Latvian people were free to develop their national culture in the Latvian language only since the establishment of Soviet power in Latvia.
For centuries many western conquerors did everything to delay the development of spiritual culture of Latvians ,, limit the development of the Latvian language, to assimilate it with tongues invaders. But despite the absence of written language, the Latvian language has shown great resistance to attempts to destroy it maintained basic vocabulary and grammar continuously developed, honed and enriched at the expense of the languages of the peoples with whom he talked. Clear evidence of greater stability and resilience of the Latvian language of forced assimilation are numerous works of folklore; sufficient to note that the Institute of Folklore and Ethnography of the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences is kept 2 700000 recorded works of folklore.
The emergence of modern literary Latvian language ,, is known to be the second half of the XIX century., At the time of the formation and development of the Latvian nation. A «nation -uchil Lenin — .. inevitable product, an inevitable form in the bourgeois epoch of social development.» The era of the formation of nations characterized by economic and political concentration, the growth of industry and agriculture ,, trade and transport, science and technology, which, of course, demanded that the language replenish its vocabulary with new words and expressions.
«Throughout the world, -pisal Lenin in his work» On the right of nations to self-determination «, — period of the final victory of capitalism over feudalism has been linked up with national movements. The economic basis of these movements is that for the complete victory of commodity production is necessary to conquer the domestic market by the bourgeoisie, it is necessary consolidation of public areas with populations speaking the same language in the elimination of any obstacles to the development of the language and its consolidation in literature.
Language is the most important means of human communication; the unity of language and unimpeded development is one of the most important conditions for genuinely free and broad corresponding to contemporary capitalism and for a free and broad grouping of the population in all its various classes, and finally — a close connection between the market and each and every host or proprietor, seller and buyer » .
The development of capitalism in Russia in the second half of the XIX century. and the special geographical position of Latvia, located on routes from Russia to Western Europe, contributed to the rapid economic and political concentration, the development of the capitalist economy and the further strengthening of the inherited language community of the Latvian nation, because, as pointed out by Comrade Stalin, «a national community is inconceivable without a common language. .. ‘. This ingenious theoretical position of the generality of language as one of the characteristic features of a nation, Stalin reiterated and developed in his remarkable works on linguistics: «Marxism says that a common language is one of the most important characteristics of a nation, well knowing. This is inside the nation, there are class contradictions. «
In connection with the general development of capitalism in the 50-60-ies of the last century, in Latvia arose historically progressive nature of the national movement is developing the rural and urban bourgeoisie, known as «mladolatyshskogo movement.» Left wing Democrats Young Latvians Enlightenment, led by Jüri-Som Alunanom, Caspar Biezbardisom, led the struggle for the development of national culture, to improve the case of public education, the introduction in schools and public institutions in the Latvian language. Young Latvians activities contributed to the strengthening of historically close ties between Latvian and Russian culture. In close alliance n contact with the progressive Russian scientists will take place in the scientific Russian companies of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and St. George’s (Tartu), and other cities Young Latvians have made a significant contribution to the development of the Latvian national culture, gave the Latvian people first scientific and non-fiction works in the Latvian language . Juris Alunāns — linguist, writer, geographer, — made a lot of his research for the development of science in Latvia. Krišjānis Barons collected and processed a huge amount of Latvian folk songs. Many articles written in Latvian biggest Latvian public figure of the bourgeois-liberal Krisjana Valdemar. Intensive research work in the study of the Latvian language led the famous linguist and teacher Atis Krohn Wald. Latvian poet and writer Andrei Pumpur created a significant number of highly artistic works that contributed to the progressive development of Latvian culture and its rapprochement with the culture of the great Russian people. Poet Auseklis also made a significant contribution to the creation of the modern Latvian language.
By the end of the XIX century. Latvian language already had quite a few original works of political literature, as well as the works of the classics of Marxism in the translations. Against the background of the further development of capitalism n lift struggle of the proletariat and the peasantry against Czarism and German «barons in the late XIX century. in Latvia, in contrast to the reaction burzhuaznonatsionalisticheskomu movement appeared so-called «new trend» («Jaunā Strava»), bringing together the advanced radical-democratic sentiments Latvian intellectuals.
