THE HAWK TURNS 30

THIRTY YEARS ago this month, a red-and-white-painted Hawk took to the skies over Britain. Today this aircraft has become one of the most successful, and by far the most successful jet trainer. With nearly 850 orders and 1.5 million flying hours to its credit, the BAE Systems Hawk has continued to evolve and remains at the forefront of jet trainer technology. This is largely the reason it continues to flourish, with a constant stream of orders flowing in.

The Hawk is a proud symbol of technological and marketing achievement for BAE Systems, and for Britain as a whole. As the chosen mount of the RAF’s Red Arrows aerobatics display team, it instils pride and excitement in the crowds who watch it perform. It is an impressive jet, with clean lines and graceful handling, and is agile and fun to fly. Good aerodynamics, range, endurance, speed, payload, safety record and noise levels add to its prestige.

The Hawk

It’s excellent performance enables the Hawk to carry a greater payload than any other advanced jet trainer. It is equipped to perform in a wide range of operational roles, and is often more representative of a front-line fighter than a jet trainer.

Superb aerodynamic and handling characteristics make it ideal for students yet its fully aerobatic ability can challenge the most skilful squadron pilot. The rear cockpit instructor’s position was designed to provide an unobstructed forward visibility unmatched by any of its rivals. The Hawk is respected as a reliable and rugged aircraft, admired by aircrew and ground crew alike for its serviceability and ease of maintenance.

The Hawk’s history dates back to the 1960s and 1970s. Towards the end of the former decade, the Royal Air Force (RAF) started to consider a replacement for the Hunting Jet Provost T.5 trainer and in 1969, the UK Ministry of Defence issued requirement AST.397 for a tandem seat, single-engine, subsonic jet trainer with weapons capability and an unprecedented 6,000-hour fatigue life. The specification was open to competitors such as the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet, but in the end a proposal by Hawker Siddeley aircraft (HS) was accepted in October 1971. This led to a production contract in March 1972 for 176 Hawk T.1 trainers, the first to be delivered in late 1976.

A pre-production Hawk T.1, flew on August 21, 1974, with test pilot Duncan Simpson at the controls. A number of defects were discovered in flight tests and corrected, but these were ordinary development and ‘teething’ problems. The Hawk’s design was fundamentally sound.

By the time the 175th Hawk T.1 was delivered to the RAF in March 1982, the HS Hawk had become the British Aerospace (BAe) Hawk, as HS was absorbed into BAe in 1977.

The Hawk T.1

The basic Hawk T.1 aircraft is of conventional construction, built mostly of aluminium alloy, with some use of magnesium to save weight. To aid serviceability, almost a third of the aircraft’s surface is covered by access panels. The wing has outboard ailerons and inboard double-slotted flaps and the tailplane is all-moving: the tailfin has a rudder. There is a single airbrake in the belly ahead of twin ventral fins, which are located under the tail. Flight controls are powered by duplicate hydraulic systems.

To allow the flight instructor a clear view over the student’s head the back seat of the cockpit is stepped up. There is a windscreen between the front and back seat to protect the back-seater from windblast in case of a bird strike or other front-canopy failure and the single-piece canopy hinges open to the right. The Hawk T.1’s cockpit controls are analogue technology and relatively simple to operate.

The Hawk T. 1 is powered by a Rolls-Royce/ Turbomeca Adour Mk 151 non-afterburning turbofan engine with 5,200lb (23.13kN) of thrust. For servicing, the engine ‘drops out’ of the Hawk’s under-fuselage and can be replaced in just one-and-a-half hours. A Microturbo 047 Mark 2 Gas Turbine Starter/Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is installed above the engine to permit self-starting and to assist in relights after an in-flight flame-out. Should the aircraft lose power in flight, a ram-air turbine automatically pops up in front of the tailfin to provide emergency electrical power.

There are five stores pylons: one on the centreline and two on each wing. The extra attachment point on each wing was specified to permit flexibility for export sales. The inner attachment points are plumbed for drop tanks. For weapons training, the Hawk is fitted with a centreline gun pod — usually a single 30mm Aden Mark 4 cannon with 120 rounds — and a stores pylon under each wing for munitions. Pylon loads include practice bomb carriers and SNEB rocket pods, or a pair of 100 gallon drop tanks. External load in practice is restricted to 1,500lb (680kg).

