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STOCKHOLM ARLANDA AIRPORT

Sweden’s largest and busiest airport, Stockholm Arlanda (ARN), is the main gateway to the capital city and the country. However, proposals to cap emissions and ban approaches to one of its runways could jeopardise its long-term future. Built to supplement the space-constrained Bromma Airport close to the city centre, Arlanda quickly grew to become the home base of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). Today it is a thriving airport with important worldwide links while Bromma has also continued to flourish and is popular with business travellers. AVIATION IN STOCKHOLM By the 1930s Stockholm was eager to join the world of aviation and aspired to have its own airfield. Bromma Airport was opened close to the centre of the city in 1936 and became the primary gateway and major hub for several early Swedish airlines. Later SAS (formed in 1946) and Linjeflyg (formed in 1957) established substantial domestic and international route networks. However, Bromma’s prime location was also a drawback. Being situated amongst residential areas and restrictive terrain, none of the airport’s runways could be extended sufficiently to allow in the largest and longer- range aircraft of the time, such as the Douglas DC-8. Pre-empting this reality, a new airport was planned during the late 1950s and built to the north of the city that had sufficient facilities for the aircraft of the day, and space to expand. It was named Arlanda after a nearby parish, and is situated near Märsta, 23 miles (37km) north of Stockholm, in a densely wooded area. Long-haul flights commenced in 1960, although it was not officially opened until 1962. A dedicated Arlanda Express rail link connects the airport to the city centre in just 20 minutes. EARLY ARLANDA In the airport’s early days it was used by the DC-8s of SAS, and by aircraft operated by Pan American World Airways (Pan Am). Later, Boeing 747s of both carriers were employed on schedules across the North Atlantic. Arlanda gained its first taste of domestic operations because the new DC- Right: Arlanda’s early success was because it could handle new long-haul aircraft, such as the Boeing 747; illustrated is an SAS example. Björn Höglund 9s and Sud SE-210 Caravelles that were equipping SAS for domestic services were considered too noisy for Bromma. Thus, destinations such as Gothenburg, Malmö, Luleå and Kiruna were added to the airport’s network. As the airport expanded, more buildings were added to suit its needs (see later). In 1983 Sweden’s main independent airline, Linjeflyg, transferred its flights from Bromma, further bolstering Arlanda’s importance and its growth. FACILITIES AND TERMINALS As more airlines arrived at ARN, so the infrastructure was progressively expanded – particularly the passenger terminals, of which there are now four. Terminal 2 is one of the original buildings; however its interior was refurbished in 1990. At first glance, its external architecture is obviously from the 1960s, but inside it is modern and is now used by some low-cost carriers (LCCs). In early 2013 an extension was completed, adding 21,528sq ft (2,000m2 ) of extra space, along with new food and shopping options. Terminal 3, which opened in 1990, is actually a pier that caters for small regional and domestic aircraft. It has two check-in desks, and passengers use a ground floor departure lounge before walking to the aircraft from the gate. Terminal 4 was opened in 1983, with Linjeflyg (merged with SAS in 1993) and SAS moving their services from Bromma the following year. However, it was soon found to be too small, prompting SAS to move its domestic flights to T2 in 1990. Today SAS once again uses T4 for domestic routes; the facility giving been renovated in 2006. Terminal 5 was added in 1976 and today it is the airport’s largest, with three piers, and handles all international scheduled and charter flights. It is equipped with 31 airbridges and has significant airside retail and refreshment areas. All the terminals are linked; making it is possible to walk from one end to the other, or passengers can take one of the free buses outside to navigate more quickly. Curiously there is no T1. Whilst T2 and T4 are the original buildings, there are tentative plans to construct a new building to the south of T2 that would take the name T1. However, no formal decision has yet been made on this project. Situated between T4 and T5 is Sky City. This large glass-fronted area contains.

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