J. Rainis, Ed. Veidenbaum, Stuchka P. et al., Leading the left wing of this movement, launched vigorous activities to spread the ideas of scientific socialism in Latvia. The newspaper «Dienas paw» («Daily Paper») and other publications, along with translated into the Latvian language of Marxist literature, contributed significantly to the expansion of political lexicon of the Latvian language.
Since then, the revolutionary writers J. Rainis, A. In the pit, Paegle L. et al. Have enriched Latvian culture works of exceptional artistic force. Reflecting in his works progressive thoughts and feelings, they turned to the language of the people, showed the enormous wealth of the Latvian national language.
The founders of Latvian classical and contemporary literature, showing great interest in folklore and skillfully used in his work art forms of oral poetry, helped the rapid development of the Latvian language.
The period of the 20-year rule of the bourgeois-nationalist clique in Latvia, established by the imperialists of the West, was the darkest period of rampant reaction, and on the ideological front.
The campaign against the progressive and revolutionary figures of Latvian culture was intended to radically undermine and «destroy» the materialist view of the world, to deprive the masses of Latvians from the Land of the Soviets, to discredit the revolutionary party of the proletariat. Muddy stream bottled in Latvia various unscientific reactionary theory intensively cultivated various bourgeois-nationalist and religious movements, covered supposedly «scientific» arguments. Academy of Sciences in bourgeois Latvia was not, and the university is one of the leading positions held theological faculty. For linguistics bourgeois Latvia were characterized by idealism, and isolation from the national language. In an effort to adapt to the reaction, to get along with the bourgeois nationalist rulers of Latvia figures bourgeois linguistics many worked hard to pervert created by the time the literary Latvian language commonly understood to replace many popular words and phrases in no way justified «word creation.» Bourgeois writers and linguists (Vesselis, Saarts et al.) Badly littered the Latvian literary language foreign and psevdolatyshskoy terminology. Bourgeois nationalists made the grammar of the modern Latvian language it unusual number of categories, led the study of dialects in isolation from the overall development of the Latvian national language. Objectivist interpreting the laws of language as immanent, without tying the history of language with the history of the people, social life, linguists bourgeois Latvia Latvian linguistics turned into a kind of factography on which it is impossible to understand the history of ‘the development of the Latvian language as the national language.
Even the largest Latvian linguist prof. Ya Endzelin, significant scientific achievements which are undeniable, in his numerous linguistic works, containing many facts of great cognitive significance, has not given any serious scientific generalizations in the history of the Latvian language. Staying on the positions of bourgeois objectivism in the interpretation of linguistic phenomena, he went further stating a simple fact-the language filed separately from the history of the Latvian people.
All this testifies to the great backwardness of linguistics bourgeois Latvia, of the undeveloped individual linguistic disciplines.
In the forties, the universities and schools of our country, and then in the research institutes of the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences was to penetrate and approved by the notorious «new doctrine» of language Acad. Marr. However, its introduction went «from scratch», often even it meets resistance from many local linguists. «The faithful disciples» and supporters marrovskoy Theory «won» only in 1948, when organized Latvian Academy of Sciences discussion Marr was declared authentic, orthodox Marxist, and his vulgar theoretical statements on questions of linguistics were declared scientific truth. Since then, the Latvian linguists went basically in two ways: on the one hand, began implementing the «theory» of Marr in linguistics, on the other hand — the continued distortion of objectivist linguistics specialists of the old bourgeois schools. Linguists Latvia committed serious mistakes have made incredible confusion in the science of his performances in the press. The real organized struggle and clashes of opinion, self-criticism and a good friendly scientific criticism in the science of language was not. Steady Arakcheyev regime drowned spontaneously arose among linguists scientific debate.
Here are some examples characterizing clearly unfavorable situation in the field of linguistics started by then in Latvia.