The Hawk T.1A variant is an upgraded variant of the T.1, capable of carrying AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles (AAM). A total of 88 aircraft were upgraded between 1983 and 1986 for use as ‘local defence’ fighters at airfields around Britain, though they no longer carry out this role. Various Service Life Extension Programmes were also developed for the aircraft, the most recent being a Fuselage Replacement Programme (FRP) involving replacing the aft centre and rear fuselage sections of 80 aircraft. Other modifications included a re-winging programme that began in 1988 and ended in 1995, and the installation of thicker windscreens in 1986. Because of these modification programmes, the Hawk T.1 is scheduled to remain in service until at least 2010.

Deliveries to the RAF started in 1976, and all 175 aircraft were delivered by 1982. Initially, to No.4 Flying Training School (FTS) at RAF Valley, Anglesey, in the advanced pilot training role (replacing the Gnat and the Hunter) and also No.1 Tactical Weapons Unit (TWU) at RAF Brawdy, Pembrokeshire and No.2 TWU at RAF Chivenor, Devon, in the weapons training role.

No.1 TWU at Brawdy consisted of 79(R) and 234(R) Squadrons. When the base was closed in 1992, 79(R) Squadron disbanded and 234(R) Squadron transferred to Valley. In March 1994,234(R) became 208(R) Squadron.

In April 1992, 2 TWU, based at RAF Chivenor, was re-designated as 7 Flying Training School. On September 23 that year, 151(R) Squadron of 7 Flying Training School was re-numbered as No.92 (R) Squadron flying Hawks, and the unit flew these aircraft until it was disbanded on October 1,1994. In September 1994, 63(R) Squadron, based at Chivenor, disbanded and its Hawks moved to RAF Valley.

Up until October 1992 when it retired, No.74(R) Squadron was a Phantom FGR.2 unit: on its retirement, the nameplate passed to No.3 Squadron (4 FTS) at RAF Valley, flying Hawks. In 2000, 74(R) Squadron was amalgamated with 19(R) Squadron(at RAF Valley) and subsequently disbanded.

Today, the Hawk is operated by No.4 Flying Training School (FTS) at RAF Valley. The unit consists of 19(R) and 208(R) Squadrons and the Central Flying School Advanced Training Unit. (Originally, No.208 was a Buccaneer Squadron, but when the Buccaneers were retired in 1994, the numberplate passed to No.234 Squadron, one of the Hawk squadrons based at Valley. No.19(R) had been a Phantom FGR.2 Squadron based at RAF Wildenrath, Germany where it remained until the station closed, and the Squadron disbanded in January 1992. The numberplate was then assigned to one of the three Hawk squadrons at RAF Valley — No.63 (Reserve) Squadron becoming No.19 (R) Squadron in September 1992. No.208 Squadron conducts advanced flying training and No.19 Squadron provides tactics and weapons training.

No.4 FTS operates 71 Hawk T.1/T.1A aircraft and is responsible for training all RAF and Royal Navy (RN) fast jet pilots to front-line Operational Conversion Unit entry standard: it also provides training for exchange officers and Foreign and Commonwealth pilots.

The Joint Forward Air Control Training and Standards Unit (JFACTSU) at RAF Leeming operates two Hawk T.1/T.1A aircraft to train Forward Air Controllers (FAC). Originally, JFACTSU was formed at RAF Brawdy, where it flew two Jet Provost jet trainers: it moved to RAF Finningley in 1993 where it operated two Hawks before being relocated to RAF Leeming, Yorkshire in 1995.

Sixteen Hawk T.1/T.1 As are operated by 100 Squadron at RAF Leeming, where they are used in a variety of specialised roles, including target towing and electronic warfare training. No.100 Squadron was based at West Raynham from the early 1970s and operated Hawks from 1991 onwards. With the closure of its base, RAF Wyton, Cambridgeshire, the unit moved to Finningley, only to be forced to relocate to Leeming in 1995 when Finningley was also closed down.

The RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine based at RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire, operates two Hawk T.1s at Boscombe Down, Wiltshire.

