Few people in the last decade of the XVIII century in Europe enjoyed such immense popularity, as the Count of Cagliostro. The glory of the famous magician and seer was equally loud in enlightened circles in Paris and Rome, Berlin and Vienna, St. Petersburg and Moscow … But this glory was different: some believed every word of Cagliostro and literally worshiped him, while others believed the graph clever adventurer and charlatan mystic.
No one knew when and where he was born Cagliostro, he spent his childhood and youth. Yes, and the count in his memoirs wrote: "Neither the place of my birth, my parents nor I do not know." However, further Cagliostro said that childhood spent in the Medina in Arabia. There, he allegedly named Arahat lived in the palace of the eastern lords Yalahaima. Mentors taught him physics, medicine, botany, several oriental languages.
When he was twelve years old, he was under the supervision of chief coach went traveling. Cagliostro spent three years in Mecca, then visited a number of Asian and African countries. He had been in Malta, where, according to the coach, Cagliostro was born into a Christian family, and almost immediately became an orphan. No other details mentor told him not to.
With Malta Cagliostro went to Sicily, then traveled to Naples, Rome, where he was introduced to the local nobility, and then — to the Pope himself. The note said Cagliostro of his countless journeys through Europe, thousands of patients who are in thirst healing flocked to him from everywhere.
But researchers biography of Cagliostro lead other versions of his origin. Many believe that he was born on June 8, 1743 in Palermo, Sicily in a rich family, and then his name was Giuseppe Balsamo. Parents, devout Catholics, gave the boy to the seminary from which Giuseppe soon escaped. But he was caught and placed in a monastery near Palermo.
After some time, the future magician and sorcerer fled from there. In Palermo he tricked stole gold from a wealthy goldsmith and money-lender, and then many years traveling around to different cities of Italy. At that time, Giuseppe twenty times changed his name and eventually took the name of his aunt — Cagliostro, adding he did not deserved the title of count. However, later Cagliostro repeatedly hinted that the title went to him in some mysterious way.
Cagliostro's biographers agree that he is a very well-traveled. Traveled to different countries of the East, actually visited Malta, a number of European cities, especially Italian. Italy was not then a single state, and move, for example, from Naples, Florence or Venice to Rome was traveling from one country to another. In Rome, Cagliostro met a girl from an ordinary family Lorenza Felichiani. She became his wife, and since then his wife under the guise of pilgrims, pilgrims traveled around Europe together. By joining one of German cities in the Order of Freemasons, Cagliostro acquired influential friends and patrons in high society.
Moreover, having made a journey to Egypt and having been in the secret rooms of the pyramid of Cheops, Cagliostro declared himself the head of the great ancient Egyptian Freemasonry in the world. His fame grew, shirilsya and circle of acquaintances. In one of the many pamphlets about it is the story of how in Holstein Cagliostro met with an even more mysterious man than himself, — the Count Saint-Germain. Apparently, Cagliostro treated Saint-Germain with the greatest respect, and desired to dedicate it to all the sacraments, which had the graph wizard.
From Saint-Germain, Cagliostro went to Kurland (so was called the western part of Latvia, which later, in 1795, became part of Russia), aiming at St. Petersburg. Most of all, make a trip to Russia advised him to count
Saint-Germain, who, according to Baron Gleyh, visited St. Petersburg in June 1762 and maintained friendly relations with the Prince Grigory Orlov.
At the end of February 1779 and Lorenz Cagliostro arrived in Mitava, the capital of the Duchy of Courland.
In great detail on the presence of Cagliostro in Courland says the book, published in 1787 in St. Petersburg — "Good stay in Mitava famous Cagliostro to 1779 and made it there magical acts", sponsored by Charlotte-Elisabeth-Constance von der Recke, nee Countess Medemskaya. Her sister, Dorothy, was married to Peter Biron, Duke of Courland.
However, the accuracy of these notes is highly questionable. The fact that the first Charlotte was completely under the influence of the mysterious Count. But then just as strongly dislike it and. And what, and in what tone can write about a former idol disappointed in it a woman? The answer is clear. However, information about the period of life of Cagliostro bit, and because each source of interest to us.
In the capital of Courland Cagliostro found a fertile field of activity: here lived Masons and alchemists, however, amateur level and very gullible, but belong to high society. Cagliostro was later before'm in a good location for him Courland their supporters that the voucher note issued to them in 1786, referring to them as witnesses, ready to show in his favor. The then Chief of Courland burgrave Hoven considered himself an alchemist.
In Mitava Cagliostro gave himself and the Spanish colonel, while secretly informing the local Masons, which sent their masters to the North for a very important and that Mitava he was instructed to report to Hoeven as a Grand Master of the local Masonic lodge, and said that based them Cagliostro box will be allowed, and women. Lorenz, for its part, has contributed quite a lot to her husband. In Mitava Cagliostro acted as a preacher of the strict morality against women.
At the same time, according to detractors, in the light holding it uncomfortable. Some thought that it sounded like a discharged servant. Many noted his lack of education and gross errors in the letter. Alleged that he spoke French badly, using a lot of rude, vulgar expressions. Italian literary language, he did not own and spoke sizzling Sicilian dialect. However, all these mistakes to them and his admirers were explained by long years of residence in Medina, and Egypt.
He conducted himself, and with that all were in agreement, immaculately. Do not indulged in any gluttony or drunkenness, not in other excesses. He preached abstinence and purity of morals, and filed the first example. When asked about the purpose of the trip in
Russia Cagliostro replied that, as head of the Egyptian Freemasonry, he conceived a plan to spread its doctrine on the far north-east of Europe, and to this end will try to found a Masonic lodge in Russia, which will be taken and the woman.
About their medical knowledge Cagliostro reported that, having studied medicine in Medina, he made a vow to wander for a while on the white light for the benefit of humanity and without bribes to give back to the people what he had received from them. Cagliostro treated broths and essences, and his confidence gave patients hope and courage. According to him, all the diseases arise from the blood.
