POWER

Melt water lens EARTH

SOLAR ENERGY inexpensively and complexity can be used to accelerate the thawing of frozen soils in construction, SAYS NOVOSIBIRSK inventor.

90 percent of our territory covered soil frozen for six months. Almost all of the autumn — winter-spring season builders «fight» with the frozen ground, loosening its spending huge amounts of money (see. TS 3 79 «Insulated or explosion»). What’s more profitable: to somehow insulate the building site and prevent soil promerznut, already hollow and became frozen solid as a rock, earth, or to warm it before digging, as does the sun? Loosen the frozen ground a powerful modern car is 20 cents per cubic meter. If the earth warmed before frosts, development of soil will be ten times cheaper, but this requires a special polymer foam, that is, chemicals and mobile foam generators. You can also warm up the land almost for free, to use the invention made by the Novosibirsk branch of the Institute of Transport Construction and allowing sunlight to warm the earth itself and at the same time quickly.

Here’s how to do it offer jetting head of the laboratory, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Dr. W. Roshupkin and head of the Laboratory of subgrade Candidate of Technical Sciences AA Tsernant. A transparent resin film made two to three meter wide sleeve and a length of 3-5 meters each. Sleeve ends with brews and glued into a flat film. To it also glued or welded rubber camera like football, but larger diameter to air after inflation was about half a meter. For cameras are supplied hoses for compressed air, and to the sleeves — a water supply. Along the perimeter of a flat film, holes for attaching the entire structure to the ground. Now, this «sheet» can be rolled up and transported to the construction site, where it is to be spread on the frozen ground and pinned anchors. The camera is supplied air, puffing, they turn into ball bearings and pull the tent «sheet» of the heated portion. Thereafter, the transparent sleeve is pumped into the water and they are converted into biconcave lenses to focus the sun’s rays on the surface of the earth.

During one session (testing device is not carried out, therefore it is difficult to call it performance) can be thawed area of ​​15-20 square meters and provide work excavator medium power for about two hours.

Of course, the heating of the sun is not a panacea, which excludes the use of powerful mechanical rippers, blasting technology and other methods of frozen ground excavation (not least because it is not always sunshine), but along with them can be used as low-cost and mobile. In addition, there will be a relatively thin polymer films, but still filled with water strong enough among the iron and concrete construction site. Anyway, wishing to use the invention Novosibirsk specialists will have to take into account this circumstance.

B. Mastyaev engineer

FISH FARMING

Repellent

Sometimes FISH SHOULD NOT CATCH AND deters. FOR THIS AND invented method and apparatus.

Above the sleepy river came the explosion. After a few minutes on the water surface sobering swaying belly up hefty fish.

Again poachers? No, this time it legally: the bottom deepening. Or prepare for the construction of hydroelectric dams. And when the hydroelectric station to be built, how many fish die in water intakes, clogging and clogging them …

At the Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR decided to clean the fish on the right section of the river, bringing the most advanced knowledge about its behavior, so as not to cause her any harm. We found that the fish does not like the noise, the electric field and is afraid of «bubble curtain» — a solid wall rises to the surface of air bubbles.

In a laboratory aquarium first «blocked» a portion of the acoustic field generated by the noise in front of him. Fish frightened at first, the noise did not go. And then something began to get used to. That one, then another appeared in the restricted area. Then further on its path established bubble curtain and the electric field. Yeah, it scared a few minutes in the area did not come. But then I began to get used to this. Yes, and how much energy you will need to get around a natural protected area to keep constantly as a powerful electro-acoustic veil?

We came up with this. The space around the area as it surrounded the four zones. In the outer zone of installed sensors that detect the approach of the fish. It may be, for example, low-voltage sources, creating a discreet fish weak electric field responsive to its appearance (changing conductivity of the medium) and include the following equipment noise zone. Acoustic vibrations are «working» moment — no time to get used to the fish, shies, noise blow falls on her suddenly. Nevertheless, some brave without fear rod and fall within the third zone. Here, too, are installed sensors that detect the appearance of the fish. These include current sources and a bubble curtain (air is fed to the bottom of the perforated hoses). This too is unlikely that anyone will stand. Fish starts to their heels, and the external, it produces noise zone freely — while the electric curtain, it is idle (a. A. Number 513681). To such, only occasionally working screener can not get used to the fish. It not only protects the part of the river or the withdrawal of fish, but also save energy for scaring her.