Militant Apostle marrovskogo «new doctrine» of the language, a former teacher of the Latvian State Pedagogical Institute Vistino blatantly defamed comparative-historical method in linguistics as «idealistic» arrogantly criticized the study groups of languages as an expression of the theory of «proto-language». Students who tried to criticize the pseudo-scientific concept of Marr, he terrorized, refused to attend marrovskogo circle did not allow for the exams.
Such apologetics marrovskogo exercises took place in the Latvian State University. Already during the ensuing discussion on linguistics senior lecturer in Russian language Latvian State University t. Novitskaya strongly defended marrovskogo «new doctrine» of the language, in defense of the class nature of language, and so on. D.
The incredible confusion of views on the most important questions of linguistics reigned in the universities, in schools and in the press. Senior teachers Bolshakov and Ginsburg, Assoc. Manigetti et al. Have declined in all cases the name of the Marr, replacing genuine science game into an empty definition. Not owning the Marxist-Leninist theory, overwhelmed illness verbal juggling, they contribute to the teaching linguistic disciplines unscientific approach, many elements of amateurish, ad-libbing.
Brilliant Stalin’s writings on linguistics forced Latvian linguists to revise their old positions, their past erroneous practice and to do everything necessary for the further fruitful conclusions.
A fresh wind swept the deepest scientific criticism of linguistics vulgar, unscientific dogmas and canons of the «new doctrine» of the language has dispelled the absurd idea of language as a superstructure of the class nature of language.
Many of misguided scientists, inspired by the writings of Stalin, embarked on a radical overhaul of its linguistic activities. Speeches teachers institutes and scientists of the Latvian Academy of Sciences of the discussion about the language were evidence of the large tidal activity and creative energy in all areas of our teaching and research work. Not bad lessons passed the theoretical seminar «The classics of Marxism-Leninism of the language», organized for teachers of linguistic disciplines. All discussions held in our country since the publication of the works of IAS. Stalin on linguistics played a positive role in weapons research and student cadres Stalin’s theory of language.
However, among our Latvian scientists have many of those who thoughtlessly concerned to the restructuring of the business of scientific and educational work in the field of linguistics, and in the past year and a half has not moved forward. Some of these comrades were limited to those that greeted the Stalinist theory of language, swore their loyalty to this doctrine, but have done very little to seriously capture it and put it in his scientific and educational work. An example of such a simplified, frivolous restructuring activities can serve as a professor of the Latvian Pedagogical Institute Y. Loya.
As you know, on the eve of the debate in «Pravda» prof. Loy sent to the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR an article entitled «For advanced linguistics Marr — Meshchaninova.» (The very title of the article needs no comment.) But immediately after the publication of the works of Stalin on linguistics Ministry received from prof. Loy’s new material, which he silent on his article, reported solid dominance of «disciples» Marr at the Latvian Institute of Education. He portrayed himself as an uncompromising fighter against the «new doctrine» of the language, as a martyr, the victim of his followers.
Ministry of Higher Education has expressed prof. Loy doubts that it carries out restructuring seriously, thoughtfully, with conviction. But this criticism prof. Loy has not learned a serious lesson. Here are a few facts to support a purely external nature of its restructuring.
Professor Loy was instructed to read for part-time students of the Pedagogical Institute course «Foundations of the Stalinist doctrine of language.» Rather than carry out a serious and profound work on the preparation and drafting of the course based on the guidance of Comrade Stalin, prof. Loy was limited to only a small processing his previous lecture and read the course is clearly unsatisfactory. His lectures were not disclosed the essence of Stalin’s most important provisions on language. Moreover, some of them have been distorted. For example, prof. Loi-put protivopo grammar vocabulary of the language, described the primitive basis and superstructure, surface laid out the basis of language, and so on. D.