But gradually Cagliostro Mitava became increasingly let in on the mystery itself. Charlotte von der Recke, he promised that she would talk with the dead, that in time will become a spiritual messenger on other planets, it would be ordained protector of the world, and then, as proven in the magic of a student, ascend even higher. Cagliostro assured his disciples that Moses, Elijah and Jesus were the creators of many worlds, and that the same will be in a position to do his loyal followers and followers, bringing people to eternal bliss. As a first step to that he commanded that those who wish to have a message from the spirits, must constantly oppose all real.
His disciples to higher degrees of Cagliostro began teaching magic of science and demonology, choosing to explain the text of the book of Moses. At the same time, followed by the point of view of girls Charlotte von der Recke, he admitted the most immoral interpretation.
People are pragmatic, but at the same time and gullible Cagliostro attracted a promise to pay all metals into gold, to increase the volume of precious stones. He said that he could melt the amber as tin.
Cagliostro's ability to mine gold were confirmed by the fact that during a long stay in Mitava he was not getting any money, the bankers did not show notes, and yet he lived lavishly and generously paid, and even forward, so that disappeared from any idea of his own selfish calculations.
In Mitava Cagliostro producing different miracles. Show in the carafe of water that was done far away from here. He promised, and even pointed out the place where the surroundings Mitava buried a huge treasure, guarded by spirits.
Zagovarivaya about the upcoming trip to St. Petersburg, Cagliostro was a member of the role of political agent, promising to do much in favor of Courland at the court of Catherine II. With him in St. Petersburg, he called Charlotte and the virgin, and his father and family, as true patriots of Courland, also tried to persuade her to travel to Russia. The interest of Cagliostro is simple: he was nebezvygodno announced in St. Petersburg, accompanied by representatives of one of the best names of Courland, and, moreover, to go with him at the request of parents who enjoyed great respect in Courland. For its part, the maiden von der Recke (as she says in her notes) agreed to go with Cagliostro in St. Petersburg only in the event that the Empress Catherine II will be the defender of the "Union of the box" in their own country and "will devote themselves to the magic" and if it orders Charlotte von der Recke to come to his capital and be there the founder of this lodge.
When the then fairly close ties between Jelgava and Petersburg Cagliostro stay in this city was to prepare public opinion in North Palmyra to his arrival. In Mitava Cagliostro in the family von der Recke has announced that he is not a Spaniard, not the Count of Cagliostro, but it serves Freemasonry under the name of Frederick Gvaldo and has to conceal his real title, but it may be that he lay down in Petersburg does not belong to his name and will appear in all its grandeur. In this case, the magician pointed out that his right to the earldom he based not on the breed, but what is the title of this mysterious significance. According to the girls von der Recke, he did it in order to see if we would find in St. Petersburg, his imposture, that it would not have any effect in Mitau, since he had already warned that hides his present rank and name.
Location kurlyandtsev to Cagliostro was so great that, according to some reports, they want to see him as the Duke instead of Peter Biron, who were dissatisfied. There is speculation that Cagliostro was leading Mitava some political intrigue, and not without success, the outcome of which must have occurred in St. Petersburg.
Frustrated later in their idol, Charlotte von der Recke called Cagliostro liar, "currently performing the great view" in St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Strasbourg and Paris. It claims Cagliostro expressed himself on his thin broken Italian and French languages, boasted that he knew Arabic. However, who was at that time a professor at Uppsala University Mitava Norberg, who lived a long time in the East, found a complete ignorance of Cagliostro Arabic. If there was a question to which Cagliostro could not give a sensible answer, he or his interlocutors spoke an incomprehensible gibberish, or off with a short evasive answer. Sometimes he went into a frenzy, waving his sword, saying some spells and threats, and Lorenz asked those present not to approach at this time to Cagliostro, as otherwise they could face a terrible danger from evil spirits, surrounded at the time of her husband.
But this is what we read in the writings of Baron Gleyh, published in Paris in 1868:
"On Cagliostro said many bad things, but I want to say about him is good. However, his tone, oven mitts, manners found in him a quack, full of arrogance and audacity to claim, but one must take into consideration that he was an Italian physician, the great master of the Masonic Lodge and the secret sciences professor. Usually the same conversation it was a pleasant and instructive, his actions were different charity and generosity, treating it did not make anyone any harm, but, on the contrary, there have been cases of miraculous cures. Boards with patients he never took. "
Another modern review of Cagliostro was published in the "Gazette de Sante." There, among other things, noted that Cagliostro "spoke almost in all European languages with surprising eloquence vseuvlekayuschim."
Again, we see ourselves as if not one of Cagliostro, and at least two.
Departing from Jelgava to St. Petersburg, Cagliostro as a preacher of the Masonic philanthropic Political doctrines relied on favorable reception from the Empress Catherine, had time to compose itself in Europe formed the view as a bold thinker and liberal empress. As a physician, alchemist and an empiricist, the owner of the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life, Cagliostro could count on the fact that the highest Petersburg society it exists and patients, and fans of no less than in Paris or London. Finally, as a magician, magician and sorcerer, he seemed likely could find a crush on a vast, ignorant masses of the Russian population. Even just limited to Masonic activities of the secret sciences professor suggested to meet in St. Petersburg, many sympathizers individuals.
Historian and researcher Longinov in "Novikov Martinists" wrote that Freemasonry in Russia brought Peter the Great, who founded the Masonic Lodge in Kronstadt and the name of the Masons who enjoyed great respect. However, the first historical mention of the existence of the Freemasons in Russia refers to 1738. In 1751, in St. Petersburg for their lot. In Moscow, they appeared in 1760. Freemasonry spread from the capital of the province, and the Masonic lodges were opened in Kazan, and from 1779 in Yaroslavl. The Petersburg Freemasons were eager to be initiated into the higher degrees of Masonry, and therefore, presumably, the appearance among them a man like Cagliostro, was to have a profound impact on the Russian Freemasonry.