If you need to temporarily clear the big fish section of the river, you can make mobile rybogon. It is something like a huge nonsense, which dragged down the river a few motorboats. It consists of the circuits, electrodes are attached to the chains. The chains rattle, the electrodes produce a field, one run — and a portion of purified fish — blow. The same can be applied rybogon and fishing, driving it into the net.

M. MOZHAYSKY

WHITE GOODS

Vacuum cleaners washing

The new washing machine, which has offered to inventors from Drohobych, LINEN becomes clean without soap and washing powder.

Members Drohobych club of inventors and innovators undertook to construct a washing machine, which costs only water. We read professional literature, conducted experiments — Yes, the water without any cleaning agents can remove any contaminants from the surface. According to one of the designs have been given a positive decision.

Purification of the products is carried out hot water in a washing machine having a vacuum chamber and further draining arrangement. Buck filled with water and charged with linen (or, if you like dirty bottles, cans, parts). Water and items in the machine rotates, the vacuum also makes her constantly «boiling.» The air bubbles disrupt the product surface dirt, oil and so on. N., Solids and other substances that are not soluble in water. When they gather on the surface, the centrifugal force throw the particles to the walls. After discharge hatches are displayed on the filter. After washing — pure water and filtered particles. As the vacuum cleaner.

Duration of washing depends on the quality and quantity of vacuum and machine design. The principle of vacuum cleaning is suitable both at home and in the workplace. We understand that our models require partial changes, such as the use of additional vacuum pump discharge pipe. A final word for the industry.

Let us thank all inventors of new solutions.

E. LISCHISHIN, Head. patent sector

Drohobych Club IR

UTILITIES

Well, differ …

S. Kravchuk from Maikop Invented well, are characterized by high hygienic quality.

The well-known adage: «do not spit into the well …» — should naturally be understood not only in the figurative sense, but as a call to all wells contain clean. Only now do they work in the sense of failure. Hang the bucket on the social circuit, and now and then bathed in well water, washing off the fingerprints left by users on shackles and housing.

Can we assume then clean the water in the well?

When was invented by a village well with a collar — is difficult to establish, but the fact that he was for centuries has not changed, though far from perfect — a fact.

…Mechanical engineer S. Kravchuk — Chairman of the Council of VOIR at Maikop Gear Plant, a member of Adygei Regional Council of VOIR, the author of 12 inventions in the field of mechanical engineering. And though «invented well» sounds almost the same as «invented the wheel», — his inventive activity Kravtsov began precisely with the well. He left unchanged only wooden house with doors and a roof ridge and gates. First of all, improved inventory bucket — it is now … with slightly opened as the valve bottom. Under the roof of the block is suspended, and a chain with a bucket thrown over him. Then, just above the well shaft mounted rotatable in a horizontal plane chute. A bucket of water should be raised slightly above the chute, to put it under the spout and lower the bucket by touching the inclined plane of the trough, the bottom is slightly opened, and an annular gap through the water flows into a trough, and from there to the economic bucket. This simple automation does well in a hygienic and saves water, and now she splashed by pouring buckets of inventory.

The inventor says that when it receives suburban area, to build a well, and hopes that others will follow his example. Invented appropriate and well in the regeneration of linear rail services, forestry, hunting or civil defense.

L. Vladimirov

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Dislike of the crank

Unpretentious MECHANISM converts the rotary motion into reciprocating far more efficient than conventional crank mechanism. It can be used, and instead of Maltese MECHANISM for intermittent rotation.

Since school years I took a dislike to the crank. And even tried to replace this cumbersome and inefficient mechanism for any new compact converter movement. Back in the late thirties, with a school friend, we designed the internal combustion engine without crank mechanism. He promised to be several times smaller and lighter at the same capacity. But the war began. After returning from the front, I again took up his and the late forties, finally applied for rotornolopastnoy internal combustion engine without crank mechanism. Examination refused, and, as I now see, is true. Although its efficiency, the engine was too complicated, it was difficult to achieve sealing rectangular combustion chambers. Incidentally, the latter disadvantage and the Wankel engine. It also requires a high accuracy of manufacturing. A wireless connecting rod engine SS Balandin crank is not removed. Therefore, its dimensions slightly less than that of a conventional engine and make it, in my opinion, is more complicated.

