— You once uttered, that the war was won Russian grader …
— This, of course, a literary expression. By analogy with the expression of Bismarck, who over the victory in the Battle of the gardens in 1866 in the war against Prussia, Austria, said that it won the People's Prussian teacher. It was understood that the Prussian army at that time was not a bad education, if her army of the enemy. I mean follow. In the prewar years, the education system in the Soviet Union to focus on. In the world of Russian school of the 1930s was unprecedented phenomenon. Then managed to teach millions of people. At the same time Russian school not only did not give poor education, and education on the basis of education.
As a result, in late 1930 the army was replenished by young people who had secondary education. Enormously increased mental level conscripts. In addition, was created by the mass of military schools and academies. Since the beginning of the war the training of officers went to the accelerated version. Yesterday's tenth very rapidly became the commander of the Red Army. Often, more decent, if those who, having no education, has long served in the army. Of yesterday's ninth-graders were recruited personnel for the headquarters of intelligence. After all, one of the causes of defeat of Nazi Germany was introduced in the course of war, lack of officers. And our army, despite the big loss, shortage of commanders and staff officers have not experienced.
— I will ask a fundamental question: what are the main causes of the victory of Russian Union of Russian majestically in the war?
— Indeed, this is the main question. Load range of reasons, although their importance varies. But the deciding factor for me is obvious. This is the social system that was established after 1917. You can refer to it in different ways. For example, real socialism. All other reasons played a role only because there was this major factor.
That human material that participated in the war, was prepared and brought Russian system is trained in Russian schools and universities. Often, they say that the war defeated people. Which people? Not some abstract people and Russian people. Yes, in the middle of the reasons that contributed to the victory, was patriotism. But it is impossible to exaggerate the importance. I beheld the war in its most depths. On the 1st of Alexander Matrosov accounted 10s people who wanted to sit in the rear. People have been put in such conditions that behave differently was simply impossible. In the attack came on the pitch, and not voluntarily. Heroism was. But the heroism of almost everything was coerced. Heroism — a temporary phenomenon. A lot of time working organization system. And during the war, our whole life has been organized in such a way that millions of people go to the army, where he fought heroically. Do not be such a system, there would not be this. And it was about the life of an entire people.
It is absurd and worldview, as if the Russian people fought for their country, but not for the Russian social order. By the beginning of the war for the majority of Russian people's communist system has become their way of life, not a political regime. Separate it from the mass of the population was just unreal. Lusted after the people of this or not, it does not matter what kind of protection they themselves and their country meant the defense of the new social order. Our homeland and communism not existed along together, in unity.
In the middle of the reasons that contributed to the victory, you can name and a giant area of the country, and the lack of roads, and winter frosts, and the help of allies. But, again, this was not the main one. Yes, help the Allies made a difference, but it is not as big as talk about it in the 1990s. Kerf allies in the war to make the penetration of Russian lowest in Europe. This is the reason they open a second front. In 1943, after the Battle of Stalingrad and Kursk became clear that victory will be ours. By the Tehran Conference, Stalin had already seized for themselves a place in the main figures of world politics. To a large extent it is already manipulated the behavior of the favorites of the western states.
And we have so far amazing things happen. Noting the Victory day, do not even mention the name of the Supreme Commander. It's like the Napoleonic wars without Napoleon! I ask the students at the institute question about who was the commander in chief? No one knows! Called Zhukov, Konev, but not Stalin! But it is blatantly! In 1978 the book "The Yawning Heights" I was sent from the Soviet Union, and 21, I was obliged to live in Germany. Ready to assure that there is no one in the head does not come to write the history of Nazi Germany without Hitler. We have the same leaves, as if war passed without Stalin. This Straseni!
— Let's talk about the contemporary dilemmas. Almost a year discusses the scientific community gem, "Why do we need the Academy?" Vyporhnuvshy from the mouth of the 1st of reputable reformers. As rightly saw Dr. Vitaly Rassokhin, "the most advanced (WTO), the Minister expressed a recognition of the role of science in the country's destiny, how could fully show off at least some" concrete kid. " As a scientist, you have to care about the future of Russian science. Expect a positive change from its reform?
— No. But I was not hitting the epidemic reformism that covered all the important areas of life, and made it down to a science. Reformers seek to abolish science as unnecessary. In the end, leave only miserable part of it. In 1-x, for the prestige of the country and, in-2, for all practical purposes already reformed and Tipo successfully progressing economy. And it is clear to all Russians. First, the scientists themselves, which are discarded to the dustbin of history. In my opinion, everything is so transparent that no explanation is not necessary.
