, which is fixed with screws. Language is made of ordinary rubber: can vzyatvelokameru. Eyes from spent grinding discs and eyebrows I cut aluminum plate. Here, everyone has their own imagination. Shaped head, putting to the average tire two, they also sealed Samora unions.
Marina Chizhikova, horticulturist with experience, that’s so original and fun decided to paint your barrel. Time, of course, spent a lot, but the result pleased everyone. Still: this flower bed, which, moreover, does not require watering, and!
— Around this drum went two weeks -rasskazyvaet Marina — did not know how to domain-city. Then suddenly I thought. And why not «grow» her bright colors? The paint used ordinary oil. The following year, on a tank put boxes with petunias, I think, will be more fun.
FUN and humor
What can you do at the cottage? Work, relax, and still have fun and spend time with humor. Then work in the country seem not quite so, and heavy.
The husband of Irina Ozora-Nina from Yekaterinburg Mikhail Alexandrovich golden hands: he built himself a house, and a bath. When he tired, far away — and go to sleep right there on the bench. Says convenient. A working and resting is not one — with his loyal assistant -sobachkoy fly.
Akulov Oleg Novo-Kuznetsk before loves watermelons, which can replace them all dinner! But it is correct — a double benefit is obtained: and tasty, and no extra calories.
A man tells his neighbor to testify: «Last week I put a scarecrow, but a terrible, that ravens have returned for the last harvest of the year»
Sometimes in the garden Oksana Voronova of n. Tobol Kazakhstan