The canning industry plum fruit prized for its high technological quality, especially for the production of prunes and stewed fruit.
In the middle belt of the European part of the USSR drain enough winter-hardy, and the fruits of local varieties have poor technological quality.
In recent years, as a result of work AN Veniaminov, X. Enikeeva, EP Finaeva and other Soviet breeders assortment plum in the middle lane is filled with new vysokozimostoykimi varieties with fruits of good qualities. It is necessary to test the suitability of new fruit varieties for the production of fruit compote and jams, especially local canneries need for such raw materials.
According to X. Enikeeva (Biological features of the plum and the breeding of new varieties. Acad. Sciences of the USSR, 1960), when tested in fruit processing plants Michurinsk and some local fruits Moscow Central Russia, Michurinsk and several varieties of breeding X. Enikeeva most suitable for the production of varieties of plum compote was Memory Timiryazeva Yellow Compote, Greengage Tambov, Lilac, Victoria Biruliovsky, Spark, № 1-30 and Greengage reform. The fruits of local varieties: Skorospelka red, yellow Ochakovskaya, Hungary’s Moscow and others proved to be unsuitable for the compote, as they are low in solids, sugar, and their high acidity.
In 1962, employees of the Department of Horticulture Voronezh Agricultural Institute, together with the employees of the Office of the food industry Voronezh Economic Council conducted a pilot canning fruits on Ostrogozhsk and Podkletnenskom canneries and at the Department of Horticulture Institute. Samples were selected for the plum instructions developed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of canning and vegetable-drying industry (VNIIKOP). Chemical analysis of fruit held at the Department of Inorganic Chemistry Institute (Table).
As a result, tasting, chemical and technological assessments were identified varieties of plums, the fruit of which are suitable for the preparation of stewed fruit dessert: Greengage Lenya (selection II Reshetnikov) and new forms of selective N ° 6-37, № 2-24, № 4-38 , № 6-81 breeding AN Veniaminov; appeared promising № 2-14, № 5-63, № 3-23 (selection
The fruits of the new released cultivars and varieties which are in the public variety trials (Record, Greengage fruitful, Greengage the farm, Hungary’s northern, Severyanka, People, The Enchantress, The favorite, raisin, Memory Timiryazev and others) were not suitable for canning. Increased acidity of fruit varieties, despite the high sugar content (10-12%), contributed to the strong hydrolysis and cracking during cooking,
The fruit varieties Greengage Lenya, № 6-37 and № 2-14 round, yellow, medium size. The compote they acquire a light yellow color; syrup is clear, transparent, excellent refreshing taste with a strong aroma. In the variety № 2-14 was a slight cracking of the fruit. Winter hardiness of these varieties of trees is estimated at 1.5-2 points; fruit yield varieties Greengage Lenya 40 kilograms per tree, № 6-37 and № 2-14 — 15 and 13 kilograms on average.
In grade N9 2-24 fruits of below average size, elongated, dark colored, early ripening. Compote of them are painted in dark cherry color. Peel little crack, flesh is delicate, very good taste. Winter hardiness is 1.5 points, the yield of 18 kg per tree. Stewed fruit varieties № 5-63 different almond flavor. Winter hardiness — 1 point, the average yield of 35 kg per tree.
The fruit varieties № 4-38 very large, round, yellow; in compote they do not boil soft and do not crack. The skin and flesh tender. The taste is excellent. The syrup is yellow with an orange tint, transparent, fragrant. Winter hardiness — 2 points, the average yield of 11 kg per tree.
In the variety № 6-81 fruits are large, such as Hungarian, brownish-purple color, compote are maroon-brown. The skin is a little rough. Cracks are weak, isolated, without skin flaps. The syrup is a very beautiful ruby color. Taste great with strong candy fragrance. Winter hardiness one point, harvest 11 kilograms of wood.
The quality and marketability of the fruit compotes selected varieties are not inferior to the best southern. More needs to grow these varieties of planting material and distribute it in areas canneries Voronezh region.