No other literary prize does not cause such passions in the world, as the Nobel. It is, so to speak, nabilitue not only the person who receives from the hands of the king of Sweden the gold medal, a diploma and a check for half a million dollars, but also literature and the country to which the prize-winning writer.
And readers are absolutely indifferent — they belong to the country, and literature, the Nobel prize-winning or not.
When we say that Belarus would be important to get the Nobel laureate in literature, we mean not only the improvement of health and financial situation Georgy Marchuk — If you believe it myself, many years of the applicant for the award — but the rise of the Belarusian language and literature as such. I have a feeling that at least 90 percent of people in the world who are interested in literature, would have heard on occasion of the Nobel Prize to Belarusian writer for the first time of the existence of the Belarusian language and literature.
But the Nobel Prize for fighting not only individual countries and writers. Also struggling continents. Since then, and let's begin.
"Too isolated and nedainfarmavanaya" America
In October, 2008 Sorrows Engdahl, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize for literature, has caused a powerful cry of indignation in the United States when he said in an interview with a global news agency that the U.S. is "too isolated and nedainfarmavanyya" to deprive Europe's position, "the center of the literary world." Engdahl added that the U.S. is in fact "do not participate in the big dialogue of literature."
Engdahl answer to the question why the members of the Swedish Academy gives awards only European writer, ignoring the U.S..
The last Americans to win a Nobel Prize in Literature, was African-American writer Toni Morrison in 1993. And before Morrison was Isaac Bashevis Singer in 1978 and Sol Belav in 1976.
Engdahl said the interview was worth a place in the Swedish Academy, which sits 18 people.
Writer to win the Nobel Prize for his candidacy should vote for at least 10 Swedish academics.
Since 1901, the Nobel Literature Prize has been awarded to 106 writer. European writers in this group account for approximately 80 percent (the percentage is calculated exactly hard, since they were the winners, who were born in Europe but moved to another continent — as, for example, TS Elliot, Patrick Wyet and Joseph Brodsky — And definitely take them to Europe, America or Australia you can not).
Provide for the "perfect" or "idealistic"?
Under the will of the founder of the prize, Alfred Nobel, in order to award the writer, den som inom litteraturen har producerat det utmarktaste i idealisk riktning (which in the literature has created the most worthy of attention in the ideal / idealistic direction).
I am not going to explain the difference between "ideal" and "idealistic", but we certainly feel that any significant difference here is. Yes, that's the Swedes on these two differences have only one word — idealisk. If you believe the connoisseurs of problems connected with the Nobel Prize, the dim statement at the beginning so discomfiture of Swedish academics, they went around a bunch of writers, worthy of awards for almost "perfect" product, but seemed not "idealistic."
They say that the victims of this were vague wording James Joyce, Henrik Ibsen, Leo Tolstoy, Henry James. That is, they were supposedly too "materialistic" for the Nobel jury.
The Swedes give mostly Swedes and other Scandinavians?
Critics of the Nobel literature prize draw attention to the disproportionate involvement of Swedes and other Scandinavians among the winners. Prize was awarded to seven Swedes, three Danes, three Norwegians, one islyandets, one Finn. Who today are saying something such names as background Geydenstam, Karlfeldt, Pantapidan or Gelerup?
In 1974 the prize was awarded to two Swedish writers Eyvind Jonsson and Harry Martinson. I have a book of my uncle, and I personally think they are top-notch writers. But, as it were, the Swedish perversiya was that both of these uncles were in the year members of the Swedish Academy and, in principle, to themselves awarded this prize.
In the same year, according to Wikipedia, the candidates for the award were Graham Greene and Vladimir Nabokov, writers of world format, that the award was not received. That's what the Swedes and do not want to forgive …
The political overtones
They say even though Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov not have received awards, as the Swedes at that time not very fond of Russian. Tolstoy nominated twice, in 1901 and 1902. In 1902, this great Russian writer commented on his candidacy in the sense that he is better without a premium, as if he had received it, had something to do with the money that he believes the source of all evil.
A Karel Capek has not received the Nobel Prize for his novel "The War on salyamandrami" (1936), as allegedly the Swedes did not want to spook Adolf Hitler and his regime, the Czech writer reflected in this sci-fi satire.
Jorge Luis Borges, is nominated for the award several times, not awarded the Nobel allegedly because he supported the dictator Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
On the other hand, the prize was awarded to Jean-Paul Sartre (1964) Pablo Neruda (1971), which supported the dictator Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. Sartre, that's true, the premium declined, but not because he wanted to repent of their former sympathies to Stalinism and Marxism …
Not enough women poets enough, not enough Africans and Arabs …
At 106 Nobel literature laureates have only 12 women.
In general, the Nobel give a novelist and playwright, not a poet. Last uganaravali poetry in 1996, when the Nobel received Wislawa Szymborska from Poland.
Nobel received only a few writers from Africa and the Arab world.
If the Swedish Royal Academy this year wanted to somehow equalize these imbalances, the best chance to get the prize would have a poet from Africa, who writes in Arabic … Such a candidate is there — it's the Algerian writer Hosea Dzhebaru…
In bukmekerav who annually take bets on who will receive the literary Nobel, has its order of size. This year, in the above table are Cormac McCarthy (United States) In Ngugi Thienga (Kenya), Haruki Murakami (Japan) Peter milked (Hungary) Ko Un (Korea), Adunis (Raw) …
I know one thing — who would have neither received this award, I must buy his / her book, if it appears in the store "Palac knih Luxor" in Prague. Or read it — it's in two head wondering. Now I have a home on the shelf are five novels Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio in the original and two novels Herta Müller (One of the Polish translation, the second in Czech), which I bought as soon as they received the Nobel. But I did not read read any of these novels. As they say, do not vrubivsya. And we do not know or ever urublyusya …