The submission to the CC CP (b) of Latvia’s theses on the topic «The teaching of Stalin about the language and objectives of the Latvian linguistics» prof. Loy has brought down all their polemical zeal to head of the department of the Latvian language Latvian State University t. Ozola. The object of criticism for prof. Loy were abstracts tons. Ozola «On the norms of modern Latvian language,» delivered at the University of Latvia. Groundlessly attributing tezizam bourgeois-nationalist errors prof. Loy himself demonstrates his lack of understanding of the fact that «the national language is a form of national culture, that a national language may serve both bourgeois and socialist culture …» After 5 «Culture may be bourgeois and socialist, the language as a means of communication is always national language and it can serve both bourgeois and socialist culture. «
It’s time to prof. Loy figure it out.
No rights and prof. Loy, when he says that in Latvia there was no alleged science of language to the establishment of Soviet power. In the Latvian linguistics professor was a school. Endzelina; bourgeois science of language existed in Latvia, and of course, that from it something useful (especially in the field of the history of language) can and should be removed.
Of course, we can not ignore some of the wrong positions that occupy our deserved linguist linguistics prof. Endzelin and some of his followers, promoting dogmatic method in linguistics.
Prof. Endzelin met with hostility linguists attempt to explore the modern Latvian language and as the thesis recommended attached thereto graduate students mainly study the text of the Bible and catechisms of the XVI century. This is no accident. In the preface to the «grammar of the Latvian language,» first published in 1908 and reprinted several times in subsequent years prof. Endzelin wrote: «The Spring of the Latvian language in all its purity is now rages in the old generation that has not succumbed to any of the scribes or newsmen, no other languages. In contrast, the new generation, studying at the School of Foreign Languages, quickly loses its sense of language, spoken and written in Latvian in the spirit of Russian or German. «
For the prof. Endzelina typical thing of the past, the desire to consider the language metaphysically, as an eternal category, which is contrary to the teachings of Stalin on the formation of nations and national languages. In the course work students prof. Endzelin did focus on seeking out «errors» and «fix» the alleged clogged language Latvian Soviet writers, Stalin Prize winner. According to him, the Latvian people and the Latvian Soviet writers say spoiled the language, as a result of the influence of neighboring languages.
Of course, prof. Endzelin not a supporter of the doctrine of Marr, and it would be wrong to establish some kind of an analogy between «theory» and the views of Prof. Marr. Endzelina. But prof. Endzelina and his students have one common trait with marrovtsami — a rejection of criticism. Prof. Endzelin any fair criticism of some of its provisions invalid in linguistics rejects, so to speak, from the doorway, saying that «with the critics, he does not want to be under one roof.» Prof. Endzelin never made a public acknowledgment of its erroneous statements made in the «grammar of the Latvian language» and other published works.
Of course, this line of conduct prof. Endzelina clearly contrary to the instructions of Stalin on the struggle of opinions, the principled criticism and self as the engine of any scientific development.
Even in his «Anarchism or Socialism?» Stalin reminded about known dialectical proposition: «All that every day grows — it is reasonable, and all that every day decomposes — unreasonable and, therefore, not escape defeat. «
We have no need to maintain in the language that becomes obsolete, it is doomed to extinction and therefore unreasonable. Soviet linguists patriotic duty — to use the brilliant guidance of Comrade Stalin on linguistics to the material of the specialty, developed on the basis of the Stalinist doctrine of language specific history of individual languages, to create a grammar that meet the requirements of the Stalinist doctrine of language.
An important role in the development of the science of language and national training linguists to play Language and Literature Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR.
However, in this institute until the works of Comrade Stalin firmly established themselves followers of the «new doctrine» of the language. However, the institute poorly conducted the struggle against bourgeois-nationalist tendencies in the Latvian linguistics, which were apparent in purism, as well as ignoring the language of progressive Latvian literature, especially Soviet, ignoring all that is brought into the language of the Soviet people, to ignore words, and expressions borrowed from Russian.
Scientists have avoided posing serious theoretical problems, to reduce the study of language to the collection and systematization of some facts. The lack of coordination of research on language in universities and scientific institutions of the republic led to unnecessary duplication. For example, in the 1950- 1951’s. to be issued in the republic two similar Russian-Latvian dictionary.