Against such a background, and came to St. Petersburg Cagliostro, accompanied by Lorenza. Here it is mainly expected to attract the attention of the empress. But, as can be seen from the letters to Catherine Zimmerman, he was able not only to talk, but even to see her.
Charlotte von der Recke, which, presumably, closely followed Cagliostro trip to St. Petersburg, writes:
"On Kaliostrove stay in St. Petersburg, I did not know to tell the faithful. On hearing, however, it is known that although he there different wonderful inventions could have some time to fool some persons, but in the main intention was wrong. "
In the preface to the book as Charlotte von der Recke says that "everyone knows how great the view currently produced in many people this faker in St. Petersburg." In a footnote made by unknown (probably a translator) added: "Meanwhile Cagliostro could not perform in St. Petersburg, its main intention, namely to convince Catherine the Great to the truth of his art. And this incomparable Empress immediately penetrated deception. And the fact that the so-called notes Kaliostrovyh (Memoires de Cagliostro) is mentioned about his affairs in St. Petersburg, has no foundation. If needed the proof that Catherine the Great is a clear enemy of every extravagant dreams, they can assure that two of her skillful pen wrote comedies: "Twister" and "Seduced". The first shows in the theater under the name of Cagliostro Kalifalkzherstona. New embossing on the writer of these two and content glorious comedies will make them even more famous in Germany. "
In the "Introduction" to the same book, in a letter from Strasbourg to the writer of "description" is mentioned that Cagliostro said publicly about his acquaintance with the Empress Catherine II. This is followed by a footnote, which reads as follows: "… In this great monarch, which Cagliostro so badly wishes to deceive his intention to remain in vain. What's in this argument is written in the notes Kaliostrovyh, all of this is fictitious, and such a way one of its main businesses, for whom he sent from his elders, he could not, from this, it may be, and he was forced to Warsaw tolerate a lack of money, and various deceptions for your content get money. "
Among other details, borrowed from foreign works of Cagliostro, that he came to St. Petersburg as Count Phoenix. Mighty while Serene Highness Prince Potemkin gave him special attention, as its part of Cagliostro had to some extent otumanit prince with his stories and arouse his curiosity to the mysteries of alchemy and magic. However, close attention to the Potemkin Cagliostro was due not only to the interest of the all-powerful lords of magic … We turn to one of the episodes of Cagliostro stay in St. Petersburg.
A feast in the magnificent home of a prominent St. Petersburg aristocrats Elagina, was in full swing. But the guests eagerly attended another reason that the host invited for an evening of mysterious Count Phoenix.
Cagliostro himself perfectly understood the difficulty of his position among this society is alien to it. He has recently considered the Russian barbarian country, putting Russian absolutely savages. But he managed to make his mistake. Hospitality extended to him Elagina and his close circle of friends, engaged in "secret" science, not deceived graph and not misled. Cagliostro understood that society northern Russian capital is not one of Elagina and the like that at all northerners are much colder, more skeptical, more sensible and more thoughtful than his compatriots hot — are fond of Italian, French and frivolous dreamy, Germans are inclined to mysticism.
But Cagliostro believed in themselves, and the difficulty of the task only spurred it. He had a far-reaching goals, and he decided at all costs to win over Russian coldness. He knew he would be greeted as a charlatan and a magician, but a few hours later opinion of him must change. The fight began.
By the end of lunch count Phoenix charmed almost all assembled company, became the center of attention is absorbed. If he played a role, it played it perfectly. First of all melted away and all doubts vanished without a trace in the aristocracy and the truth of his origins. Most people are incredulous rejected suggestions that he is not a foreign count, and slicker and adventurer. The grand master of the Masonic Lodge was the epitome of graceful and well-mannered man of the world. At first, he kept a low profile, and with great dignity, weighing every word. But finally made everyone wish that he talked. And when I felt this common desire spoke entertaining, fun, witty about a variety of subjects.
It seemed that every word, accompanied gleam in his eyes and the most dazzling smile has a special charisma. Hundreds of thousands of words and form a thin, invisible web that enmeshed and all.
Making sure that any bias against him gone, he turned the conversation to the mystical land and boldly began to act in familiar surroundings. All interested in the stories about what kind of power can get a man over nature, the extent to which he can subdue the laws of nature, and dispose of them at its discretion.
— You say that we are blind, that we are bound by time and space — said Earl Phoenix — as you want, I'll prove to you that you are wrong, like, I'll show you what you can see, feel free space, can remain here among us, to see what is happening far away, anywhere, in any place in the world you want?
Dining room brightened. Dinner was over. The Company was slow to move into the living room where the experiment was to take place. What kind of experience? What is it going to be? All were in an extremely agitated state. Count Phoenix went to one of his chosen young aristocrats and offered her hand. She obeyed mechanically, it is obeyed, as hardly stand on her feet, her head was in the fog, thoughts were confused.
Huge living room windows were hidden behind heavy curtains pants. Ample room with high stucco ceilings beamed light from a lit chandeliers and candelabra numerous.
All eyes focused on the graph Phoenix and the girl. A mysterious alien let my lady to a chair in the middle of the room and asked to sit down and then turned to the owner, was beside him,
— I ask you to order here to submit a low table and a carafe of water — nothing else.
This requirement was fulfilled immediately. All were astonished, and some with bated breath waiting to see what will happen next, what role can play a carafe of water? She sat motionless, frozen stare wide-eyed, almost stopped eyes, her hands were powerless omitted, only the chest quickly and impulsively breathing.
— I ask you to look closely at this decanter on the water! — Said loudly graph Phoenix. — Think of something that you want to see, or rather, think of someone who you want to see. Stay on that thought, forget everything else and look at the water.
