Battery life is determined by their design, and is largely dependent on the correctness of their use, as well as timely and quality performance of work to care for them. Serve the battery can be directly on the car or out of it. In a first case in the visual inspection she makes sure the surface is clean, secure fit battery tips of wires and plugs. In the second case, check the cleanliness of the air vents, reveal a crack in a monoblock, caps and sealing mastic, control the level of electrolyte in the battery and the vacuum degree battery.
By car battery mounted and secured so as to prevent its movement on the support site, spontaneous detachment of tips of wires and to prevent excessive vibration. As practice shows, to improve cushioning battery mounted on rubber mats or pads.
As a result of careless handling of the battery, it becomes loose in the car, on the walls of the electrolyte freezing monoblock, caps and sealing mastic may cause cracks. Through them may leak electrolyte, from which laid bare, sulfated and warp plate, increases the self-discharge of the battery.
The presence of cracks in the partitions of a monoblock is determined by measuring the electromotive force of two adjacent battery: the positive terminal of the voltmeter is connected to the positive terminal of the battery, and the negative — to negative terminal adjacent to them. With proper monoblock voltmeter reading corresponds to the amount of EMF batteries. If it is equal to the emf of one, this indicates that the batteries are connected to each other through the electrolyte, i.e. in a partition has a monoblock crack. As a rule, this candy bar is replaced (if it is impossible to seal the crack). In this kind of mastic remove defects by local melting it.
Caught on the surface of the battery electrolyte, and the mud formed between the input terminals of the conductive bridge, on which the leak current. It can be detected using a voltmeter: one of its terminal connected to the terminal of the battery and the other in turn relate to the mastic in different places. Voltmeter deflection from the zero scale division says the leak current.
To fix it, you need to clean the surface of the battery from dust, dirt and wipe with a dry cloth. If there is electrolyte remove it with a cloth slightly moistened with a 10% solution of soda (baking) soda or ammonia, after which the surface is dry. It should be borne in mind that it is done with caps screwed to avoid clogging the electrolyte. Care should be taken, and to it that have been wrapped tightly in the neck tube caps and projections on them were cut and cleaned vents (otherwise may increase the pressure of the gas in the battery).
If there is electrolyte mirror effervescence, it suggests the possibility of accelerating self-discharge of the battery (not to be confused with after gassing charge). The main reason — the pollution of the electrolyte (in this case, it must be replaced). To do this, first drain the battery current capacity of 0.1 to 1.2 V voltage on one battery or 7.2 V to the pole leads 12-volt battery and measure the density of the electrolyte. It was then completely emptied and all batteries washed several times with distilled water. Washed fresh electrolyte battery is charged with the same density, which had merged, and then charged. It must be remembered that the voltage 12-volt battery at the end of the charge should be at least 16.2 V, which controls the loading fork. A density difference of electrolyte in batteries one battery should not exceed 0.01 g / cm. Otherwise carry out the adjustment of density of the electrolyte to the ongoing charge, that is topped up with distilled water, if the density is higher than normal, or the electrolyte density of 1.40 g / cm, if it is lower.
The temperature of the electrolyte is poured into the batteries must be 15 to 25 ° C in temperate climates and not higher than 35 ° C in the tropics. With a decrease in temperature of the electrolyte of the battery performance deteriorates: the terminal voltage drops, reduced capacity and energy efficiency. Furthermore, when the engine is running the battery is not fully charged. This occurs due to the increase of the resistivity and the viscosity of the electrolyte, reducing the rate of penetration of the acid into the pores of the active masses of the plates. To improve battery performance at low temperatures, it felt insulated mat, especially from the covers of battery. However, it is necessary to provide ventilation as working battery gives off explosive hydrogen-oxygen mixture.
At high temperatures, due to evaporation of the water rapidly reduced the level of electrolyte in the battery and its density increases, which might cause overcharge of the battery. Therefore, in practice, should be reduced to 1.25 g / cc density of the electrolyte from a fully charged battery, set the lower limit of the variable voltage generator and battery to provide surface protection from direct sunlight.
Maintaining a healthy level of electrolyte in batteries is essential to ensure long battery life. It should be above the safety shield plates 10-15 mm; controlling it using a glass tube with a diameter of 5-6 mm. It should be borne in mind that during the operation the battery electrolyte level is lowered. This leads to the sulfation of the plates, thereby reducing Output capacity of the battery electrolyte temperature rises, gas evolution occurs early in its charge.
To remove lead sulfate from the plates must take place no more than three control training cycles (KTC) in accordance with the requirements of the Guidelines. With a reduced level of electrolyte in batteries filled with distilled water. If obviously known that the electrolyte level dropped due to its spill should refill the electrolyte batteries of the same density as the rest of them.
Performance and battery life is largely dependent on the size of its discharge, which may be no more than 25% in winter and 50% in summer. The degree of discharge of the battery is checked when it is determined by the care and discharge of the battery having the lowest density of the electrolyte. When determining load it with the fork must be remembered that, depending on the capacity of the batteries used different in the resistance mounted in it.
Voltage measurement, the battery is kept under load for 5 seconds. It is in the proper and fully charged battery should be at least 1.7-1.8 V. If the voltage of at least one battery differs by more than 0.1 or other decreased to 1.4 V, the battery is defective and needs repair . The battery does not provide starter motor starting and discharged more than the established norms, tied for charging.
Significant impact on the life of the battery has a voltage produced by the generator set. The voltage must correspond to the value specified in the instruction manual. If it is lower or higher than allowable, the battery is charged or excessively discharged and electrolyte begins to «boil». In this case, check the operation of the voltage regulator and generator.
Contactless regulators type PP-350, PP-350A, PP-132, PP-356, 11.37.02, JA112V operational adjustments are not subject to, and properly, they must be replaced. A relay control parameters such as PP-315, PP-315B, 315D PP, PP-362B, PP-385, YA120A can be changed with the switch «Winter-Summer.»
The relay controller type RR-132A is used in cars ZIL-131, URAL-375, GAZ-66. It has three adjustable voltage range: 13,6-0,35 The (minimum), 14,2- 0.15 (average) and 14,7-0,35 The (maximum). The range is set (by means of a lever situated under the screw cap hex-key 30 mm) depending on the state of the battery and temperature conditions.
When driving in winter in temperate and cold climates switch should be set to the «Max.»; in temperate and cold climate (in winter in areas with warm climates) — to «Wed»; summer in hot climates — to the «Min.». Wrapping plug relay switch controller, be sure to check on the spot whether a rubber sealing ring. It should be remembered that the plant put the lever in the second position (second regulated voltage range).
To check the regulated voltage on the car connect a voltmeter with a scale of 0-30 V (accuracy class 0.5). Start the engine and between the «+» and the body of the relay controller includes a load (for example, the main beam headlights). If the generator rotor speed of 3500 m and a current of 36 A measure the voltage on all three bands. If its value is outside the limits specified for each band should check the relay controller to control test bench and replace if necessary. Keep in mind that the maximum voltage in bortseti vehicle shall not exceed the 15.5 and 31.0 V, respectively for 12- and 24-volt electrical systems of automobiles.