It is irresponsible to a plan of research works language sector for 1946-1950. It does not reflect the needs of schools, universities and the public. Has been based upon the subjective opinions of some of our linguists, the older generation which clearly ignores questions of grammar of the Latvian language. For 1946-1950. Sector compilation of five planned language dictionaries: complete dictionary of the Latvian language, Dictionary Latvian literary language, Latvian dictionary of synonyms, toponymic names of the Latvian SSR, Russian-Latvian dictionary.
By the way, it is useful to recall that the famous Russian lexicographer Vladimir Dahl worked on the preparation of his «Explanatory Dictionary of Russian language» for about 40 years. Scientific staff of the language sector were arranged so that on each of the above dictionaries worked no more than one or two people. It is clear that such a balance of power institute could finish the job in just a few decades.
As a result of improper planning of the sector Language Institute for six years, did not give any finished work, and does not intend to publish in the next two or three years no serious investigation.
It is not reflected in terms of questions of grammar of the Latvian language. Sector Manager language believed that the study of language and description of dialects is more important than resolution of essential problems of the Latvian language grammar. According to him, in all the grammar needed allegedly been done in bourgeois Latvia. In fact, it is on these issues, our linguistics lags far behind the Russian Soviet linguistics.
After the publication of Stalin’s work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» plan of research work has been significantly rebuilt: has been discontinued for the time work on some dictionaries and energy sector focused on Russian-Latvian dictionary.
In 1951, employees of the institution working on articles for the book «Questions of linguistics and literary works in the light of Stalin’s» Marxism and Problems yazykoznaniya0. » The sector also has language"some assistance to the Ministry of Education in the Republic retsen-virovanii and discussion of school textbooks and curricula.
Much more successful a plan to 1952 .: addressed criticisms made in our Party press and at the XI Congress of the CP (b) of Latvia in the institute and especially its language sector. This year, employees of the sector started to work on the language textbook for high schools «Modern Latvian literary language».
Until now, our linguists is a description of the Latvian literary language and define its rules based mainly on the study of the Latvian folklore and written records, written hundreds of years ago, a German colonizer-mi, who owned the Latvian language is not enough to distort it and clog Germanism. Artistic, scientific and political literature and periodicals were not investigated, as the older generation of our linguists considered spoiled their language. Therefore, it is necessary not only to universities, but also for all workers in the field of language and literature studies of contemporary Latvian language.
Many of the works on which academic staff work for five or six years, has not yet been discussed. Toponymie prof. Endzelinom already prepared a manuscript in the amount of 35 sheets of copyright, but it also has not yet been discussed, it is difficult to speak about its contents in general. We only know that this study is a valuable collection of examples and facts. Place-names for the most part date back to remote times, so they are of great interest to linguists, historians, ethnographers and other specialists, and are important to address the issue of resettlement of the ancient Slavic, Baltic and Finnish tribes.
The plight of the institute with the staff of linguists: from 12 researchers, only two have a degree and academic rank. During the six years of the sector, none of the employees are not yet fully passed the candidate minimum and defended a thesis. The Institute did not use the opportunities given to him for the preparation of graduate-lan-kovedov. For six years in the language sector received only one graduate student. The work of this sector is characterized by the fact that 12 of its employees only three are fluent in the Russian language.
Recently, the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR and the Latvian State University organized a discussion of the book of prof. Ya Endzelina «The grammar of the Latvian language» (published 1951). In this debate were revealed | evidence that some of our linguists can not even understand the major theoretical issues. For example, a senior researcher at the Institute of Language and Literature tons. Grabis overestimated the work Prof.. Ya Endzelina, calling it the highest achievement of the Latvian Soviet linguistics, even though it was written in the pre-Soviet era, and highlights the problems not from a Marxist standpoint. As you know, Professor. Endzelin was never a Marxist. It is unclear how, after the brilliant works of Stalin on linguistics can talk about Soviet linguistics without Marxism is Marxism.