Having said that, he walked around the chair on which she sat, raised his hands and gently touched her shoulder.
— Look at the water! — He said imperiously.
She dutifully performed his order, has become a close, without stopping, to look into the carafe with water.
— Think of someone! — More imperatively more imperiously demanded it. — Look and say aloud everything that you see.
Everyone in the room froze. A minute passed, then another.
— Now you see! — His loud, commanding voice he announced. — What do you see?
— The Road … — she said dully.
— Look closely … keep your eyes peeled!
— Crew … coach by six races …
— Who's the coach, who? Look!
Apparently, she stared, trying to make out who is in the carriage.
— Is there anyone there?
— Yes … I see … someone …
— Male or female?
— A man … one …
— Do you know him or not?
— Wait a minute … now I see … yes, I know him … that Prince Potemkin …
The audience began to move involuntarily.
— Where is he going? — Kept asking graph Phoenix. -'s Consider the way.
— He's coming … he's coming here … close … very close …
— Look …
— Coach … Coach turns drives … here goes … Prince came out …
At this time, the living room door and disappeared loud voice announced:
— His Highness Prince Grigory Potemkin.
Some ladies screamed, all the participants began to fuss. Elagin hurried to the door. Count Phoenix triumphantly all looked.
Appeared in the doorway majestic, powerful figure Potemkin.
— Here, Ivan Perfilievich — he said, referring to the owner — thought to be among you today … For three hours, I came out of the king's thought to rest, but was bored, I remembered that you have today the presentation of a … magic tricks, that is … well, gone. What exactly are you going?
These big words heard by all. No one, of course, and do not dare to think that Cagliostro with Potemkin could be in cahoots. Count Phoenix has made the right impression.
Cagliostro was first seen Potemkin and now peered closely at him, trying to figure it out right away, so understand that there is no mistake. After all, he arrived in St. Petersburg and mainly because of Potemkin. Potemkin was assigned a major role in his plans.
— So here's your magician? Well, let me see it, let's see what kind of bird — said Serene Elagina, — give a look, whether it will hold me … and I would like to spent — death is boring! ..
Potemkin was bored the whole day, in the morning. He has already got up and so with his left foot. His angry, everything seemed to him vulgar, stupid, annoying, quite meaningless. And then there's now bowed before him dolled up to the nines, sprinkled with precious stones people. Elagin represented a visiting magician.
"The Count of Phoenix — God knows what! .."
Potemkin looked up and saw a beautiful, spirited person, alive and insightful black eyes, looking down at him boldly. He nodded casually at a respectful nod alien sneered and thought: "However, it should be a rascal!"
Count Phoenix did not embarrassed, although the meaning of Potemkin smile and even the essence of his thoughts were clear to him. His melodious voice, beautiful phrases in Russian nobleman, he expressed his pride in the honor of being presented to him, and will do everything possible in order not only in words but in deeds show him my deep respect.
Potemkin did not find it necessary to stand on ceremony and courtesy reply courtesy. He was bored. If they show something interesting — excellent! And if not, he will go to another place to miss …
Potemkin and almost put it, demanding that he showed something interesting. Then the graph Phoenix began its initial program.
— Your Highness, — he said Potemkin — you should not take me for a magician or something of that sort. You will soon make his mistake. And now you want to see something coming out of a number of familiar, everyday phenomena. If you want, I'll show you a lot of this, but in all necessary gradualness, the sequence of it I'll start to show, and my wife.
— Your wife Countess … Phoenix … where is she? — Potemkin said with a smile that could destroy everyone.
But the graph of Phoenix it is not at all destroyed. Graceful and dignified gesture he pointed Potemkin by Lorenz, who was sitting nearby, and lean back and survey says.
Potemkin looked up and saw a beautiful woman. He at once, in the blink of an eye, made a proper assessment. It is entirely appropriate to his liking. He just chose the wrong similar, moody beauty. Serene quickly went to Lorenz … Another minute — and he was sitting next to her. Expression of boredom and proud contempt fled from his face …
She twittered something to him in his strange, funny and sweet French, and he listened attentively. Potemkin kindly, patronizing and gently smiled at her. Pretty fairy with every moment stronger bewitched him.
— Well, Your Grace unto you, that my wife showed something interesting and worthy of your attention? — Asked the Earl of Phoenix.
— She has shown me the most interesting and charming — has shown itself — Potemkin said, not taking his eyes off Lorenzo.
Count Phoenix bowed, thanks for the compliments. And now his lips flashed a mocking and scornful smile.
— You are very kind, Prince, — laughed Lorenz, while its velvety eyes mysterious and strange looking at the illustrious — but if my husband promises something, he fulfills the promise, and when he needs my help, I help him A friend of mine … — she turned to her husband — if you want, you can begin to experience.
The word "experience" in a flash traveled around the living room. Graph
Phoenix leaned over to his wife, put her hands on his shoulders. Then Potemkin, and all who stood near, heard as he quietly but imperiously ordered her: "Go to sleep!" He put his index finger to her eyes, then opened them again and stepped back.
Lorenz seemed dead. Her eyes were open, but their opinion has become very strange. Her husband came to her again, lifted her from the chair. She remained motionless, petrified like a statue. It produced such a special and terrible impression and at the same time was so pitiful that many found it hard and unpleasant.
Count Phoenix, sensing the general mood quickly seated in a chair and his wife closed her eyes. Then he turned to Potemkin, Elagina and all those present:
— I beg you to leave her for a moment and follow me.
All went into the next room, except for the two ladies stared at Lorenza astonished eyes.
Count Phoenix locked the door and said:
— We left her asleep, but that special dream, in which a person exhibits such power, which it while awake is not. You make sure that my wife though, apparently, and sleeps, but sees with her eyes closed, she can even read a person's thoughts.
— As if? — Exclaimed Potemkin.
