The intensity level of production in specialized farms

In the Moscow region in the production of fruits and berries 17 specialized farms. As natural and economic conditions, the degree of specialization and the nature of the combination of sectors can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of 7 state farms located in the area around Moscow forest-park zone. The second group includes 10 state farms, more remote from the capital and most are in the south-eastern region. We call them conditional suburban and depth, keeping in mind that both groups of households are included in the suburban area and should provide agricultural products to Moscow and the industrial centers of the region.

The level and pace of the intensification of production on state farms are not the same.

Commuter economy better than the underlying, provided the basic production assets, including energy and tractors per hectare and per average worker.

The growth rate of fixed assets and power energy in suburban farms are also significantly higher than in the deep. Since the organization of horticultural state farms (1960) to 1962, the security basic production assets of the first group of farms increased by 66%, the second — by 56%, energy, respectively — 39 and 24%, armed labor basic production assets — by 45 and 44% and power-labor — 24 and 13%.

In the process of intensification of production has changed not only the volume but also the structure of fixed assets and energy.

In the structure of fixed assets the most significant share of buildings and structures. Their value at absolutely and increased, but the proportion has decreased. Decreased the proportion of the working cattle, as it is gradually replaced by technical means. Increase the value and proportion of perennial crops, livestock and agricultural machinery.

In the structure of energy resources production draws attention to increase the proportion of tractor with a predominant growth of wheeled tractors and tractors with mounted machine, due to the expansion of the area under orchards and row crops.

In 1960, the area of ​​perennial plants in the suburban state farms on average per farm is 254 hectares, or 11% of agricultural land, and in the deep — 154 hectares, or 4%. By 1963, the area of ​​the gardens increased respectively to 450 and 294 hectares, and the proportion — up to 18 and 7%. Consequently, suburban farm size, the absolute increase in the areas under permanent crops and their relative weight in the structure of agricultural land are far superior depth.

In the first group the share of state farms cultivated crops in the structure of sown areas increased over three years from 37 to 48%, and in the deep — from 24 to 34%

Along with the expansion of the area under orchards and berry gardening state farms in developing animal husbandry, which is mainly due to the existing specialization, the presence of natural grasslands and arable land unsuitable for planting perennial favorites, and the needs in organic fertilizers. Priority development has dairy farming, and the rest of the livestock industry, production is not related to gardening, gradually eliminated. The proportion of cows in the structure of the cattle herds in the suburban state farms (53%) higher than in the deep (45%).

Of great importance in production intensification is the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. In suburban state farms make them much more than in the deep.

In addition, the first group of farms to achieve wider use of science, technology, best practices and more rapidly undergoing the process of increasing specialization of production. Intensely leading economy, they have achieved the best results of production, in 1962 produced a gross output per unit of land is 2.1 times more than the depth, including fruit and berries in many times more vegetables and potatoes — 2.1 moloka- and 1.7 times. In the first group of state farms agricultural production has given per 100 hectares of agricultural land in 2154 ruble profits, and the second — in 2737 rubles loss.

Thus, the most intensive and profitable farming are suburban gardening farms. However, the natural conditions for the development of horticulture in the deep areas of the Moscow region is not worse than in the suburbs. It is also possible to conduct more intensive agricultural production and productive use of the land. Carrying out the decisions of February (in 1964) Plenum of the CPSU, it is necessary along with the expansion of areas under permanent crops to focus more on the use of fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and irrigation, improve the material and technical equipment, to carry out an in-depth specialization and rational combination of industries.

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