Because of its excellent flying qualities, including an +8g load factor, the Hawk was chosen for the RAF Red Arrows aerobatic team, and the team’s impressive performances in some 50 countries has helped make the aircraft famous around the world.

The team’s first Hawks were delivered in 1979, and the following year they replaced the Gnat which the Red Arrows had flown since 1965. Apart from the striking red and white paint scheme, the Red Arrows’ Hawks are very similar to the standard T.1. The only major difference is that each Red Arrows’ jet carries a ventral 70 gallon tank containing diesel oil and red and blue dye to create coloured smoke. Today the team operates ten T.1A aircraft at RAF Scampton, Lincolnshire.

Hawk Mk 50 Series

On May 17,1976, the first export variant, the Hawk Mk 50 series, made its maiden flight. The occasion marked the beginning not only of huge sales, but also of the prolific aircraft family to come.

The Hawk Mk 50 series featured an up-rated Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour Mk 851 engine with 5,340lb (23.75kN) of thrust, enhanced cockpit instrumentation, four underwing weapons stations, a modified tailcone and significant increases both in fuel load and maximum disposable load. The aircraft could carry larger, 129 gallon (586 litre), drop tanks, and were qualified for 30% greater take-off weight than the Hawk T.1.

The Hawk’s chief competitor, the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet, which flew a year before the Hawk — on October 26,1973 — beat it to a large sale to Belgium and in smaller sales to Togo and the Ivory Coast. As the Alpha Jet had a lead at the time, the future of the Hawk in the export market was seriously challenged. However, the Hawk soon caught up again via a large sale to Finland.

In December 1977, Finland ordered 50 Hawk Mk 51s to replace its Fouga Magister trainers. Delivered between 1980 and 1993, these aircraft were capable of carrying Vinten optical-infra-red camera pods for reconnaissance. The Finns bought seven more Hawks Mk 51As in 1990 to replace attrition.

The Finnish order allowed the Hawk to catch up with the Alpha Jet, but in 1978 the Alpha won orders in Morocco and Nigeria. BAe maintained export sales with 12 Hawk Mk 52s to Kenya (delivered in 1980 — 1981) and 20 Hawk Mk 53s to Indonesia (delivered between 1980 and 1984).

Competition from the Alpha Jet eventually disappeared in 1991, when production of the aircraft ended, 504 aircraft having been delivered to 14 countries. Although the Hawk Mk 50 series is no longer in production, the decision to regularly develop more Hawk variants has maintained export sales.

US T-45 Goshawk

One of the biggest Hawk deals came from the USA. The sale of a planned 187 aircraft to the US Navy Training Command, worth about US$ 5.96 billion is not just impressive in terms of numbers — equally notable is the acquisition of the British Hawk by the US Department of Defense.

In response to a 1975 US Navy (USN) study for a new carrier-capable jet trainer, BAe offered the Hawk to the USN in 1978, leading to a formal partnership agreement with McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDD — now absorbed by Boeing) in 1980, and the selection of the Hawk from a wide field of competitors in 1981.

The T-45 Goshawk, as it is called, is a dramatically modified Hawk, mainly because it had to be adapted to aircraft carrier use. Modifications include a strengthened airframe and wing; larger tailsurfaces, leading-edge slats for low-speed flying, two-wheel nosegear that features tow and catapult connections, an arrester hook, twin airbrakes mounted in front of the horizontal tailplane, a single ventral fin, and other minor changes.

From aircraft No.84 (first flown on October 21, 1997), production switched to the T-45C variant, which features a new digital or glass cockpit. Boeing named this Cockpit 21, which features two 5in (12.7cm) monochrome multifunction displays. In addition, a dual redundant MIL-STD-1553B multiplex databus is incorporated. A combined global positioning system/ inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) replaces the standard attitude and heading reference system. Software modifications include improvements to the Head Up Display (HUD) in the front cockpit.

Hawk Mk 60 Series

In 1979 the Hawk Mk 50 series was further developed to produce the Hawk Mk 60 series air combat manoeuvring and weapon conversion trainer. This aircraft features an up-rated Adour 861 engine with 5,710lb (25.39kN) of thrust and a slightly improved wing. The aircraft is highly spin-resistant, requiring full rudder to initiate and maintain a spin and recovering in one turn after centralising the flying controls. Stall characteristics are predictable and progressive. Crosswinds of up to 30 knots can be accommodated on aircraft takeoff or landing, with or without stores. The aircraft maintains positive control in all flight manoeuvres up to Mach 1.2, which it can reach in a dive. (Level flight is restricted to around 620mph [1,000km/h].)

