What we know about the uterus

Uterus looks nice and pleasant … view it as important and majestic that at a glance makes our curiosity and makes you think, that this creature is an elder in his breed. Slenderness of her body, the color of her legs, the length, not too thick and not too thin, its stubby wings — in short all its form presents us with a beautiful lady, pleasant and majestic. — So clearly outlined artistic queen bee the famous Russian beekeeper PI Prokopovich. Even from this brief description it is clear that the uterus and the like, and not like the rest of the bees, it plays a special role in the family, not only because it is beautiful and majestic, but still for some other, more serious reasons.

Uterus — the only one in the family of a female bee with fully developed reproductive system. Only she lays her eggs, from which to further develop all individual colony. Naturalists not immediately got their hands on the data that we have right now. There was a time when the Bees, including on the uterus, reported the most incredible, from a modern point of view, information. Even much later than the time when Johann Swammerdam (1637-1685) — the famous Dutch physician and naturalist — has set a floor of all three species of bee families and described the anatomy of the uterus and genital organoz drone without establishing unfortunately, how is the mating and fertilization in beekeeping literature can be found, for example, the claim that the queen inseminated worker bees, which should be regarded as males

In the writings of Lucas, published in Leipzig in 1794 and 1796 respectively, it states that «the uterus because of the strong objection of eggs has need of fertilization. These things fertilization is to connect tabs or kissing, because you can always see that the uterus constantly surrounded by retinue of worker bees, to caress her around and kissing her … And these bees are committed by males, with their child-bearing member in advance … «

Not surprisingly, people who knew too little about the life of the bee colony, but is closely watching the bees, it seemed that in a surprising in its organization bee state can not do without the supreme power. According to this view the uterus — is not only the ancestor of the entire population of the hive, but a creature with a special power over all his subjects. This view has been circulated widely enough. Probably for this reason, in ancient Egypt, the pharaoh called the uterus, and in other nations the queen or queen. In many countries, the name preserved to this day.

After the discovery of parthenogenesis in bees made in the middle of the last century I. Dzerzhonom, so it became known that the drones do not develop from fertilized eggs and worker bees and a uterus — fertilized, and after a series of other works of later times it became clear that, although the uterus is the only fertile individual in the family, talking about her omnipotence would, however, not scientific. This view is becoming increasingly popular and are often allowed to even assume that the uterus is to some extent a «slave» of the bee colony, as the performance of all its functions depends on the surrounding bees and many other conditions. Some thought it possible to say that the queen — only the body of the bee family or living machine that produces eggs.

It is clear that both the first and the other point of view is very difficult to recognize correct. But is it really so untenable speculation and allegations that rules the life of the queen bee colony? Of course, to speak in our time that the uterus is consciously manages the family, at least strange. But maybe there are still grounds to speak about the unconscious, indirect influence of the uterus on the physiological state of the individual worker bees, and the general condition of the entire bee colony?

The simplest, surface observations suggest that such changes in the family, such as the disappearance of the uterus, does not remain unnoticed for a long time. In response, the bees in the next few hours to the start tab sinus queen. There is evidence that, after the return of the uterus from the nuptial flight is markedly increased flight activity of the worker bees. According to a selection of works from the family of the uterus is accompanied by a decrease in the number of departures of bees from the hive, according to others — the return of the uterus to the family, which has been found to her disappearance, leads to the same results.

Not less attention deserve well-known facts of different relationships of worker bees to their own and others the uterus bees of one family to the other bees. Thanks to what distinguish ‘bee their bees from strangers, much different from its fetal uterus ruptured uterus someone else?

On the right answer suggest observing the behavior of bees, as it were «sniffing» each other and uterus. On this basis, it suggests that, apparently, not the last role in a complex system of information links within the family plays a smell. To come to this view even more difficult, because it has long been known that a smell and plays an important role in the orientation of the bees. Attaching great importance to the mobilization dance, is an important way of information, we have serious grounds to deny the role of odors. If even claim that the odor, such as the source of a bribe is just further guidance, applicable only on a relatively short distance, then this is enough to see that the value of the smell is not so little.

Beekeeper familiar strong and pleasant smell fragrant gland Nasovovym open in 1883. It is known that bees have embraced this gland, attracting other bees to a source of a bribe or «pointing» the direction of bees crawling near the hive.

These and some other facts inadvertently lead to the thought that smell plays in the life of bees, perhaps a more important role than we think.

Still in 1910 the Kharkov beekeeper GL Kondratenko in the book «A New Theory of beekeeping» reported that on the belly of the uterus stands fragrant oily substance that is absorbed by the bees, when related to the uterus mustache antennae ensures that all bee family acquire the same smell different the smell of bees other families. G. A Kondratenko pointed out that without the existence of this unifying smell colony would have been impossible. Very interesting and important conclusion GL Kondratenko that queen bees lay up until the uterus releases odorous substance.

The conclusions reached by GL Kondratenko, were not supported by conclusive experimental materials. They are, apparently, not very interested beekeepers and little was known until 1955, when prof. S. Zhdanov reminded about them in the journal «Beekeeping».

