My acquaintance with boron started away from him — to … Buzuluk city market. On the shelves long-burly chest mushrooms, thickly glistening brown cap oil, exuded the aroma of forest mushrooms, mushrooms, aspen. Where are they here in the Trans-Volga steppe?
— Yes, of boron, — answered prodavtsy.- This summer is thick mushroom, not only going to be lazy.
Buzuluk forest, located at the junction of Orenburg and Kuibyshev region — the only large array of tall forests on the vast steppes between the Volga and the Tien Shan. Six thousand years is it green bastion of the steppes, bonding rooted shifting sands.
Beauty and pride of boron — pine forests. As a result of natural selection Buzulukskaya millennial pine gained a certain originality. It is highly drought.
A relatively small heavy cover loss of moisture sparingly, the root system is adapted to the best use of scarce water resources.
In this forest, which occupies 110,000 hectares, has an amazing array where the foot rolls in the lush grasses, where the trail carpets myrtillus and cowberry, and places found in the swamps northern aboriginal cranberries. And above it all towering copper-red columns of ancient pines.
In the forest a lot of protected oak and lime-tree. In the distant forest lakes and streams prosper beaver colonies appeared a few decades ago, when the animals were brought here from Voronezh Reserve. Excellent feels forest and muskrat — a rare tiny creature, the same age as mammoths, as scientists say. Wandering herds of spotted deer — immigrants from the Far East. Lots of deer. Half a century ago in the forest, there were several dozen elk, and now there are more than five hundred, and they are starting to annoy foresters, spoiling young pine planting.
Buzuluk pine is often called the Academy of steppe forest. At the beginning of the century here worked outstanding scientist Morozov. He organized an experimental forest, from which later grew Brovskaya Forest Experiment Station. Its staff have a lot new in the theory and practice of forestry, especially in the steppe afforestation. The local meteorological station — one of the oldest in the country. Interesting and instructive results of its long-term observations.
In the Volga steppes, say local meteorologists, falls for the year, on average 319 millimeters of rainfall, and in the Buzuluk forest and surrounding areas — up to 486 millimeters.
A small team of Experiment Station conducts painstaking research process reforestation, the search for ways to combat plant diseases, forest pests.
Dozens of hectares located «geographical culture» — pine, larch, fir, spruce and other conifer trees grown from seeds, which are collected in the forests of other natural areas of the Union. Here, scientists track the processes of adaptation of trees to the steppe conditions, selected species, the most promising for the local treeless areas.
Scientists are particularly struggling to find ways to deal with the most insidious and relentless disease — root fungus that destroys young pine plantations, as well as podkornym bedbugs and other enemies of the forest. The immediate effect has not been achieved, and so it can not be expected so fast: forest processes flowing slowly, fruits searches, works and worries foresters usually reap their grandchildren.
However, nowadays seen some of the practical results of the efforts of scientists and research and production association «Buzuluk pine». This is primarily created by the technology here steppe breeding pine trees.
Around the center of the district of Bor in the Kuibyshev region for centuries were sands. They stepped on the field and the building. A collaborative effort between scientists and producers, foresters Sands stopped. Eight hectares of junk, desertified land is now occupied by planting pine trees, surrounded the village green belt. Young pine consolidated sands Akbulaksky, Sol-Iletsk and other southern, arid regions of Orenburg region. Arrays of young pine green and in other areas of the Orenburg region. Planting material for their grown from seeds Buzuluk boron.
…Respectfully stand in front of a giant, surrounded by light picket fence. Three hundred years, this veteran Buzuluksky boron. Witness the number of events was this pine as hardship suffered! Wood survived a disastrous fire in 1878, when a fire destroyed all life on thirty thousand hectares. (By the way, now the system of fire protection Buzuluksky boron recognized as the best in the country.) The tree has suffered devastating drought withstand the hurricanes, forest valivshimi on hundreds of acres. Repelled an attack by the pine moth and other pests. Its seeds have given the lives of hundreds of hectares of forest fry.
The share has dropped a lot of boron any adversity, but perhaps the most grievous times for it was the middle of the twentieth century, when brought thousands of hectares of century-old pine forests. From the landing from the systematic care of forest cultures, from solving the problems of afforestation in steppe lands then passed to the mass felling of timber, because the plans of industrial production were increased timber enterprise fifteen times!
Then he broke into Buzuluk boron and roaring machinery oil prospectors. They raspolosovat woodlands wide glades, cut down by drilling large «windows». Twenty thousand hectares of boron was «covered» by exploration drilling. When several places found oil fields, of course, there were plans to create oilfields.
Above unique boron threatened destruction. In defense of a unique array climbed all who cherish our nature. Veteran Buzuluksky boron, his chief forester Nikolai Teschin shows me plump folder where the collected newspapers, magazines, reports, collective letters. In these materials, expressed alarm scientists, foresters, journalists, public figures, guardians of the green pearl Zavolzhja for the fate of boron.
Their voice was heard. In the fall of 1977 Buzuluksky forest was classified as the most valuable forests. There banned clear-cutting, sharply reduced targets for industrial output, stopped drilling.
Force, attention is now turned Buzuluksky foresters to restore its former power and beauty of boron. Natural pine perennial grown without human intervention, there is not very much — thirteen thousand hectares. Tens of thousands of hectares of pine plantations occupy the clearings and burnt areas. Each year the area of the «bald spots» in forest wastelands reduced by more than a thousand hectares, there are together in the growth of young seedlings. Landings watch over workers and specialists fourteen forestry. They conduct sanitary logging and thinning, collect seeds from elite trees are grown in nurseries, planting materials. On the main homestead association in the village at the station Koltubanka operate manufacturing plants, they processed wood obtained from thinnings. Hence the regions of Orenburg and in other areas of the cars go from carpentry, picket fence, Rails Flooring, softwood flour, poles, stakes.