— Since you are the first to loudly expressed doubts in my words, your grace, then you and I will ask to be sure. Be so kind as to come up with something, decide what to do my wife, and she will guess your thoughts, will do all that she would be mentally commanded you. What do you want to order it?
— It's my business! — Potemkin grinned.
— Yes, but in this case, no one except you will not participate in the experiment, and in general, it seems to me, the experience will be less convincing. I warn you that I'm not going for you, I'll stay here and let someone watch over me.
Potemkin gave up.
— All right! — He said. — Solve this: Countess Phoenix primarily owes us something to sing, she's probably a lovely voice …
— You'll be the judge of that, she will sing to you …
— I do not want to bother her, so she let him, after graduating from singing, will be released from the living room to the balcony, some picks a flower and give it to me … You see … it's all very easy. Only you, Mr. magician, stay here.
— Do not just stay here, but allow me to connect and watch even a whole shelf — I do not shake my … Go, Your Grace, come and ask if she saw you and your thoughts? Then blow in her face. She wakes up and fulfill all.
— This is interesting — Potemkin said. — Sirs, let's go, let someone stay with the magician.
But no one wanted to stay. But look at all the Potemkin, his brow furrowed, and a few people left, and the rest went out, locking the door behind him. Potemkin went to Lorenzo and admiring her charming, frozen face, said to her:
— Dear Countess, do you see me?
— Yes, I see you! — Whispered to her pale lips.
Then he thought about what she should do, and asked:
— Do you see my thoughts?
— I see …
He blew in her face, she made the move and opened her eyes and for a moment looked around in amazement. Finally, just woke up, got up from the chair, I wanted to go, but suddenly stopped and began to sing.
Her voice was not strong, but sonorous and tender. She sang old Italian Barcarolle. Everybody listened to it with pleasure. Potemkin was standing in front of her, straightened to his full height mighty, and admired her. Barcarolle over. The last sound stopped. Lorenz took up his head, as if remembering something, then quickly went to the balcony, opened the glass door and a few moments later came back with a flower in her hand. She went to the Potemkin, charming smile, looked into his eyes and gave a flower. He kissed her small, almost childish hand …
The living room and murmur began to move. They were all amazed, delighted, almost all the women were terrified. Potemkin thought, walked away from Lorenzo and sat down heavily in a chair.
So, Cagliostro by her charms, and more using spell Lorenza was able to charm the all-powerful courtier. Why is Earl Phoenix failed to become a significant event in the life of not only Russia, but also of St. Petersburg? According to historian Khotinsky, "the charm of this kind did not last long, as the direction of that time was the most skeptical, so mystical and spiritualistic ideas could have a big progress between the St. Petersburg nobility. The role of magick was ungrateful, and Cagliostro decided to limit its sorcery alone healing, but healing, the wonder and mystery that had to arouse amazement and talk. "
With the opinion of the historian Khotinsky of adverse mental mood for Cagliostro was then St. Petersburg nobility can only agree with some stretch. Powerful minds then among the nobility was not simple. One of the most notable people of the time, and Senator Chamberlain, Secretary of State of the Empress IP Elagin was an ardent supporter of Cagliostro, which, as noted by the researchers Longinov, it seems, lived in the house Elagina. Skepticism is then St. Petersburg society was feigned, and in all likelihood, will soon be gone, if Cagliostro longer able to live in St. Petersburg, using the attention of the Empress. What's more, much more skepticism prevailed in Paris, but there it does not interfere with the huge success of Cagliostro. So, without a doubt, the failure of Cagliostro in St. Petersburg were dependent on other, more important reasons.
Cagliostro came to St. Petersburg, not as a quack doctor, like other foreigners stop off there, hunted the medical profession and are printed on high-profile advertising themselves in the "St. Petersburg Vedomosti". For example, during his stay in the northern capital lived on the Great Sea at His Excellency Count Osterman brothers Pele — "French eye doctors" — announced that they are "the art of their daily support, returning multiple blind eye." They recommended that St. Petersburg residents relief from all diseases drops that "taco is quite decent personages in written works and minor works are exercising." And who came to St. Petersburg from Paris dentist Schobert, proclaiming the wonderful means to a cure for various diseases of the teeth, by the way, and "blow air", so here's a way to advertise their therapies, "concluded Mr. Schobert fondles himself that supple and the poor favored personages spospeshestvovat condolence to his intentions, telling their friends notice these things in order to bring, through a poor ability to use the add-in. "
Cagliostro is not advertised in a similar way, though, as is clear from a variety of sources, he not only healed the sick free of charge, and even gave them financial assistance. Cagliostro in St. Petersburg did not give any personal ads, considering it beneath his dignity.
At the time, believed in the possibility of the most incredible discoveries in the field of all kinds of healing. So, during your stay in St. Petersburg in Cagliostro "St. Petersburg Vedomosti", under "Other News" reported that the "famous Parisian ladies' tailor, called Dofemon (Dofemont), invented to make enclosures (corsets) for women's dresses perfectly profitable and found a way to destroy the humps in humans, and the Paris Academy of Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical Academy and Society tailors in Paris approved a new invention of these things. "
By Remark Khotinsky, Cagliostro long waited an opportunity to show "the most striking example of his transcendent art and diabolical audacity and courage."
In Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Golitsyn, a noble lord and the court of Catherine, dangerously ill only son Andrew, chest baby ten months old. Sufficiently respectable age of the parents, including his wife, Princess Elena Andreevny not allowed to hope for the emergence of another heir. Feelings parents were clear, was tried by all. All the best Petersburg doctors recognized the child's hopeless — he was diagnosed with angina pectoris. The parents were in despair when one of the doctors — Schobert — it occurred to advise them that they may turn to Cagliostro, which then began to tell in St. Petersburg different miracles.
