Strength mysli.Stiven Hawking.

At twenty-one he was diagnosed, that sounded like a death sentence. Doctors gave the talented graduate student at Cambridge no more than two or three years of life.

Since then, half a century has passed, and Stephen Hawking not only continues to struggle with a terrible disease, but also became one of the most famous scientists of our time. His contributions to theoretical physics is hard to overestimate, and way of life Hawking and the power of his spirit can cause extremely admirable.

HOSTAGE own body

Steven was born on January 8, 1942, becoming the first child of Frank and Isabel Hawking — then they had two daughters, as well as the adopted son appeared. At first, it was impossible to assume that the boy is waiting for a great scientific future. By his own admission, he had learned to read in only eight years, and the school where he happened to learn. Steven does not shine — the examinations were given to him easily, but for the excellent marks he had not raced. But from an early age Hawking was keenly interested in how arranged everything that surrounds it, — from toys to the universe. It is this curiosity eventually led him to dedicate his life unraveling the mysteries of the universe.

Seriously Stephen come to his senses only in recent school years. To the dismay of some of his father, who headed the department of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research and was hoping that his son will go in his footsteps, or, at worst, will be engaged in chemistry, the young Hawking became interested in mathematics and physics. But the university, he chose the one that once finished his parents — Oxford. He entered to Stephen, when he was seventeen. He was a few years younger than most of the students, and so for a long time could not join their company. Nevertheless, «botany», he did not turn. Study was given to him easily enough, and overly zealous Hawking, as in school, do not see the point.

In 1962, Stephen Hawking graduated with honors from Oxford and decided to move from his alma mater in Cambridge, where he planned to do a doctoral thesis. The theory of relativity did not give him — there needed much more thorough mathematical training than the one that had at that time Stephen, but because he preferred cosmology.

By that time, Hawking has already begun a health problem, but until then he did not know how serious. First there was stiff in his movements, and then he fell down the stairs at the hostel, and from a summer trip to Iran and all returned in exhausted. Finally, in the winter, at the insistence of his mother. Stephen lay on a survey whose results were disappointing. Doctors diagnosed Hawking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — a progressive disease of the nervous system, which inevitably leads to paralysis and almost always entails a quick death.

The reaction of a young genius on the verdict of doctors was quite natural and human — a deep depression. Why continue to research and work on a doctorate if the time to contribute to science, and indeed live is simply not left? To overcome the surging wave of despair helped love. Shortly before Stephen learned about the terrible because of his ailments, he met Jane Wilde, a friend of her younger sister. Between the young people began an affair, and Hawking once again felt the taste of life. In the autumn of 1964 he was engaged, and Stephen was introduced incentive to work hard: if he was going to start a family, you should complete the thesis and find something that would allow him to support himself and his wife. So, despite the ailment, Steven led a very busy life. July 14, 1965 they were married to Jane, and next spring Hawking defended his doctoral dissertation and soon was awarded the George. Adams from the Faculty of Mathematics at Cambridge University.

In 1967, when, according to forecasts of doctors, Hawking is not supposed to be alive, Jane gave birth to his first child — a son, Robert. Later, the couple appeared two more children. Of course, home care mainly fell on the shoulders of Jane, and if at first her husband was required above all moral support needed very soon and meticulous care.

HEIR NEWTON

Although the disease does not develop as expected doctors to advance mahnuvshie Hawking hand, his health steadily worsened. In 1970, he was confined to a wheelchair, even a few years could not even have to move out of bed and into the wheelchair without assistance. Since that time, the house always lived Hawking one of the students of Stephen and Jane helped take care of her husband. Then scientists began to fail and the voice — untrained person could not make out what Stephen says, so that the lecture he had read a «translator».

At the same time, Hawking worked with efficiency, which would be the envy completely healthy people. In particular, it is the first to show Steven link between general relativity and quantum mechanics. Together with Roger Penrose he showed that if general relativity is correct, then the initial state of the universe was a singularity.

In the early seventies, Stephen was one of the founders of the theory of black hole thermodynamics. In addition, he and several colleagues postulated that to describe any black hole enough information about its mass, electric charge and angular momentum. But in 1974, shortly after a visit to the Soviet Union and dialogue with the Soviet physicists, Hawking was able to substantiate the theory that black holes emit elementary particles and can «evaporate.» The ego has made a real revolution in the perception of black holes, because before it was thought that they only absorb matter. The effect is called «Hawking radiation — however, the observational data it is not yet confirmed. It should be noted and active participation in the development of Hawking’s theory that the universe has no boundaries. For clarity, Stephen compares the universe to our planet: its space is finite, but there is no «edge of the Earth.» And all this — just the tip of the iceberg! Hawking’s contribution to the development of theoretical physics can hardly be overestimated, and to fully appreciate it is likely to get only our descendants.

In 1979, Hawking was in Cambridge lukasovskoy the post of Professor of Mathematics, who took him to such luminaries of science, Newton, Babbage, and Dirac. This position remained behind him for the next thirty years — despite health continues to deteriorate. New hard blow of fate struck the scientist in 1985. During his visit to Switzerland, the European Center for Nuclear Research, Hawking caught pneumonia, and the disease is almost brought him to the grave. There was a time when the state seemed hopeless scientist and doctors have offered to turn off life support, but Jane refused to.