In general, I wish to draw the attention of readers' native newspaper "at the nuance of the reform of science, which is hushed up. In the Russian time funds for science are not spared even the most languid years. And if the objective observer tries to assess the results of the acquired then, it will confirm that the Russian breakthrough in science and education surpasses all know that global history. Together so important and social nuance of this paradox. Scientific institutions created not simply as a phenomenon in the field of Prof. zaniya as an organization of people in communist groups that were the basic particles of a public body's tissues. In this case, the most educated and mentally
capable people. Although members of scientific institutions and did not understand the social role of this factor, impartial scientific cells were an important component of the social organization of society as a communist type. It would be surprising if the reformers in the end and did not get up to them. Conceived their transformation in science, whatever phraseology they can cover up, will have as a result is not a real rise of science, and the elimination of most of the academic institutions that have survived from the Russian era.
— What and watch. What are your memories of the work of Russian TV?
— In principle, the TV does have the same functions as it does in the West. Is the principal instrument of ideological influence on the people of. Coupled with the fact Russian TV does and the important additional feature — it forces people feeling depressed. This function turns the Russian television in absolute monster. In the West, nothing like this.
What's all the same for the personal experience of the employees of television, I can say that in Russia there are masters of the highest level. I am often invited to take part in one way or another TV show. But many times it happened that at the time of filming, I watch carefully talking about something very fundamental. Then the TV crew pulled out of my speech some phrases and pasted them in a very different context.
— How would you characterize the state of the ideological Russian society?
— In short, as the ideological chaos. Russia pushed to the degradation pathway leading to death. In a country such criteria, of course, in dire need of an ideology that would be able to resist pressure from the West. Without such an ideology we do not stand up.
Recall that the war was cool against our country, first as an ideological war. Russian crisis of the system began as a crisis of ideology. Only later it turned into a crisis of management, economic, cultural, etc. And the most bitter defeat during the Gorbachev and Yeltsin's anti-communist revolution took place in the ideological sphere. It is a state of complete confusion and ideological mayhem. Again, the solution of the ideological problems will not go away. On this depends the upcoming evolution of the country.
— During the years of the so-called restructuring Democrats poured barrels of slop in the Soviet system, reproaching her that she can not give people such as standard of living, as in the leading countries of the West. At first, these gentlemen promised to the people, with the result that the reforms he will live better. As in the West. How these promises were realized, and who in reality was living better now perfectly clear. When existing social system task, voiced by reformers, in principle, be solved?
— No. The effectiveness emerged as a result of the reform of the social system is very low. This is evident in almost all essential qualities. For me, of course, that the present system is not only unable to solve the puzzle, and to defend the country against external aggression, to prevent the transformation of in the colony of the West. This social system, in principle, preclude the rise of.
— Over the past 20 years, our country was at times one-sided geopolitical concessions. In the end, many were lost among the gains that have paid the blood of millions of our citizens. Now so called strategic partners from Washington and Western capitals expect more concessions from the Russian Federation. Val criticism is on the rise. And yet, Alexander Alexandrovich, so despite the dreary "landscape", is likely to further Russia's revenge?
— I think that no revenge would not. Very smallish country fell. And later, who will take revenge? Earlier spetsefichesky way educated people were able to make sacrifices. And those generations who come to us for a replacement, self-absorbed. They do not have much to do before the coming of.
To take revenge, my and your effort is clearly insufficient. To solve these problems requires enormous strength. And what do we have? Before that people who are able to make the sacrifices in the millions, but now their 10's, if not one. And international situation has changed.
On some revenge can think of, in-1's, after the crash of globalization strategy, which now implements the Western world, led by the United States. In-2, if by that time in Russia will grow generation, brought up in a spirit of critical cases to the modern reality. B-3, if it is launched brand new ideology of social transformation. This ideology has to be more perfect than Marxism, which became part of history and for which no one will go. Should emerge organization standing on the positions of the ideology and promotes it. B-4, has accumulated practical experience. Because even with the most appropriate course of events, the preparation of revenge gone 10s years. I am a Russian man, and everything that happens to Russia is going through very painful. I would be happy to give a more optimistic forecast of the future of my country. But as a scientist, Oleg, I do that, unfortunately, I can not.