At the same discussions were made erroneous views and so on. Diman, who in his speech entirely rejected operating profit. Ya Endzelina «The grammar of the Latvian language», as well as the works of other linguists have appeared in pre-Soviet times. He said that these works can only be used a certain amount of factual material, yet scientific generalizations, according t. Dima harmful. Stalin in his work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» pointed to the positive role of comparative-historical method in linguistics, despite the significant of its shortcomings. The selection and ordering of facts in operating profit. Endzelina and other linguists who used the comparative-historical method, and their findings can not simply be discarded, as it tries to do so on. Diman. We have to take all the positive and valuable that there is in the pre-Soviet linguistics.
One willows most important tasks of the Latvian Soviet linguistics is to provide students and pupils with textbooks and teaching materials for linguistic disciplines.
After the publication of Stalin’s work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» in the schools of the republic has been some change in the teaching of the Latvian language. Grammar is now given more attention. However, teachers have to face great difficulties: we have full of textbooks and grammar of the Latvian language, satisfying the requirements of the Soviet school.
The Latvian schools in the first four classes use textbooks 3. Lubaniete «ABC» and «the Latvian language textbook» for I, II, III and IV classes (edition 1951). These books are methodologically more or less satisfactory, but they have serious shortcomings in ideological terms. None of its structure or content they do not reflect all of the district’s new, what in Soviet linguistics, Stalin introduced his work «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics.» Texts read pale and expressionless, they do not feel the Soviet people and the great era of the building of communism. For example, in the textbook for class II is given the story of a fisherman who «pulls a boat in heavy network» and «take up the oars.» The literary material is not reflected Soviet reality, not shown in the new methods of mechanized and mechanized labor processes, and so on. D.
In V, VI and VII classes the situation is even worse. It uses the «Latvian grammar» Tirzmaly and Deglava. This book was published in 1950, but it also does not take into account the position put forward by Stalin. The book does not satisfy either ideologically or methodologically. In VIII, IX and X are high school teachers and students still have to do in 1948 published «grammar of the Latvian language» Alksnis and Vila. This grammar is a surface processing anonymous, published in 1945, the grammar, which, in turn, was a remake of irresponsible published in 1943, t. E. During the Nazi occupation, grammar, certain Berzin. Grammar Alksnis and Vila in any way does not meet the requirements of the Soviet school.
The position of the Russian school textbooks of the Latvian language as heavy. The only generally acceptable, the book is only available for classes II and III. For all other classes is no suitable textbook of the Latvian language, and students necessarily have to use outdated textbooks and readers Ozolinja.
But if schools still have some books of the Latvian language, to higher education institutions and the various courses are almost none. The only subject on which there is at the disposal of students benefit — a comparative grammar of the Baltic languages: it can be used book prof. Endzelina Ya «sounds and forms of the Baltic languages.» The rest of the courses (historical grammar of the Latvian language, the history of the Latvian literary language, dialectology and modern Latvian language) is not provided with textbooks. In these subjects, students enjoy the «grammar of the Latvian language,» prof. Ya Endzelina and published descriptions of bourgeois Latvia Latvian dialects. The grammar of the Latvian language Ya Endzelina, as noted in the discussion of this work, the program does not correspond to the course of modern Latvian language or program on the historical grammar. It also does not meet the program on the history of the Latvian literary language and dialectology, but is a kind of conglomerate of various materials on all these subjects. Students are very difficult to navigate in it. It is required textbook for the course of the modern Latvian language. The «grammar of the Latvian language» Ya Endzelina this part is extremely poor. It does not reflect the development of the Latvian language in the Soviet era, few examples of progressive pre-Soviet literature and absolutely no examples of Soviet literature and journalism,
Particularly sensitive lack of tutorial practical course of the Latvian language for students of non-Latvians.
It is necessary to say a few words about the situation in our country with textbooks and grammar of the Russian language for the Latvians.
