Analysis of Conflict

Any conflict — a clash of interests. The number of participants conflicts can be classified into:

— intrapersonal (collision of conflicting beliefs, interests)

— interpersonal (between two people)

— group (between informal small groups)

— conflicts in organizations

— intergroup conflicts between large social groups: political, military, cultural.

The structure of conflict

Any conflict can not do without a few components.

The conflicting parties. At least two of them in any conflict. Also, there are conflicts and multilateral. In addition to the parties in the collision may be involved and the other participants: sympathetic, provocateurs, the conciliators, counselors,

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A blood test for TORCH-complex

A blood test for TORCH-complex is usually included in the comprehensive examination during pregnancy and reveals the four diseases that cause infection of the fetus in utero: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes.

How stands TORCH-complex?

T (O) — toxoplasmosis (toxoplasmosis) R — German measles (rubella) S — cytomegalovirus infection (cytomegalovirus) H — herpes (herpes simplex virus).

The more dangerous infections TORCH-complex?

Risk of infections TORCH-complex is that in primary infection during pregnancy may cause intrauterine infection of the fetus with the defeat of systems and organs, increasing the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, birth defects and malformations.


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A blood test for HIV

A blood test for HIV (AIDS, antibodies to HIV) — detection of antibodies occurring in the body in response to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 

When blood tests that the result is reliable?

The standard assay (ELISA) is recommended in 1.5-3 months after exposure, when they begin to detect antibodies to HIV in the blood of an infected person. PCR analysis showing the presence of virus 2-3 weeks after infection.

In some cases, prescribe a blood test for HIV?

A blood test for HIV infection recommend donate at:

planning a pregnancy; preoperative and hospitalization; unclear cause

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A blood test for markers of viral hepatitis

Hepatitis A

Analysis of Hepatitis A (Anti-HAV-IgM, IgM class antibodies to hepatitis A virus) — laboratory testing to determine the presence of antibodies to hepatitis A.

Why do the analysis for hepatitis A?

With a view to the diagnosis of acute or recent infection with hepatitis A.

When detected antibodies to viral hepatitis A?

IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected in the very early appearance of clinical symptoms of the disease, their concentration increases during the month, then reduced to normal within a year.

What are the indications for the purpose of analysis for

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A blood test for tumor markers

A blood test for tumor markers — identification of specific proteins in the blood that are produced by cells of malignant tumors.

Why do I need to do research for tumor markers?

to obtain information about the presence or absence of tumor, along with other methods of investigation; study provides an opportunity to distinguish benign from malignant; determination of tumor markers before and after treatment helps to assess its effectiveness; to control the disease after treatment and early detection of recurrence.

Is it possible to detect tumor markers in the blood of a healthy person?


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A blood test for PSA

A blood test for PSA (PSA, prostate specific antigen) — detection in the blood of men of a special substance that is produced by cells of the prostate gland. Oncomarker PSA is prostate cancer.

What are the indications for the analysis of the PSA test?

Monitoring the course of prostate cancer and the effectiveness of the treatment. Suspected prostate tumor after other studies (for example, after a digital rectal exam or ultrasound). Patients who received radical (anti-cancer) treatment for prostate cancer, it is recommended to analyze every 3-4 months. Preventive screening men older than 40 years, the identification of

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Analysis of blood clotting (coagulation)

Analysis blood coagulability (Coagulation) — a study of blood clotting.

What are the indications for coagulation?

pathology of blood coagulation; · examination during pregnancy; preoperative and postoperative period; varicose veins of the lower extremities; autoimmune diseases; liver disease; cardiovascular disease; · control during long-term treatment of indirect anticoagulants.

What indicators are included in the analysis of blood clotting? What are their normal values?

Prothrombin INR (prothrombin time) — 78-142%, thrombin time — 11-17,8 s (seconds) Fibrinogen — adults — 2.00 — 4.00 g / l; newborns — 1,25-3,00 g / l.

How to prepare for

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A blood test for syphilis

Analysis blood syphilis (RPR, Wasserman (RW) — laboratory testing, which allows to identify antibodies to Treponema pallidum (Treponema pallidum) — pathogen infection.

What are the indications for blood test for syphilis? 

casual sex; preoperative preparation; planning to become pregnant; sores on the genitals, heavy discharge from the genital tract; swollen lymph nodes, rash on the skin and mucous membranes; bone pain; preventive care.

What kind of training is needed to study? 

The analysis gives up in the morning, on an empty stomach. Not allowed for 8 hours (preferably 12) before putting the food intake analysis, are excluded juice, tea,

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Blood test: new opportunities

Immunosorbent assay

ELISA blood tests, which are based on the specific antigen-antibody reaction, rapidly evolved over the past three decades. During this time they have gone from a diagnosis of certain diseases in specialized laboratories to routine determination of a large number of allergens, pathogens of bacterial and viral infections, hormone levels, markers of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and other indicators. The latest technology in this area, are increasingly used in a recent years, a multiplex immunoassay analysis. The method allows the simultaneous determination of several parameters in a blood sample of small volume. This makes it

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Sputum analysis

Sputum analysis — laboratory research, allowing to establish the nature of the disease of the respiratory system (bronchi, lungs), and in some cases, and to determine its cause.

What does the sputum?

Laboratory examination of the sputum can identify disease-causing micro-organisms (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis), malignant tumor cells, impurities (blood, pus, etc.) specific to certain diseases, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the bacterial flora to antibiotics.

What are the indications for sputum?

cough with phlegm; pneumonia; bronchitis; lung abscess; tuberculosis of the lungs.

How to prepare for the study?

Sputum better moves, if the day

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