In the end, doctors managed to save the life of physics, but during treatment, they had to do a tracheostomy. and this operation permanently deprived Hawking’s voice. At first, after the illness Steven was able to communicate with others only with the help of eyebrows: their motion, he made it clear interlocutor holding a card with the letters, what letter he has in mind. Of course, to communicate complex thoughts and considerations, let alone work on new research projects after surgery has become almost impossible.

To help the patient come to an American scientist Walt Uolstosh, a program «Equalizer.» Choosing on-screen letters, words or phrases, which are then voiced speech synthesizer, Hawking could again support a full communication with people — especially after his wheelchair embedded mini-computer.

its space is finite, but there is no «edge of the Earth.» And all this — just the tip of the iceberg! Hawking’s contribution to the development of theoretical physics can hardly be overestimated, and to fully appreciate it is likely to get only our descendants.

In 1979, Hawking was in Cambridge lukasovskoy the post of Professor of Mathematics, who took him to such luminaries of science, Newton, Babbage, and Dirac. This position remained behind him for the next thirty years — despite health continues to deteriorate. New hard blow of fate struck the scientist in 1985. During his visit to Switzerland, the European Center for Nuclear Research, Hawking caught pneumonia, and the disease is almost brought him to the grave. There was a time when the state seemed hopeless scientist and doctors have offered to turn off life support, but Jane refused to.

In the end, doctors managed to save the life of physics, but during treatment, they had to do a tracheostomy. and this operation permanently deprived Hawking’s voice. At first, after the illness Steven was able to communicate with others only after Hawking has experienced pneumonia, forces families and students did not have enough to take care of it properly and to provide round the clock care had to hire three nurses. One of them — Eli Mason — later became his second wife.

With the first wife of Steven razoshёlsya in early 1990 after a quarter-century of life together. Obviously, during this time, Jane had to endure many difficulties, most of the wives who could not dream and nightmare, but it was not the only cause of marital discord. Sincerely believing Jane could not come to terms with those of her husband, who Occam’s razor cut God out of the picture of the world. However, the gap was not the initiator of it. and he Hawking, who decided to go to Ely. In 1995, Stephen has issued a divorce from Jane and almost immediately remarried. The second marriage was not as durable as the first, and in 2006 followed the divorce. By the time Hawking was not merely recognized genius and a prominent scientist and a world celebrity.

Popular Physics

Any scientist, the more theoretical physicist, research is far from everyday needs, rarely manage to gain fame outside the scientific community. Hawking became one of the rare exceptions to this rule due to the popularization activities. Steven does not hide that it is always frustrating how little people far from science, interested in its latest achievements. In the early 1980s, Hawking began work on his first non-fiction book «A Brief History of Time», which was designed in an understandable way to convey to the reader an idea of ​​modern physics about the origins of the universe and its device.

Hawking himself admits that he is not very fond of complicated mathematical formulas, and it is more convenient to work with the visual images. It is in this form, he decided to bring the cosmological theories to ordinary people. Almost all of them were set out in the pages of «A Brief History of Time» by using visual illustrations and the book found a place just a single equation — E = mc2 famous. This approach is fully justified itself. Of course, Hawking calculated that fails to captivate a mass audience the secrets of the universe, but did not expect that his book is waiting for a resounding success.

«A Brief History of Time» has gone through many editions, it has been translated into more than forty languages, and its circulation has exceeded ten million copies. In the old days at the Hawking has repeatedly had problems with money: a big family, treatment, nurse — all this required generously funds. The need to supplement the family budget was one of the reasons that prompted the scientist to take up a book. After its release, the financial problems of Stephen in the past — he was now a millionaire. And as the book is at variance worldwide fame Hawking has grown steadily.

Since the beginning of the 1990s the scientist becomes a frequent guest on television. First and foremost, of course, as a writer and host of educational programs, where he talks about the nature of space-time and black holes. the origin of the universe and the mysteries of the universe that science is only to be discovered. For example, the possibility of time travel, or the existence of extraterrestrials. But this is not all.

In 1992, after the «Brief History of Time» was a film that caught the eye of Leonard Nimoyu — the actor playing Spock in the TV series «Star Trek.» The actor got in touch with scientists and offered to star in the series in a cameo role. Hawking accepted in one of the series -Follow generation «played cards with the android Data, Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. And recently, Steven has appeared in the comedy sitcom «The Big Bang Theory» dedicated to the lives of young scientists nerds.

Change academic career on her acting was too late, but to play himself Hawking clearly enjoyed it and over the years he has repeatedly returned to this role — for example, in the animated series «Futurama» and «The Simpsons.» The scientist presented there in an ironic manner — but Steven likes to joke, including over itself. This is probably one of the qualities that enabled him to bravely endure all the blows of fate and exit poediika her the winner.

Despite advanced age and deteriorating health. Hawking continues to study the nature of the universe and the popularization of science. Most recently he released his latest documentary Stephen Hawking’s Grand Design. And just a month ago, Stephen said he hoped to go to space travel now in private programs Virgin Galactic. We hope the dream will come true scientist, and he again by his own example proves that no such ills of life, which could not be overcome by the mind and will.

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Perhaps, since no scientist Einstein did not receive such attention to the general public as Hawking. His name is mentioned now and then in games, TV shows, on the pages of science fiction books and comics … And that, perhaps, is the least convincing proof of his services to humanity than the numerous awards and prizes.

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