Still, I managed to invent the mechanism (I called it «The switching clutch Glukhov» a. A. Number 838 203), which can be successfully replaced by a crank mechanism. Coupling more than just, I even felt a shame, as all my life I have thought of before. On the drive shaft firmly planted disk with cylindrical holes. They are free to set the balls slightly larger than the thickness of the disc diameter. Immediately, at both sides of the disc sitting on the shaft two coupling halves on the inner side of each — slot of the same diameter as the ball. In which slot the ball will fall, one coupling and transmits the rotation as long as it meets with the slot in the other coupling half. Then he quickly jumps into the nest and begins to spin a different coupling half, and with it the gears that move the rack associated with the pistons. Here is the reciprocation.

It should be intermittent rotation — Remove the rack and do on each hole coupling half as many stops and shifts the rotation you want. Such units — the modules can be assembled as much as necessary to produce cars of different power, while the new mechanism can be used anywhere — in internal combustion engines, compressors, pumps, steam engines, air motors, motors and so on. D. The new coupling is useful in a variety of machines that require reciprocating (sawmill, for example). It is compact, productive, simple, can be manufactured inexpensively in any mechanical workshop (for example, I made a model of a house). This coupling allows two or three times to reduce the number of shaft revolutions: per revolution can be obtained more double strokes. Who will start to produce a new mechanism? I will help.

K. deaf, inventor of Sochi

RAILWAY TRANSPORT

BRAKE IMMEDIATELY!

STAFF MIIT constructed DEVICE beforehand, machinists of an emergency at a railway crossing.

Statistics focuses on traffic accidents at the intersection of car and steel tracks. To prevent a collision here is difficult: if the car is stopped at the emergency braking distance of a few tens of meters, then moving train — kilometers. In addition to transport, as a rule, an alarm system that informs the approach of the composition, the driver no information about the movement of the car does not get. Specialists of the department «Radio Engineering and telecommunications» of the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers have developed a device that detects the distance to obstacles unprotected level crossings.

This is the simplest portable locator — microwave sensor — light, two receivers and two signal-processing unit, the antenna — Horn recipient dimensions 8X12 cm. The receiver detection: transmitting and receiving antennas spaced, are located on either side of the railroad tracks in 10-20 meters from the center move . When moving in the area there is an obstacle, the device sends a signal prohibiting either Zagra-ance light or via automatic locomotive signaling directly to the cab driver. Works under any weather conditions, range depends on the transmitter power. In marshalling yards this device can retrieve cars. In a somewhat different modifications of the device may determine the dimensions of the cargo, to serve as a security guard on site, control the time the switch portion on humps (a. A. Number 510 402, 713 745, 839 800). Development miitovtsev awarded the Gold Medal Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR. The device has been tested on an industrial railway transportation Moscow car — plant Likhachev.

A. DAVIDYANTS, the press center of the Ministry of Railways,

AGRICULTURE

Squirrel cage for boars

Belarusian specialists are considered the most effective and cost-effective exercise FORCED ANIMAL STANKAH- playpen moving floor.

Semen for artificial insemination, which is essential for intensive pigs, boars — producers selected using stuffed females. From prolonged inactivity hind legs weaken boar. In addition, the lack of physical exercise leads to obesity, general lethargy, sexual dysfunction, reduced semen quality. Exercise needs as well as the rational feeding. It is indisputable and universally recognized. Of course, exercise boar should not race at full speed, but every day at least half should go continuously. There are several ways of forced physical exercise. For example, Ukrainian professionals prefer to walk their animals on a large circular arenas under a trickle of cold water, adjusting them spinning like a carousel, metal frames (TS, 12, 81, «paddock — so fattening»). For larger machines — arenas do not require large capital investments and production areas for the construction of free-range areas, and most importantly — exercise is possible at any time of year and in any weather, which corresponds to the modern concept of growing pigs indoors.