It took more than 40 years before the issue of smell, which unites the bee colony, and the smell, allowing the bees to distinguish between queens and feel the presence of cancer in the family, again interested beekeepers and scientists. Experiments V. Henry (1951-1954) have shown the existence of relationships between bees and the queen on the basis of its allocated aromatics. English scientist, Butler (1954) found a substance, called the mother, which is remarkable in that it prevents detuning swarm bowls. 5 years later, he was able to establish that a substance is released uterine maxillary glands of the uterus. It was also found that uterine substance spreads throughout the body Maçka and licked him by bees that its purely due to the fact that the worker bees are often in contact with each other, royal substance is rapidly distributed among all the bees family. The absence of the mother substance leads to laying queen, as well as to the development of the ovaries in worker bees and the emergence of bees trutovok.

Uterine substance was extracted and found trans9oksodek2enoikovoy acid. It was possible to obtain chemically pure royal stuff, but its efficiency was only 80 percent efficiency mother substances of natural origin. In this regard, consider that uterine substance also includes what that other chemicals.

A particularly strong effect of uterine substance has in the event that it acts simultaneously with a special smell which extends from the body of the uterus and is a mixture of many volatile acids.

The smell of the uterus and uterine material play an important role as a factor contributing to the unity of the colony. It is believed that the smell of fetal and barren mares are different, so the bees are able to distinguish between them. In addition to these smells, considered the possible existence smell attracts bees to the uterus.

Of great interest are studies Barbier, Lederer, and others. As a result of these studies it was found that the substance contained in the uterine maxillary (mandibular) glands of the uterus. The amount of substance emitted depends on the age of the uterus. Glands barren uterus secrete a small amount of the substance, and the old fetal uterus cancer — more than cancer of young fetal ewes.

Given dennye allow a certain degree to identify the causes of major changes in the state bee family. As already mentioned, laying queen bees and the emergence trutovok associated with the absence of the mother material. However, we know that the bowls are laid not only after the disappearance of the uterus, but also during the preparation of the family to swarming, as well as a quiet change of queens, t. E., And when a family has a queen. From the perspective of researchers studying the uterine substance, these two cases can be partly explained as follows. As with swarming, and in a quiet change tab bowls caused by a lack of the mother material. Speaking of swarming, considering two cases — preparing to swarm strong families and families are not strong. The strong family two options. The first — the bees less active intermittently lick and pass each other royal agent and therefore not all receive it in sufficient quantities. The second — the need for a family matter raised in the mother and therefore also felt its lack.

In the case of weak families allow the bees lack uterine matter for the reason that such families during swarming uterus was isolated only part of the quantity of stock material which is isolated uterus strong colonies (Butler, 1960).

In considering a quiet change of queens, suggest that the conditions leading to it in the summer, during the swarming, most are families who have old age or due to a defect of the uterus in the mother is lacking substance at a reduced need for it bees.

Thus, it is assumed that in the bee family at the same time, there are three factors that govern its development. First of all, it is — the amount allocated to the uterus of the mother material. In direct relation to the first factor is a second — the maximum size of a family in which all the bees will get in sufficient quantities allocated uterus uterine substance, and the third — the number of the mother substance, which is required of each bee. It is believed that these factors are variable and change depending on external conditions (time of year, weather, bribes feed stocks in the nest, and so on. N.). It is also believed that the number of mother

Substances evolving uterus probably largely depends on the conditions of heredity and upbringing.

Discussing these findings, it should be borne in mind that they are largely conjectural.

The smell attracts the uterus exerts effects not only on the worker bees, but also on the drones (X. Gary, 1962). A simple but interesting experience, during which the young barren ewes, attached to the balloon rises into the air, showed that the smell attracts the drones queens at a height of 6-9 meters. In other experiments, it managed to attract drones to content mandibular glands and the parts eaten queens estates to pieces. These experiments suggest that the barren womb, located in the mating flight, attracts the drones via smell, not a sound.

These are the results of research are of great scientific educational interest, but at the same time can not be considered unexpected. Although beekeepers and lacked for many years, precise scientific data concerning the substance of the mother and smells of the uterus, the daily work in the apiary beekeeper observation leads to quite definite conclusions. In this regard, well-known interest experiments on MH zlivshie establish that the bees are able to distinguish much weaker smell than humans, which is not quite consistent with the findings of K. Frisch, believes that the olfactory acuity of bees is approximately equal to the human olfactory acuity. It was also found that the bees are able to be separated from the mixture smells a familiar smell.

However, if the above allow the facts to speak about the womb as being indirectly controls the behavior of bees and the life of your family? If this is possible, it is only to a certain extent. It should be borne in mind that the uterus is not always and in all cases is how the control colony. In many cases, family life is controlled by the workers themselves bees medosbors conditions, the strength of family, the weather, and various other factors. It is with these terms and conditions associated researchers as the release rate of the mother substance uterus, and the need for it individual bees Governing the influence of the uterus on the vital processes occurring in the family, extends, apparently, on a relatively small number and mainly directed to processes associated with the reproduction and preservation of the unity of the bee family. Talk for this reason, an autonomous regulatory effect on the uterus all the vital processes in the bee family, in our opinion, it would be wrong. Although presented here interesting studies of various authors have not yet allow full clarity to find out all the delicate relationship between family members, the fact «help us to make sure not only in variety, but also in the material means of information and relationships in a bee colony, is a complex biological entity .

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