On the surface

With its thick ice and frosty brine-spouting cryovolcanoes, the smooth surface of Europa is a strange place to observe.

Europa has an unusual-looking surface. It’s incredibly smooth for the most part – one of the smoothest objects in existence in the Solar System. That doesn’t mean that the moon is a featureless ball of ice, however. The icy surface is also cracked in places, and criss-crossed with numerous reddish-orange lines and splotches. There are also ridges, domes and possibly even cryovolcanoes. The exact mechanism for the formation of these features is unknown, and there are a number of contradictory theories.

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Mission Profile — Observing Europa

Name: Galileo

Launch: 18 October 1989

Orbital insertion: 8 December 1995

Launch vehicle: Space Shuttle Atlantis

Vehicle mass (orbiter): 2,380kg (5,200lb)

Spacecraft dimensions (orbiter): 5.2m (17ft) high, 11m (32ft) wide

Missions: Galileo orbiter, Galileo probe

Flybys: Earth, Venus, asteroid belt, Io, Europa, Ganymede

Initial discoveries:

Galileo remains the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter, and its probe was the first to enter the Jovian atmosphere. It gave us numerous insights into Jupiter and its moons. Highlights from the mission included mapping the structure and extent of the Jovian magnetosphere, observing ammonia clouds in Jupiter’s atmosphere and discovering that Jupiter’s ring system

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Hurricanes bigger than Earth

Easily one of the most famous storms in the Solar System, Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is so large that it is visible through many Earth-based telescopes.

The Great Red Spot is thought to have been in existence for at least 340 years. The oval red eye rotates in an anticlockwise direction due to the crushing high pressure on the planet. Winds can reach over 400 kilometres per hour (250 miles per hour) around the spot, however, inside the storm they seem to be nearly nonexistent. And that’s not all, this complicated weather system has an average temperature of about -162

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All About..TITAN

Titan is considered the most planet-like of our Solar System’s moons for many reasons, but could it really harbour life of its own or support a human colony?

Saturn has more than 62 known moons (53 named ones) and numerous moonlets. But despite orbiting the same planet, these moons can be incredibly different from each other. One moon, Titan, stands out from the crowd for more than a few reasons.

It’s both the largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest known moon in the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 5,150 kilometres (3,200 miles) and is larger than

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A creative atmosphere.

The 17th-century Suffolk house in which Cathy and Peter Bullen eventually decided to settle has come a long way over the past two decades and may even be to thank for their children’s artistic careers…

After moving house an incredible seven times in the first three years of her marriage, Cathy Bullen decided that enough was enough. With husband Peter in the army, home was wherever postings dictated, which often meant moving from opposite ends of the country. ‘I was struggling to settle each time we relocated,’ says Cathy. ‘Peter and I had both grown up in the same houses

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The most bad thing in Belarus — an atmosphere of terror

Two months later he fiftieth anniversary. Has two higher education — technical and legal. As a result, Russian era was the deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as part of the Interregional Deputy Group — the first democratic parliamentary opposition Russian Union — worked together with Andrei Sakharov, Boris Yeltsin, Vasil Bykov, Ales Adamovich … In the Supreme Soviet of the 13th convocation elected chairman of the subcommittee on media info and PR public associations. Member of the Political Council of the United civilian party, director of East European School of Political research.Now Alexander Dobrovolsky discusses the atmosphere

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Bush and Putin talked relaxed

Lagunina: "The atmosphere of the meeting looks very relaxed and peaceful. But This time unclear, conditions on the main issue, Angela Merkel delivered to the participants of the meeting — an agreement to combat climate change. Angela Merkel has proposed to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere by 2050 by 50% compared with the 1990 level and stay within the boundaries of emissions of certain UN if the 2012 deadline of the acts of the Kyoto Protocol. Specifically against it, though not directly, playing George Bush. He offered to private parties to come mainly so to speak, "Pollutant" in the

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At the summit of G8 — about global warming, spa and Kosovo

As a result of unrest in Rostock suffered least 1,000 people. Wounding more than 400 police officers, 125 rioters arrested. In protest took part about 20 thousand people. Such actions accompany all recent summits "G", it is possible that the continuation of the events in Rostock happen during today’s summit.But acute situation will not only meet around favorites advanced industrialized countries, and on the meeting itself. The main items on the agenda a day or — control of harmful emissions into the atmosphere, the South American missile defense system in Europe and the problem of Kosovo. Experts do not exclude

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Transmashholding is testing innovative hybrid shunting locomotive TEM35

Currently, the Bryansk Engineering Plant (BMZ, is a TransMashHolding) tested TEM35 shunting locomotive with a combined (hybrid) power plant. TEM35 six-axle shunting locomotive with asynchronous traction motors and electric transmission AC is a new development of the holding. The design of the locomotive used electrochemical energy storage devices — supercapacitors. This solution is implemented for the first time and has no analogues in the Russian Federation.

According to preliminary estimates of experts in the use of shunting locomotive reduces fuel consumption by 30%, reduced emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere by 1.5-2

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New facts about the young Earth's atmosphere

New facts about the young Earth's atmosphere Facts

British researchers say that the development of complex life on Earth was launched by the effect of "swing" that emerged 2.5 billion years ago in the planet's atmosphere. Young atmosphere periodically passed from carbon-free state in the phase of saturation with carbon. This time of transition of the environment to the organic haze is the result of intense microbial that later greatly influenced the Earth's climate.

This assumption gives a glimpse into a time when the planet's atmosphere had no oxygen. Its heat contributed nothing like organic haze layer, the evidence of

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