The study of the Russian language in the country has been going on for many years, and the success in this case are indisputable. The masses apply their knowledge in practice, read the political, artistic and professional literature, listen to lectures and reports themselves say in Russian, and so on.. But what’s done over the years in order to facilitate the assimilation of the Russian language? How to put the teaching of Russian Latvians, what are the tutorials?
School textbooks are provided as if the Russian language for all classes from II to VII.
But what are these books? This anthology with texts arranged haphazardly, without taking into account the principle of increase of difficulties in the material. Assignments to the texts they are not related to the main content, little attention is paid to work on vocabulary words on active learning by students. Materials for home reading are without jobs.
Textbooks are outdated or simply non-existent Russian word (eg ohiret, aashtopka et al.). There are incorrect expressions and turns of speech. All of this pollutes and distorts the Russian language.
In the VII class is used or grammar for Russian schools, edited by Acad. Scherba or grammar Matiychenko — criticized universal textbook for all non-Russian schools — so that no comparison with the native language of the students are not given, the specifics of the Latvian language is not included. However, in 1951, a team made up of teachers of the Russian language grammar for the Latvian schools, but it is the first part (morphology) have to re-process, and the second part (syntax) must be given in comparison with the new grammar of the Latvian language.
This is the case in the seven-year period.
The ten-year learning Russian is also underway on a universal reader for non-Russian schools. This anthology of Russian literature, not by language, ie. E., They are composed of other principles and set themselves other tasks. Independently compare the facts of Russian and Latvian language teachers themselves are not always as they are not well prepared both theoretically and practically, slightly obotsmi own languages. Therefore, students memorize greater than consciously learn the material, and often come to the universities ill-prepared for the Russian language.
Provision with textbooks on the Russian language in high schools is even more difficult. So far released only Russian textbook prof. J. Loya (in 1948) and grammar Kryuchkov, Svetlaeva and the Land edited by J. Loy (also in 1948).
The first textbook is not entirely satisfy the requirements for university textbooks, and the second book is not designed specifically for students with Latvians (only in one section of Russian literary texts are given in comparison with Latvian texts).
With respect to Russian textbook for high schools have already done some preparatory team of teachers of Russian, University of Latvia, but still still needed books, and yet when they will — is unknown. A great need for them, since almost all the universities of the country most of the teachers of the Russian language does not know the Latvian language. Nor is there any tutorial on Russian for Latvians who individually studying the Russian language.
4 Lack of textbooks and teaching aids for theoretical linguistics to philology faculties of the University and the Pedagogical Institute threatens linguistic disciplines taught in these schools.
It would be highly desirable to publish a collection of scientific articles of teachers, students, employees of the Institute of Language and Literature, devoted to urgent problems of development of the Latvian language, methods of teaching linguistic disciplines in schools and universities.
Given the lack of textbooks and teaching materials for languages for schools and universities, the lack of developed theory and methodology of translation, terminological dictionary, dictionaries, thesaurus of the Latvian language, it is imperative to print some of the most successful lectures and lecture courses on linguistics.
An extremely important issue — the question of language. Translation work in the Soviet Union is of great political and cultural significance. Translations contribute to the strengthening of friendship between the peoples of the Soviet Union and the deepening of mutual cultural relations. Translations are made available to all Soviet people to achieve great Russian culture, which is a powerful incentive for the development of national languages and national cultures. But translations can perform these tasks only if they are up to scratch when they accurately and expressively convey the content of the original, taking into account peculiarities of individual style of the writer. The most important factor is language translation.
What language Latvian translation?
It is best in our country organized by the translation into the Latvian language of the classics of Marxism-Leninism. This work from 1946, not without success performs Institute of Party History at the CC CP (b) Latvii- branch of the Marx — Engels — Lenin. The Institute gave a good Latvian language, with a unified, as far as possible, the terminology translation of the complete works of Lenin, 13 volumes of the Collected Works of JV Stalin, the first volume of «Capital» of Marx and a number of other works of the classics of Marxism-Leninism.
