1). Teflon: At the beginning of the 20th century, Roy Plunkett, a chemist who worked at DuPont (U.S. chemical company), stumbled upon not cause a chemical reaction, not sleepy chemical agents during their experiments with refrigerants, during which deliberately tried to find nontoxic chemical for use as a coolant.
After some time he kept tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) in small cylinders in the gaseous, the frozen state, the gas suddenly into a waxy substance. Further experiments showed that the wax had some interesting properties of which are well known: it is one of slippery substances known to man. Dupont quickly patented it, and today this substance is known to us as Teflon.
2). Self-adhesive sheets for notes: In 1968, Spencer Silver, a chemist who worked at 3M (American innovation and a diversified manufacturing company), came across a sticky substance "low adhesion", at a time when he was trying to make a super strong adhesive for use in aircraft. Silver thought low tack adhesive that disappeared without a trace, and was to some extent a reusable, has been useful, but no one agreed with him. He advocated its use for 5 years before anyone in 3M heard it, but even then it took another seven years of improvements, of which 3 were there, where they were created, self-adhesive sheets for taking notes, but they were intended only for internal use, as 3M's leadership believed that they have very little commercial value. Finally, they were subjected to the test sheets for taking notes on a few test markets, but they suffered a setback in four test cities. No one wanted to buy them. Leadership tried to stop these futile attempts by distributing these leaflets multiple companies for free. After that, everyone wanted to buy them, and now self-adhesive leaves one of the most purchased goods for the office in the world.
3). Plastic: In the early 1900s, when it came to the isolation, shellac was popular material. But in view of the fact that it was made of beetles south-east Asia, the stuff was not cheap for the subject imports. For this reason, chemist Leo Hendrik Bakeland figured I could make some money by producing an alternative product. What he came up with, however, was formed by a material which can be heated to very high temperatures, without any Amendments — plastic.
4). Microwave: Every bachelor in the world should be grateful to Percy Spencer, a true genius, an orphan who have not completed high school, even (though in adulthood he was engaged in self-study and achieved amazing results by examining all possible calculations in the industry, and has become one of the world's leading experts for the manufacture of equipment for the radar). At that time, when he worked as a specialist on radar, he was often near the microwave emitters and stood in front of one of them, when I noticed that a chocolate bar that was lying in his pocket had melted. Shortly thereafter, he conducted several experiments, eggs subjected to one of them, and all exploded and realize the full potential of microwave cooking of food. It was 1945, and the world, or, more precisely, the kitchen, was not the same.
5). The vulcanized rubber by Charles Goodyear spent many years trying to find a way to make the rubber that is resistant to heat and cold. After several failed attempts, he finally came across a mix that worked. One evening, before turning off the light, he accidentally spilled some rubber, sulfur and lead to the plate, resulting in a mixture of charred and hardened, but was still usable.
6). Clay: Maybe it's not surprising that smelly, sticky stuff, which for decades children play, was originally used to clean wallpaper. However, in the mid-20th century, people have abandoned the use of coal to heat their homes, which meant that they were now the wallpaper pretty clean. Fortunately for Cleo Makvikera, the owner of the company that produced it cleaner (before that they just copied a well-known recipe for wallpaper cleaner home-made), his daughter, was engaged in teaching, has found yet another version of his application — clay. In its proposal, they have excluded the cleaning ingredient added flavor of almonds and a colorant. Thus was born the clay.
7). Superglue: The development of plastic lenses for small arms, Harry Coover, a researcher at the laboratory Kodak, got the chance of a synthetic adhesive cyanoacrylate. However, at the time he waived his discovery. However, nine years later, he was "rediscovered", again by chance, but this time, Coover was the leader of a project aimed at the development of heat-resistant acrylate polymers. In the course of this project, one of his subordinates, Fred Joiner, reinvented superglue after you received it and accidentally glued two prisms together. At this time, when Coover heard about the "discovery" Joyner, he decided not to give up on him and superglue was released as a commercial product.
8). Slinky spring: During World War II, the engineer of the Navy Richard James, who developed the computational capabilities of the monitor for battleships, which used a special spring keeps the instrument in a stable condition at the outlet to the ocean, accidentally dropped one of them. To his surprise, the spring "moved" from his desk on a stack of books and landed on the floor. He and his wife immediately saw the potential for a toy. James has perfected the spring tension, resulting in and become Slinky. Although the same way as in the case of the self-adhesive leaves for notes, people needed to demonstrate what she was doing, before they would have bought it. Once produced about 400 Slinky springs on the funds received for the loan, and one of the shops persuaded to put them up for sale on the eve of Christmas, a sale never happened. A few days later James himself came to the store to demonstrate the product. All 400 Slinky were sold within 90 minutes after he did.
9). Ice cream on a stick: It was 1905 and the soda has just become the most popular drink on the market. Eleven Frank Epperson decided he wanted to try to save some money by cooking it at home. Using a combination of soda powder and water, he got something quite similar to the original, but absent-mindedly left the mixture on the front porch all night. The outside temperature reached a fairly low point, and in the morning when he left his home, he found his frozen mixture with a stick for stirring, which he left in the same place. At first he did not do anything with this discovery, other than cooking for yourself tasty treats on a stick over and over again, because he was only eleven. But 17 years later, after the ice cream was served at a ball of fire, and all the fond, he realized its commercial potential. A year later, he made a business out of it and made history.
10). Saccharin: you know the pink bag of fake sugar, which is always on the table at a restaurant? So sweet, like a sugar — you may be surprised to learn how it was invented. In 1879, Konstantin Falberg, chemist, trying to find an alternative way of using coal tar, has returned home after a long day of work and the only thing he noticed is the fact that the biscuits cooked by his wife, was a much sweeter taste. After asking her about it, he realized that he had not washed his hands after work, and voila — an artificial sweetener.