What the future may bring for digital cameras and what features are here now

Camera Tech

By David Willis From the camera obscura to the smartphone, a camera design requires only a few key ingredients: an imaging plane (digital sensor or piece of film); a way to preview the composition (screen or viewfinder); and a way to project the image to the imaging plane. Digital cameras incorporate miniature computers, hardware and software to capture, interpret and store this information while film cameras provide a housing for the roll of film and a way to move the film forward. Digital camera designs were formed largely around these legacy analog systems so photographers who had invested

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NEWSROOM

News from the black & white world. Edited by Mark Bentley.

HIGH CONTRAST

Magnum photographer Rene Burri has been awarded the Leica Hall of Fame Award 2013 for his contributions to photography.

Born in Switzerland in 1933, Burri’s most famous picture is arguably his portrait of Che Guevara smoking a cigar.

Photo sharing website Smugmug has said it will not strip key metadata from pictures placed on its site. The announcement comes after controversial plans were unveiled by the government that could potentially allow free use of orphan photographs — images where the copyright owners cannot be contacted because the

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Digital Volume Control

Most modern TVs and VCRs have a digital volume control for either incrementing or decrementing the volume. In digital control you have to press a switch instead of rotating a knob like in old sets. This versatile digital volume control circuit can be used for tape recorders, amplifiers. TVs etc.

In the circuit IC 555 is used as an a stable multivibrator, which produces a clock pulse of 11 Hz frequency at pin 3. I’his clock pulse is fed to the counter (IC 4510) through a combination of gales. Normally. N1 and N2 will not allow any clock pulse because

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Digital Time Switch

Yu might have noticed the street lights suddenly switching on in the evening and switching off early in the morning. Such operations for a complete row of lights are achieved automatically with the help of a ‘time switch’ which is usually mounted on an electric pole. It is generally an analogue type of ‘time switch*. Digital time switches are not yet commonly available in our country.

Principle

Using the principle of ‘ Master Slave Clock1 (published in EFY Nov.’91), 1 have developed a digital time switch. The block schematic diagram of the same is given in Fig. 1. Basically, there

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DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHERS NOTEBOOK

Bokeh Is Japanese for Blur

Bokeh is the often-mispronounced term for those wonderful round, out-of-focus highlights that we love floating throughout the backgrounds of photographs. So just what is photographic bokeh and how does it differ from a blur of the same name made in Photoshop? The answer this time in the «Digital Photographer’s Notebook.»

There are three factors that make pleasing bokeh: pinpoint highlights, a lens with a longer focal length than normal for the camera, and a large aperture. Surprisingly, the most beautiful bokeh is not always with the widest f-stop. Oh, by the way, Japanese speakers say

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DIGITAL MASTERCLASS

With more than 20 years of teaching experience,

Paul Andrew and Brian Beecroft — the force behind Digital Masterclass (DMC) -understand the importance of feeling a sense of progression as you journey from beginner to professional photographer.

Courses run by the DMC are divided into Foundation, Specialist and Professional Photographic Diploma (PPD). Most students begin with the Foundation course, composed of three separate modules:

First Steps (covering the basics of picture taking), Next Steps (looking at more creative image making) and Introduction to Photoshop. Purchased individually, each part costs £250 — alternatively, you can buy all three for £499. For

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Digital infrared

Times are tough for all of us at the moment, so while our passion for photography may not have diminished, our photo-expenses budget is sure to have taken a hit. Therefore, spending our hard-earned cash on expensive new optics or the latest gazillion-pixel DSLR is unlikely for all but the most fortunate. However, there are many low-cost products that claim to offer us a chance to expand our creative options and capture images that belie their relatively low price tag. In Budget Photo we test low-priced photo products to discover if they deliver on their promise of allowing fantastic photography

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Digital Frequency Counter

A digital frequency counter (DFC) is used for building, testing and designing analogue and digital circuits, li can also be used for measuring the frequency of any periodic waveform.

The fundamental operation is shown in the block diagram in Fig. 1.

The cost of a DFC is largely governed by the number of digits in its display and the maximum input frequency it can handle. An inexpensive instrument would typically offer a 4-digit display. This frequency counter* incorporating all the features, is comparatively cheaper.

A DFC normally has several measuring ranges. It is possible to add a few digits to

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Computer error: reliable digital processing

Valves give way to transistors

Various ingenious ways of operating were developed to ensure that the machine would work for a sufficient interval to achieve useful results. The LEO I computer of 1951 demonstrated that computers could move out of secret military establishments and universities into the commercial world, giving rise to the first business machines. However, the dubious reliability and large physical size of these early machines, not to mention their enormous power requirements, kept them firmly fixed in large, well-ventilated rooms.

In 1953, the world’s first computer using transistors became operational at Manchester University. It used 92 point-contact

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CMOS Digital Clock with On-Off Timer

The circuit presented here can be used to control any instrument for a particular time duration in your absence. The circuit is very efficient and simple to construct, it is based on CMOS decade counter CD4017 and NAND gates CD4011 and CD4012. These ICs are easily available and are quite cheap.

The heart of this digital clock is a time counting circuit. For the seconds counter, CD4017 has been used as divide-by-ten (IC6) and divide-by-six (IC5) counters for unit and tens digits respectively. The minutes counter (IC4 and IC3) is identical to the seconds counter. For counting hours, IC 4017

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