The Hawk Mk 60 series proved an export success, with aircraft being sold to seven countries. The first sale was in early 1981, when Zimbabwe ordered eight Hawk Mk 60s featuring an enlarged drag chute. Only a few days after the first four arrived at Thornhill AB in 1982, insurgents attacked the base and the Hawk aircraft, throwing explosive charges down the air intakes. One Hawk was totally wrecked, another was repaired in Zimbabwe, and the other two had to be shipped back to Britain for rebuild. In 1990, Zimbabwe ordered five improved Hawk Mk 60As, which were delivered by 1992.

In 1981, Dubai ordered eight Hawk Mk 61s for training, light strike, and reconnaissance, using Vinten camera pods for the reconnaissance role. Dubai later bought an additional Hawk Mk 61 as an attrition replacement. These Hawk Mk 61s were cleared for operation with the Magic heat-seeking air-to-air missile.

Following the Dubai sale, the Hawk proved popular with other Middle Eastern countries. Abu Dhabi ordered 16 Hawk Mk 63s in 1983, of which 14 were later upgraded to the Hawk Mk 63A standard, featuring the further up-rated Adour 871 engine with 5,900lb (26.24kN) thrust and a combat wing, both of which were developed for the Hawk 100 and 200 variants. Abu Dhabi also ordered four Hawk Mk 63Cs similar to the Hawk Mk 63A, with deliveries in 1994.

Twelve Hawk Mk 64s were ordered by Kuwait in 1983, and were cleared for operation with four AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, six of the Kuwaiti Hawks escaped to Bahrain and six were captured by the Iraqis: the Iraqis returned the six Hawks following their defeat in the Gulf War. The captured Hawks were damaged after being in Iraqi custody, but were refurbished with help from BAe and returned to flight status.

In 1985, Saudi Arabia ordered 30 Hawk Mk 65s, this being followed in 1994 by an order for 20 Hawk Mk 65As. The first batch was delivered in 1987/1988 and the second in 1997.

To replace its Vampire T.55 trainers, Switzerland ordered 20 Hawk Mk 66s in 1987. The sale helped establish BAe’s reputation as a manufacturer of quality aircraft — the Swiss were well known for buying particularly good aircraft. The first aircraft in the Swiss batch was built in the UK, the rest being provided as kits which would be assembled in Switzerland. They featured an Adour 861A-03 engine, with minor modifications relative to the standard Adour 861 to meet Swiss Air Force requirements.

The most recent Hawk Mk 60 series order, for 20 Hawk Mk 67s, came from South Korea in 1990. The aircraft, delivered between 1992 and 1993, featured the combat wing, a steerable nosewheel and a longer nose housing additional avionics.

Hawk Mk 100 series

The Hawk Mk 100, which first flew in October 1987, is a greatly advanced two-seat weapons systems trainer and light ground attack aircraft. It provides cost-effective fighter lead-in training, as well as navigator and weapons systems operator (WSO) training.

The nose of the Hawk Mk 100 is re-profiled to accommodate a Marconi forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) imager and a Ferranti laser range finder. Other avionics improvements include a radar warning receiver (RWR) mounted on the tail, an advanced navigation/attack system with radar altimeter and low-level strike capabilities, plus a duplex MIL-STD-1553B digital databus.

The aircraft has a new combat wing with greater area, increased wing droop, larger flaps, additional combat manoeuvring flaps and seven stores hardpoints. Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles can be mounted on the wingtips. Total external ordnance capability is 6,600lb (29.36kN). A chaff and flare dispenser, located above the engine exhaust, can be operated automatically or manually in conjunction with the RWR to give the Hawk significant protection against missile threats.

A new Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour Mk 871 engine, with 6,030lb (26.82kN) of thrust, powers the Hawk Mk 100.