Invited Cagliostro declared the prince and princess, that is taken to cure a dying baby, but with the precondition that the child was transported to his apartment and provided a full and unaccountable his disposal, so that nobody else could see him, and that even the parents refused Goodbye to the sick son to his recovery. However, these conditions were harsh, but an extreme position made to agree on them, and the child, barely alive, was taken to the apartment of Cagliostro.
Over the next two weeks Cagliostro excited to requests of parents invariably replied that the child every day better and better. And finally announced that as a strong danger was over, the prince can look at the little one. Date lasted no more than two minutes, the joy of the prince was outside, and he offered a thousand imperials Cagliostro gold. Cagliostro refused such a gift, declaring that treats free of charge, from only one humanity.
Cagliostro then asked the prince to replace any reward only the strict execution of the former conditions, that is, none of the child's non-attendance of outsiders, assuring that every glance at him by another person, excluding only those who directly care for it, cause him harm and slow recovery . The prince agreed to this, and the news about the marvelous art of Cagliostro as a doctor quickly spread throughout St. Petersburg. Graph name Phoenix was on everyone's lips, and the sick among the nobility and the wealthy, began to address him. A Cagliostro their unselfish behavior with patients managed to gain the respect of the upper classes of St. Petersburg society.
It is believed that Cagliostro Count Stroganov cured from nervous disorders, heal Elagina, Buturlina and many others. Finally, get rid of cancer collegiate assessor Ivan Isleneva, later on the joys of a completely drunken. After the gentlemen to Cagliostro began to turn for help waiters, cooks, coachmen, postilions and maids. Once he healed even at a distance, sitting at the Potemkin palace and not getting up from the chair. But back to the story with an infant son, Prince Golitsyn.
The child remained in Cagliostro more than a month, and only recently the father and the mother was allowed to see him at first glimpse, then hem and finally, without any restrictions. And then he was returned to his parents to be well. Willingness to thank the Prince of Cagliostro been generously increased even more. Now, he suggested that he is no longer a thousand and five thousand imperials. Cagliostro long disagreed adopt the proposed gold. Finally conceded the request of the prince, stipulating that can take the money only for the use of the charity.
A few days after the return of the child's parents, when the soul of his mother stole a terrible suspicion: it seemed to her that the child is tampered with. Khotinsk notice about this: "… of course, the suspicion it was pretty shaky ground, but nevertheless it was there and the news of it spread to the court, and he stirred up so many old distrust of strange emigrant." Cagliostro had lost the location of the yard. And it meant the collapse of the whole of his Russian campaign. You could go from St. Petersburg home.
And what's the story ended with the child Golitsyn? There is a theory according to which Cagliostro confessed Sozonovich, his opponent on the famous St. Petersburg duel that actually replaced the child. The chances of the baby to stay alive no choice — he died on the same day when he was taken to the house of Cagliostro. Trying to resurrect a dead man, Cagliostro was producing over him with the burning of some experiments, promising that the child be raised in due time. In the meantime, to comfort parents, they presented a live and healthy baby, but quite another. Apparently, Cagliostro was guided by a sense of compassion and humanity in relation to the Golitsyn. In this case, a visiting magician had no doubt that with the passage of time and parents will love the new baby, though, if only because they did not have their own. Indeed, the same story has it that the couple soon Galitzine doting mothers in Chad newfound …
Finishing the story of Cagliostro stay in St. Petersburg, Khotinsk said Cagliostro, not being jealous husband, noting that Prince Potemkin loses its former confidence in him, even think to act on the prince by the beauty of his wife. Potemkin became friends with her, but this convergence is very unfavorably looked over, and by the time arrived, and the story of the baby. Then graph the Phoenix and his wife were ordered to immediately leave Petersburg, where he was fitted for travel costs quite a large sum.
What are the reasons for the failure of the famous magician? So he really was all powerful?
In a small book published in 1855 in Paris under the title "The Adventures of Cagliostro", found some additional information on the presence of Cagliostro in St. Petersburg. So, there is told that when he returned to St. Petersburg, Cagliostro said that his fame in Russia is not as great as he thought before. Therefore, Cagliostro, as a man extremely quick on the uptake, I realized that in such circumstances it is unprofitable to flaunt the very first time. He behaved very modestly, without any noise, posing for no miracle worker, not a prophet, but only for the physician and chemist. The life he led a solitary and mysterious, and yet this way of behavior more attracted the attention of St. Petersburg, where the famous foreigners were at the forefront not only in high society, but also in the court. At the same time he spread rumors about the miraculous healings performed by them in Germany, no one has known methods. And soon, in St. Petersburg, spoke of him as a physician extraordinary.
For its part, beauty Lorenz managed to attract the male half of the St. Petersburg nobility, and, using it, telling the amazing things about her husband, as well as his almost four-thousand-existence on earth.
The book, compiled from the original valet Cagliostro mentioned another way to attract attention to themselves the heroes of our story. Beautiful and young Lorenz said attenders count, she more than forty years, and that her eldest son has long been listed captain in the Dutch service. When the Russian ladies were astonished extraordinary youthfulness beautiful countess, she noticed that the anti-aging action of her husband invented a sure means. The old lady who did not want to rush to buy for huge money miraculous water bottles sold by Cagliostro.
Many fans of the magician, and if they did not believe in the elixir of youth and life of Cagliostro, were convinced of his ability to turn any metal into gold. Among these was the fans and the State Secretary Elagin.
For St. Petersburg doctors Cagliostro acted very diplomatically, refusing to treat patients who were to him, referring to the fact that they did not need his help, as in St. Petersburg and without missing famous doctors. But these failures only reinforce conscientious perseverance are to Cagliostro patients. In addition, at first, he not only refused any reward, but even the money helped the poor sick.
In the book "The Adventures of Cagliostro" in great detail about the romantic adventures of Prince Potemkin, with his wife Cagliostro. It is suggested that these adventures, and were the cause of rapid expulsion of Cagliostro from St. Petersburg, as well as the substitution of a child. About this substitution was walking rumor in St. Petersburg, and the Empress Catherine II immediately took advantage of it in order to force Cagliostro immediately withdraw from St. Petersburg, while the real reason for the removal of the magician was supposedly love Potemkin to Lorenz.