This is achieved through great effort, by overcoming many difficulties, especially in the beginning, when the institute had to create a lot of social and political terms, which is in the Latvian language was not. It is enough to compare the «Short Course History of the CPSU (b)» in the editions of 1940 and 1950. To see the extent to which improved the new edition.
Fiction, unfortunately, translated much worse. However, we have excellent craftsmen gave flawless translations of Soviet Writers and Russian classics of the Latvian language. It should be noted the successful translation into Latvian Tolstoy novel «The Road to Calvary» and the comedy Griboyedov’s «Woe from Wit», made popular writer Andrei ITES. However, not all such transfers. The main reasons for the shortcomings in the work of the translators — an imperfect command of the language of the original, insufficient knowledge of the Latvian grammar and the whole lexical richness of the Latvian language.
Scientific translations easier than art. However, translations of scientific literature are not free from the above disadvantages. For example, in this work, as the «History of the USSR», in Volume I (1949) found serious errors and distortions of the original 19. Translation I and II volumes of the Collected Works of Michurin (1951) made ponderous language, it also found distortion of the author’s text, in the confusion 2a terminology.
At the disposal of translators there are two Russian-Latvian dictionary, but the number of words in them is relatively small, and they can not fully meet the needs of translators. It needs a complete Russian-Latvian Dictionary, normative grammar of the Latvian language and a dictionary of synonyms. On those necessary for interpreters benefits must ensure the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR and Latgosizdat.
It is poorly supplied reviewing translations. The national press does not give a critical evaluation of the quality of translations; the reviews are generally spoken only about the content of the translated books. It is necessary to widely involve reviewing translations of scientists of the Institute of Language and Literature, faculty of linguistic disciplines of the University and Pedagogical Institute.
We need to organize among translators and linguists wide creative discussion on how to use the transfers dialect of the Russian language, how to deal with transfers of archaisms — to try to discover whether the relevant archaisms in the Latvian language or bypass them by replacing with modern synonymous.
The practice of Latvian linguists shows that in linguistics we have gaping holes not only in the sense of solving important scientific problems, but also in the conduct of educational work in schools and universities.
These gaps need to be addressed in the near future. We must decisively increase the responsibility of the employees of the Institute of Language and Literature, heads and teachers of philological faculties for the implementation of the great teachings of Comrade Stalin about the language, talk of restructuring move to restructure substantially in practice.
Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR should be the center of research in the field of Latvian linguistics. He must turn to the practical problems of cultural development in the country, be filled with a high consciousness of responsibility placed upon it by the Latvian people, our party and the Soviet government.
We have a completely clear and precise instructions of Comrade Stalin that needs to be done to improve the Soviet linguistics. We must resolutely rebuild the research work of language departments and the Institute of Language and Literature of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, focusing it primarily on the creation of new textbooks and teaching materials for schools and universities. Institute of Language and Literature, as an organizational and methodological center of the Latvian linguistics, should provide a comprehensive development perspective research on linguistics, include it in the plan of scientific research linguistic departments of the Latvian State University and the Latvian State Pedagogical Institute.
Due to the large amount of work sharply raises the question of skills development, training and retraining of scientific staff through postgraduate study. It is necessary to increase the number of graduate-linguistic disciplines in the philology faculty of the Latvian State University, the Latvian State Pedagogical Institute and the Institute of Language and Literature Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. The requirements that were presented yesterday to the linguistic preparation of staff, it is now quite inadequate. Heads of linguistic front should be in the future, it is clear to see what the problem advances rapidly evolving cultural construction in the republic.
To creatively reconsider the most important issues of the Latvian linguistics-based works of Comrade Stalin, it is necessary to scale up the work on the fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism by our scientific staff.
In close collaboration with scientists from the great Russian people, with the help of linguists everyday creative capital of our Motherland — Moscow linguists Soviet Latvia will firmly on the path of Marxism and honorably fulfill the tasks set by the great luminary of science, the standard-bearer of the world, the leader of the Soviet people, Comrade Stalin.