New cockpit features include Multi-Function Displays (MFDs), a Head-Up Display (HUD), Hands-On Throttle And Stick (HOTAS) controls and Night Vision Goggles (NVG) compatibility. The front-seat position has two MFDs and a HUD; the back-seat position has a single MFD and a HUD repeater display.

The Hawk Mk 100 series was, and continues to be, an export success. Abu Dhabi was the first customer for the advanced new Hawk, placing an order for 18 Hawk Mk 102s in 1990, with deliveries commencing in 1993. In 1990, Oman bought a batch of four Hawk Mk 103s. Malaysia ordered ten Hawk Mk 108s in late 1990, which were delivered between 1993 and 1994, and in 1993 Indonesia ordered eight Hawk Mk 109s, which were delivered in 1996.

Hawk Mk 200 Series

The most radical and complex Hawk variant, the Mk 200 series, which first flew on May 19,1986, is a single-seat, radar-equipped lightweight multirole combat aircraft designed for air defence and ground attack missions.

The Hawk Mk 200 is equipped with a Westinghouse APG-66H multi-mode pulse-Doppler radar, LINS 300 ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system, air data sensor, display processor and mission computer, all interconnected by a dual redundant digital MIL-STD-1553B databus. The radar, which gives comprehensive air defence and ground attack capabilities, occupies a volume of less than 3 cu ft (0.085m3) and weighs less than 237lb (107kg). It can search 120° in azimuth and elevation, and has a range of 40 miles (65km) in the look-up mode and 51km (31 miles) in the look-down mode. It also has ten air-to-surface and ten air-to-ground modes for navigation fixing and weapon aiming.

The aircraft has eleven external stores points with four underwing pylons, an under-fuselage pylon and wingtip air-to-air missile stations. The range of external stores includes air-to-air missiles, a gunpod, rocket launchers, reconnaissance pod, retarded and free-fall bombs of up to 1,000lb (454kg), runway cratering, anti-personnel and light armour bombs, cluster bombs, practice bombs, rocket launchers and external fuel tanks. Total weapon load is around 6,600lb (3,000kg).

In the cockpit, the pilot has a HOTAS controls system, a wide-field-of-view HUD and MFD. The pilot can select the weapons and release mode prior to initiating an attack by using the weapon control panel, which controls the stores management system. The cockpit has a colour display, with a dedicated processor and 15-colour graphics symbology generator — 27 display formats provide flight and aircraft data. A fully-automatic Martin-Baker Mk 10 LH rocket-assisted ejection seat facilitates escape at all altitudes and speeds within the aircraft’s flight envelope.

The Hawk Mk 200 is powered by an Adour 871 engine producing 6,030lb (26.82kN) of thrust. Flexible fuel tanks are installed in the fuselage and compartmented integral tanks are located in the wings. External tanks can be carried on the inboard underwing pylons. The Hawk Mk 200 can also undertake air-to-air refuelling.

The electronic warfare systems include a radar warning receiver and automatic or manually operated chaff and flare dispensers.

Twelve Hawk Mk 203s were ordered by Oman in 1990 and delivered in 1993. Malaysia ordered 18 Mk 208s (delivered in 1994/1995) and Indonesia bought 32 Mk 209s, which were delivered in 1998 and 1999.

Hawk LIFT

In September 1998 BAE Systems unveiled the Hawk Mk 127 Lead-In Fighter Trainer (LIFT), to cost-effectively produce high-calibre aircrew for both current and projected front-line combat aircraft. The new aircraft is an extensively modified variant of the Mk 100 series and is comparable to a frontline aircraft, such as the F/A-18 Hornet, it was originally developed for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) as the Hawk Mk 127 LIFT.

The Hawk Mk 127 has an enhanced, modern digital NVG-compatible cockpit with three full-colour MFDs. The MFDs present all the aircraft flight, navigation, sensor, weapons, engine, radio and navigation data. All the information is available on any display and is selected by the pilot using computer-controlled ’soft-keys’. The HUD features F/A-18 symbology and full navigation, air-to-air and air-to-ground weapon aiming formats. The Hawk Mk 127 features cockpit details compatible with the F/A-18 Hornet to provide training for Australian Hornet pilots. The flexible software allows a selection of formats, including conventional Hawk Mk 100 HUD symbology. The night vision system gives 24-hour operational capability and complements the FLIR sensor by giving the pilots all-round situational awareness.