But how to get in close walking boar cubicle, little more than its length? Here the inventors remembered the squirrel cage. Not counting on prytkost his «patient» arena designed not as a wheel and rectangular, but with the mobile as a conveyor belt, the floor. He was made of an elastic band, and for rigidity with ribbon let the endless track of the brackets with rollers that roll on rails installed at the top of the tape. In addition to this simple device, the kit includes an arena metal cage and feeder mounted on its front wall to lure animals into the machine. Once the boar okazyvatsya in cells include a tape drive, and the floor out from under his feet with a design speed in the opposite side of the trough. Animal willy-nilly, to walk, and if you stop — the film once it will take away from the trough.

The prototype machine, the arena made the necessary biochemical and physiological studies, and now the arena is being developed with five treadmills for large pig farms. For fattening farms with an annual one-two tens of thousands of pigs, the authors recommend a simple machine with a treadmill.

METAL

Remove the burrs and induce SHINE

Tenth grade purity can be obtained, holding the article between the poles of a magnet.

You take a rusty barbed iron sheet and dragged it into the gap between two rotating disks. The second, and all burrs on cut sheet and a sheet of shiny. Only little strange that this unprecedented processing show employees of the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Moscow Institute of tech-stylish. Most business is machine-tool builders and toolmakers, but only an ulterior motive textile workers engaged in metal. All items looms must be carefully polished — otherwise on the needles, rings, rods, and levers for changing fluff settles. Sometimes the size of a fist. «Non-specialists» have coped with a difficult task. In three years, they have built several types of devices for magnetic micro parts for various applications and profiles from a sheet material to the smallest needles.

If two rotating disks, the magnets pour ferroabraziv to the same place and the workpiece, the grains of powder going into it, will scratch, would climb into all recesses and hollows. However, scratching such processing may be called sin is gentle impact — the highest finish of turns — the tenth grade!

Initially, S. et al Kochura used electromagnetic drives (a. A. Number 655515), and then replace the complicated electromagnetic coil on the permanent, cobalt — samarium magnets. The device is simplified. Eliminated the need for the current collector, rectifier, transformer, and so regulated. D. Decreased and dimensions, the device is now fit in the pocket of his robe. The latest version added a few interesting elements. For example, two flywheel mounted on an axis of rotation, by means of which a magnetic gap is closed on (duty cycle), or removes the magnetic force to be able to empty while stopping the device and replace the cutting material. Flywheels operate on the principle of a centrifugal regulator. Upon reaching a certain speed drives them apart, and when you stop the shift. During processing, the density of the powder may vary (it buckles), which sharply decreases the intensity of cutting. This disadvantage is eliminated by an additional drive, which seemed to knead the powder (a. A. Number 872222).

As ferro-abrasive powder in addition to the expensive corundum can use waste material: chips, after milling of cast iron parts, metal filings, split shot, as long as the powder was of the so-called soft magnetic material that is easily magnetized and also easy — it is necessary to remove the magnet — demagnetized.

The apparatus invented Kochur S. et al, could be adapted to virtually any machine tool, to which one end of the core is performed with Morse taper, which is inserted in the machine spindle. But just as a device suitable in lines rolling, cutting. There has primarily for deburring. After forging, cold rolling, cutting, they are a real scourge: interfere in the assembly, injure your hands. In small-scale production of grinding wheels removed, a skin file. In mass production — a complex operation inconvenient. Just like deburring transformer tape unwound after cutting a roll? Machining the material lends itself poorly. Abrasion — a dust, noise, and the continuity of the process is broken — it is necessary to change the wheels. They tried to accommodate the magnetic treatment, and all has changed: the device is convenient to fit the scissors, but the quality got much higher than necessary.

Promising, apparently, will the magnetic removal of rust products great length. Say wire. Speed ​​is enormous: one minute can be cleaned with ten meters of wire thickness of 2-3 mm. This operation is very time consuming, especially in the field, so the new method can hardly go unnoticed by many departments, especially leading edali work of the city. Here are the builders of the main gas pipelines suffer from descaling wire … As for direct assignment of magnetic processing — polishing — has already tested the device for small items such as needles, stainless steel wire, fine-grained gear teeth.

L. HITAYLENKO our specials. corr.

Moscow

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