However, it can be assumed that the failure of the mission in Cagliostro Petersburg has other causes.
One is the fact that Cagliostro was in Northern Palmyra is not just a doctor or an alchemist, a mysterious political figure, head of the new Masonic lodge, would have to tell him that he is mistaken in his calculations bold. At the time of the Empress Catherine II was not too favorably looked at the secret societies, and the arrival of such figures as Cagliostro, could not increase her suspicions.
In the book "The Secret History of Russia" contains detailed information about the relationship of Cagliostro and Elagina. From this source, we learn that, having become acquainted with Elagina, Cagliostro told him about the possibility of making gold. Although Elagin was one of the most educated Russian people of that time, he believed the magician, who promised to teach Elagina this art in a short time and at low cost.
Cagliostro was made against one of the secretaries Elagina "Enough time to talk with the Count Phoenix for the full conviction that he is impudent charlatan." Elagin, however, continued to trust Cagliostro. A secretary Elagina began to dissolve in St. Petersburg coaching rumors of a quack than strongly undermined his credit in a society in which Cagliostro found other fans. Among them was and Count Alexander Stroganoff, one of the most prominent nobles of the court of Catherine.
Extremely unfavorable to the position of Cagliostro in St. Petersburg acted as printed in Russian newspapers statement Spanish ambassador Norman that no graph Phoenix colonel in the Spanish service never was. It exposed the official statement as an impostor Cagliostro.
However, the story of this is not confirmed by further research. The only while Russian newspaper "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" no announcement by the Nor-Don mandetsa not found. In all likelihood, this story coined after his departure from Petersburg Cagliostro his detractors, like so many other stories. According to the then existing rules, each leaving from Russia abroad should have been three times published in the "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" about his departure. And in the "Additions" to the 79-th number of "Vedomosti", published October 1, between the two notices of departure abroad — butcher Johann Gottlieb Riot and shoemaker Gabriel Schmitt — declared departing "Mr. Earl Kalliostros, gishpansky colonel, who lives on the Palace Embankment in the house, the Lieutenant-General Wheeler. "
But if the impersonation of Cagliostro was announced in St. Petersburg, he could not usurp that office. Further similar ads in rooms 80 and 81, "the addition of" refute also the story of Cagliostro if he lived in St. Petersburg under the name of Count of Phoenix, and if he were suddenly expelled from there by special order of the Empress. Meanwhile, he left the Russian capital in a general way, though, perhaps, not without some coercion.
Judging from the time of departure of Cagliostro Jelgava and the first publication of his departure from Russia, we come to the conclusion that Cagliostro lived in St. Petersburg for about nine months. During this time, the Spanish ambassador, who was in St. Petersburg, may request and receive the necessary information about him Cagliostro. At that time, the news came from Madrid to St. Petersburg about a half months, as is clear from the recording of "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" of political news. But the fact is that no announcement by Norman against Cagliostro in Russian newspapers did not occur.
Not in favor of staying in St. Petersburg evolved Cagliostro, and other circumstances. Regardless of the fact that he, as a Mason could not meet a favorable reception from the Empress, it should not be too trusting and treat it as a follower of the Count Saint-Germain. Last visited St. Petersburg in 1762, and Catherine regarded him as a charlatan.
Not having achieved brilliant success in Petersburg society as a Mason, a physician and alchemist Cagliostro could no longer count on the public attention to it in St. Petersburg, just as it was in the teeming cities of Western Europe. For the Russian common people as Cagliostro was a witch doctor and wizard alien figure.
According to Baron Gleyh, Cagliostro was short, but had the appearance that it could serve as a model for the image of the personality inspired the poet. In the French newspaper "Gazette de Sante" wrote that the figure of Cagliostro bears the imprint of not only the mind, but even genius.
Cagliostro was dressed flamboyantly, strange and mostly worn oriental costume. In important cases, he was in the clothing of the supreme head of the Grand Masonic Cauchy, which consisted of a long silk dress, like tailoring on priestly robes, embroidered on the shoulder and ankle-length characters and belted sash of red. When a dress he wore on his head-dress of the Egyptian folded bandages, the ends of which falls down. These dressings were of gold brocade, and on his head were fixed floral wreath, sprinkled with precious stones. According to his chest over his shoulder was emerald green ribbon sewn on with her letters and pictures beetles. On his belt, woven of red silk, hung a knight's sword, the hilt of which was in the form of a cross.
In such finery Cagliostro must have seemed a simple Russian common people rather important gentleman-General, not a witch. It is also known that the Russian people have always preferred as a medicine man, sorcerer "Lyada peasant", and the more messy and unsightly it is, the more credible. In addition to the acquisition of Fame medicine man had to be able to speak in Russian.
As overseas doctor Cagliostro in St. Petersburg could find a very limited practice and dangerous opponent for him was even famous at the time Erofeich, who treated successfully not only commoners but also the nobles and Catherine also discovered a kind of elixir of life, which subsequently held for a name from the inventor.
Despite all efforts to avoid collision with the St. Petersburg doctors Cagliostro still persecuted by them. Baron Gleyh mentions that the court physician to the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich called Cagliostro to a duel. "As called for a duel has the right to choose a weapon — said Cagliostro — and because now it is a matter of superiority on the part of opponents of medicine, I suggest the poison instead of guns. Each of us will give to each other on the pill, and one of us who would be the best antidote will be deemed the winner. " Duel never took place. Although, according to another version, the doctor Sozonovich really came to Cagliostro with his own manufactured poison, what a visiting magician offered him a drink some golden pill. Taking poison in front of each other, opponents have dispersed. Sozonovich sealed off milk and hoping for a miracle. And the miracle happened. Cagliostro had sent him a note in which he kindly informed that seeing Sozonovich passionate desire to serve until the end of medical science, Cagliostro gave him medicine … only increases male potency. For its part, the Count was not difficult to deftly change before our eyes the enemy poisonous drug on the ball of chocolate. Match the same Sozonovich Cagliostro allegedly caused just due to substitution of the baby.