Systems have been upgraded to reduce the reliance on ground equipment and to enhance overall capabilities. The airframe now has a 10,000 hours service life. The aircraft is equipped with a lot of new equipment, including an Inertial Navigation/Global Positioning System built into the moving map, a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS), and an upgraded electrical system with a three-phase 25kVA generator.

The LIFT has an up-rated Adour Mk 951 turbofan engine with Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). The engine delivers over 6,500lb (28.91kN) of thrust. This does not apply to RAAF Hawk Mk127 aircraft, which have the Adour Mk 871 engine. Provision is made for Air-to-Air Refuelling (AAR), using a detachable, nose-mounted, fixed-position probe.

The aircraft can carry an Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentation (ACMI) pod and a Radar Emulation Pod. These pods allow the aircraft to simulate and ‘create’ enemy and friendly aircraft and missile, with data being passed between the pods to give highly realistic training as well as post-mission analysis.

The Stores Management System (SMS) enables the aircraft to deploy a wide range of weapons, including ‘smart’ weapons and allows for future weapons to be incorporated.

There are seven wing-mounted weapon stations, including missile launchers for short-range air-to-air missiles. The aircraft can also be armed with the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile.

The Hawk LIFT was designed to be cost effective to operate and able to reduce the amount of flight time required on conversion courses operating front-line aircraft. Some of the main cost-saving measures include an engine that has a long interval between overhaul time and a Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The HUMS enables predictive maintenance, thus reducing operating costs.

Australia, being the first Hawk LIFT customer, ordered 33 Mk 127s in 1993 -12 were built in the UK and a further 21 were assembled in Australia. The aircraft achieved final acceptance into RAAF service in October 2003.

The Hawk LIFT has also been ordered by the Canadian Forces, the South African and Bahraini Air Force. The 21 Canadian Hawk Mk 115s, selected in 1997 and first delivered in July 2000, are being used in the NATO Flying Training in Canada (NFTC) programme. This programme provides lead-in fighter training on a training-for-hire scheme run by the Canadian Government and the Bombardier Aerospace Corporation.

South Africa selected the Hawk LIFT in November 1998 to replace its Impala jet trainers. The first of 24 Hawk Mk 120 aircraft was delivered in 2003.

In February 2003, Bahrain ordered six Hawk Mk 129s with an option for a further six.

The UK Ministry of Defence, in July 2003, announced that it had selected the Hawk Mk 128 as its Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT). Twenty trainers, which are derivatives of the Hawk LIFT, will be built with options taken on a further 24. They will provide training for both Royal Air Force and Royal Navy pilots as part of the UK Military Flying Training System.

In March 2004, the Indian Air Force signed a contract for the purchase of 66 Hawk Mk 115 aircraft. The deal is worth around £1 billion. The first 24 Hawks will be built by BAE Systems in the UK, and the remaining 42 will be license built by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) in India.

When the Hawk Mk 128 enters service with the RAF in 2008, it will replace the existing Hawk T.ls of Nos 19 and 208 (Reserve) Squadrons at Valley, and will provide training for pilots who will go on to fly the Harrier, Tornado, Typhoon and Joint Strike Fighter.

Not All Good News

The sale of Hawks has created thousands of jobs for BAE Systems and other companies all over the world where the Hawks are operated. But the sale of Hawks did not just generate good news.

Controversy rocked BAE Systems when it was discovered last year that the company paid millions of pounds in secret commissions to obtain the contract to sell Hawk jets to South Africa. The British Government has confirmed the payment, which will fuel the ongoing row about corruption allegations faced by BAE all over the world.

Controversy aside, 30 years later, the Hawk looks very similar to the first aircraft that took to the air. However, it is a radically different aircraft under the skin. It continues to be an export success, with competitors such as the Aermacchi MB.339 and the Czech Aero Vodochody L-159 lagging far behind in sales. However, brand new competitors like the Yak-130/Aermacchi M-346 and MiG-АТ could start to divert Hawk sales. Based on the sales of both aircraft to date, neither seem to present a threat to future Hawk sales. However the threat of the KAI/Lockheed Martin T-50 looms, and with all the political power that the USA has it could be a real threat to future Hawk success. Let the fight begin!

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