November 7, 2011 10:26
Over the last two centuries of the second millennium, Russian culture has given us a whole scattering of unique writers whose works are appreciated throughout the world. In the same row with Dostoevsky and Gogol is a giant and a unique oracle Mikhail Bulgakov.
Bulgakov worked on the turn of the millennium, ages, social upheavals and revolutionary changes that took place a century ago in this troubled country. May 15, 2011 was held on the 120th anniversary of Mikhail Bulgakov. Nice to know that this writer is still very popular in Russia.
St. Andrew's Descent
Bulgakov was born May 3 (old style), 1891, the son of a professor of Western religions of the Kiev Theological Academy. In those days was considered a private family: 7 children (4 girls and 3 boys, of which Michael was a senior). Of course, influenced by Bulgakov family foundations and principles, where ignorance and laziness were considered a grave sin. "My love — green lamp and books in my office" — recalled the writer. In 1901, Michael joined the First Kyiv gymnasium. In March 1907 his father died. However, in 1909 he graduated from the Alexander High School and entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev.
In April 1915, (he was only 23 years old) in Kiev Podol church the wedding of Mikhail Bulgakov with Tatiana Lappa, the daughter of the Treasury Chamber manager, whom he had known since 1908, when she was a schoolgirl in Saratov, who came to Kiev for a holiday. But there was a war, university studies interrupted, and the "warrior second militia" volunteered to work in a hospital in Kiev Pechersk.
Note that in 1914 Bulgakov participated in organizing a hospital for the wounded in Saratov and worked there as a doctor. In October 1916 the University of Kiev, he received his approval "to the power of a doctor with a difference with all the rights and privileges, the laws of the Russian Empire." Then Bulgakov was assigned to the district hospital in the Smolensk region, where his work has led to a serious illness — he became a morphine addict.
Since 1917, began regular use of morphine Bulgakov: after he made a vaccine against diphtheria, fearing infection from a tracheotomy performed in the child. Itch he could choke only morphine, and it became a habit. He was then transferred to a district hospital chief Vyazemsk infectious and venereal department. In autumn 1917, Mikhail Bulgakov began work on an autobiographical story of medical practice. Even then, it points to the gift of the doctor-diagnostician that later manifested itself as a social diagnostician.
In February 1918, Bulgakov's sickness was released from military service, and he and his wife returned to Kiev, where with the help of his stepfather (physician IP Resurrection) got rid of their addiction, and even opened a private practice.
In his eyes at that time there were: abdication of King, the February revolution, the October Revolution of 1917. In February 1919, a military doctor, he enlisted in the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic, and in the retreat from Kiev deserted. In August Bulgakov enlisted in the Red Army as a doctor, and in October in its ranks returned to Kiev, where he went over to the Army of the South of Russia, becoming surgeon Terek Cossack Regiment.
With Cossacks Bulgakov participated in the campaign against Chechen-Aul-Aul and Shali against Chechen rebels. He then worked in a military hospital in Vladikavkaz. But Michael soon left the service and medicine and literature begins professionally — working as a journalist in the publications "Caucasian newspaper" and "Caucasus". His first publication was dated November 26, 1919 in the newspaper "Grozny" (under the initials MB).
In a letter to his sister Bulgakov wrote: "I saw the gray crowd whooping and vile curses hit the glass in the trains, seen hitting people. Seen destroyed and burnt houses in Moscow … blunt and brutal face … I saw the crowd that besieged the entrances captured and locked banks … Hungry tails shops … Saw newspaper sheets, where they write, in fact, about one thing: the blood that flows in the south and on the west and the east, and the prisons. "
In 1921, Bulgakov moved to Moscow, where there was all the literary elite. And former White Army surgeon lived in the city under the rule of the Bolsheviks as a secretary at Glavpolitprosvet Commissariat. Then many were former sympathized old regime, which was allowed to think for themselves and live. Since 1921, Bulgakov completely mastered the craft of journalism, he writes for "Buzzer", working with the Berlin edition of "Eve", attends creative circles, gets literary acquaintances.
In 1924, Bulgakov meets Love of White Lake, returned from Paris, and after a couple of months to part with Tatiana Lappa, making out a second marriage.
Bulgakov never concealed his past, and even the White Guard openly sympathized with the White movement. Not only that, he easily mocked over Soviet slogans and newspaper stamps. So he described the Red Army badge on his cap: "It's not a hammer and a shovel, a hammer and not rake in any case — not the hammer and sickle." Such sincerity and truth about the poisonous new Russia would like the government and its officials. For example, in "The Extraordinary Adventures of Doctor" change of different authorities and their armies are described with obvious skepticism. The protagonist of the work does not take lightly any white or red. Bulgakov and condemned and ridiculed the two opposing camps. His "Heart of a Dog" Soviet rulers dared to publish only after 62 years after it was written, in 1987.
In October 1926, at the Moscow Art Theater premiere of Mikhail Bulgakov's "Days of Turbin." Following the overwhelming success of the writer becomes the most famous writer of Soviet Russia. Stalin saw the play at least 15 times!
In the relationship between Stalin and Bulgakov strange story. Stalin has repeatedly said that Mikhail Bulgakov's not our people, and reading the play "The Flight", leader of the people says: "… it is the anti-Soviet phenomenon." So, in 1929, with the scenes of Soviet theaters removed all play by Mikhail Bulgakov. It stopped printing in magazines, publishing his book. The writer could not resist. In 1930, he sent a letter to the government, which openly begging, or release abroad, or give the job, or poverty, street death.
Starve the world-famous (thanks to the publications in the Berlin magazine "Yesterday," he has become internationally known) authorities did not dare, and Bulgakov was an assistant director at the Moscow Art Theatre, which became his new love and passion that marked the final chapter of his life and work. Here is a complete change of scenery in the writer's life and the appearance on the scene of his third wife, Elena Sergeyevna Shilovskaya. This is a prototype and it has become a muse, with whom he wrote his Margarita.
Theatrical life and work completely captured playwright and writer. At night, he writes a new work "The novel of the devil" (as was originally called "The Master and Margarita"), in the fields of the original manuscript handwriting writer: "Append before dying." Looks like Bulgakov clearly understood that the most important work involved in their lives. Fortunately, he managed to finish a novel …
Bulgakov died in the winter of 1940 acute hypertension. Before his death he said: "I can not say how it will be … I will be lying in a coffin, and when I start to make, this is what happens: as the staircase is narrow, my grave will turn and he hit the right corner of the door Romashov, who lives on the floor below. " Everything happened exactly as he predicted. Angle hit his coffin at the door of the playwright Boris Romashov.