It was said that before the departure of Cagliostro Petersburg famous physician of the Empress Englishman Rogerson was a note on the ignorance of "the great chemist," and his brazen deceptions. In general, the medical profession did not favor the new competitor.
Dangerous enemy of medical practice Cagliostro was Mesmer. For information about mesmerism — this new miraculous power — began to get to St. Petersburg at a time when there was Cagliostro. So, at that time in the "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" provided details "about the miracles produced by the magnet glorious physician Mr. Mesmer." "And now, — added to the" Bulletin "- another doctor, the Geneva Gareyu doctor in medicine, particularly in research studies practicing various actions of the magnet, issues about the book." Fascination with the then magnetism, with its boundless belief in the healing power of the mysterious and the elixir of Cagliostro and his magic might seem trifling, bears no comparison with the new, open Mesmer supernatural force.
Cagliostro could have foreseen that under such unfavorable conditions for it, he will not have success in St. Petersburg, why, and prefer to leave as soon as possible, in order to not completely ruin your reputation.
Forced to hastily leave Russia, Cagliostro did not have time to go to Moscow, but in all likelihood, and there he would not have met much success. Such a conclusion is of perfect indifference, which, of course, showed Moscow Masons for the arrival of Cagliostro in Russia. Moreover, the arrival of the Great Cauchy even had a negative impact on the Russian Freemasonry, as Cagliostro has further increased aversion to the Masons from Catherine II.
In 1780, the Empress published a book called "The Mystery of protivonelepogo society." It was listed for hoax published in Cologne in 1750. It generally ridiculed Freemasonry and its secrets. In order to completely root out those same roots of Freemasonry, which, according to Catherine II, could leave behind Cagliostro in Russian society, she wrote a comedy called "Twister." It was presented for the first time on stage Jan. 4, 1786. It shows the absurdity and the desire to harm duhovideniyu, to the interpretation of the inexplicable, to the hermetic experiences, etc. In this comedy, in the form of Kalifalk-zherstona was placed Cagliostro venture is compared with the ideas Martinists named in the comedy "monkeys". For the same purpose, and in the same year and another empress wrote a comedy — "Seduced". Both comedies have been translated into German.
Whatever it was, but when he left Russia, Cagliostro was able to finally slam the door. Police had reported that the graph Phoenix left Russia at the same time in eight different places in the border outposts are located on each left a handwritten signature!
After the visit to Russia of Cagliostro continued to travel to Europe. After a truly triumphant success in Paris, he decided that he can finally launch a broader plan for a long time they conceived. It was a challenging project — recruit among the Parisian aristocracy and wealthy special box selected Masons, strictly limiting the number of its members. All members of the mysterious box he guaranteed 5557 years of life! However Cagliostro furnished achievement of longevity such conditions that hardly anyone could meet.
Received the box had to have at the very least fifty thousand francs, and most importantly — from birth to initiation remain and stay clean and pure to the extent that it could not touch the poisonous slander and inconsiderate. At the same time, all who entered had to be unmarried and childless. The total number of members could not possibly exceed thirteen. With a reserve of any failure of the reservations is easily explained. In addition, dedicated held a series of complex rituals, fasting, baths, diet, blood-letting, etc. Every fifty years should all be repeated for forty days, and the man was revived, younger,.
Of course, the magician, who was distributing Mafusailovy years, everyone should have anticipated the question: whether he took his wonderful recipe? Cagliostro calmly answered hundreds of times on this thorny issue: "I was born two hundred years after the Flood." Thus, he was friends with Moses and Aaron, took part in orgies of Nero and Geliobala, took Jerusalem with Godfrey of Bouillon. In short, without it does not do any one any great historical event. And he spoke openly about it.
Enthusiasm omnipotent magician was all the rage to such an extent that the call to join him in a box instead of thirteen poured hundreds of applicants. His pleading to increase the number of members, but he thought proudly.
And in 1785 Cagliostro detractors have managed to achieve his arrest on trumped-up charges. But the French court acquitted him. The couple moved to Rome, where in late 1789 they were arrested — now for belonging to the Masons, that the Catholic Rome was a matter of blasphemous and punishable by death. Sentence of the Roman curia, they had to wait for almost half a year. Cagliostro was offered a choice: the public renunciation of Freemasonry and other delusions or ignominious death. He chose the former, but the renunciation did not bring him freedom.
August 26, 1793 Cagliostro died in an Italian prison, and was buried without a funeral service. When two years later joined forces to Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte, it became clear that no one knows where the tomb of Cagliostro. This has given rise to many rumors and speculation. They said, for example, that Cagliostro, killing the priest, dressed in his clothes and fled. And sometimes they say that he is to this day continues to travel the world, preferring to avoid the bustling European city …
How did today, we set off a surprising and controversial personality of Cagliostro? Of course, he has a unique ability, can penetrate into the secrets of the present and the future, Timeless most other mortals. During the life of the Count his prophecy about the French Revolution and the destruction of the Bastille fortress-prison, where he spent more than six months. Come true, and many of his other predictions. But sometimes changes the shutter Cagliostro, he lacked the wisdom and serenity. Every now and then in his actions stole ambition, greed and vanity. And it is the end of life is rapidly rolled down to the fact that he started with — a fraud, albeit on a different level, furnished with magnificent scenery.
And the secret knowledge of themselves, not only could not stop the fall of Cagliostro, but only with the grim inevitability of hastening an ignominious end, as if taking revenge on the great magician and magician who has appeared unworthy of his greatness.