Prepyadstviya helicopter fleet of the Russian Federation
After one more drop of Mi-24 in the Maritime region rose again the question of the very critical condition of the helicopter fleet of the Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation. The aging machines and lack of modern equipment on board the helicopter during operation mode saturated at some point lead to a plane crash. But applets defense contracts expecting a complete helicopter fleet upgrade. It remains to assign only that it will happen soon.
As we prepare the next day
At the end of the collapse of the USSR (1991), the Ministry of Defense of Russian Union there were more than 5,000 helicopters. Most of these cars went to the Russian Armed Forces, which include those for today is about 1,500 helicopters of all classes. In over one and a half above the 10-s years of helicopters has not been updated, resulting in a sharp reduction machines. Of course, has been adopted a number of new machines, including combat Ka-50. But it was purely nominal step because in a batch creation of new models have been received, despite the fact that the need for helicopters drop. After the army as before task was likely to repel aggression, and of the former Soviet Union on the ground appeared a string of armed conflicts often with the role and most of. In addition, the helicopter and at the present time is one of the principal strategic military tf. This machine was found throughout the work, from suburban military units and directly to Kamchatka.
But despite this, the creation of Russian helicopters because of the lack of funding tribute continued to fall, so at the end of the 90th year of less than 40 units were produced, of which the army was intended quite a small fraction. And as for the modernization of equipment of helicopters at that time virtually forgotten. The remaining "herd" had to be maintained in the technical order only thanks to the efforts of giant tehsostava, often at the expense of detail and quite of a failed military equipment.
The transfer of military aviation of the Ground Forces, where she was the number one in the air defense and air force, only worsen the current situation, because the united air defense and air force as before first paid attention to the maintenance of an appropriate state of his classic techniques — anti-aircraft missile systems and aircraft .
According to the views of the Defense Ministry, this organizational issue must venture through military reform, which will give all units of army aviation commander of the surrounding area. Of course, the consequences of this step raises additional arguments, the discussion of which is not enough for a dozen articles. But let us return to the question of substitution of obsolete helicopters with the latest technology.
Delivery of new helicopters to military units began only in the second half of the "zero" years. Thus, over the period 2007-2009, the Ministry of Defence were armed with about 70 units, and in 2010 the rate of production increased, and the military have already received 59 brand-new helicopters. In 2011 it is planned that the number of vehicles delivered will be over already for a hundred. This will happen for the first time since 1991. Just under the contracts total number of helicopters purchased before the end of 2015 the Ministry of Defence must make 450 cars. But this number is entirely possible to grow, because now a few more contracts are being signed.
In total, according to the current GPV-2020 the Defense Ministry plans to upgrade the helicopter fleet by 80%, and it is higher than 1200 vehicles. The complete substitution of the same old equipment can be predicted already at the beginning of the 20s. After that, the military authorities can only keep it in proper condition and in time to renew. What will be the true fill helicopter fleet?
Kamov and Mil: who will overcome?
Yet in the middle of June 1982 took to the skies first helicopter The Ka-50,
who at the time wore code index B-80, and almost half a year later, the least to conquer the mighty sky and Mi-28.
Competitiveness between these promising machines Mil and Kamov was born in December 1976, that a moment when the decision was made public the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the CPSU Central Committee to start work on a new draft of a helicopter gunship, which should change in the coming not long ago launched in the creation of Mi-24.
Both helicopters have good technical features, because faced a difficult choice. In October 1983, the order of the day or meeting between the Ministry of Defense and the aviation industry was one question — compare and choose the fighting machine from the B-80 and Mi-28. The majority of those present liked the B-80, because of its price-performance ratio and aircraft performance properties superior to the Mi-28. Comparative tests that were carried out during 1984, also showed that the V-80 Mi-28 is superior, because in October 1984 the Minister of Aviation Industry has signed an order to prepare its serial production.
To the chagrin of designers Kamov design bureau, fulfillment of the order was delayed for some time. A prerequisite for that was that the new helicopter with his "main battery" — LAW "Whirlwind" — was a very difficult product to the development of which took a long time. Mil did not lose time and get rid of all the shortcomings of its own most experienced standard Mi-28, creating both Makar, in 1988, the latest model — the Mi-28A. But it so happened that the creation of a series prior to 1991 did not get any of these promising military vehicles, and the breakup of the Soviet Union and most left both projects in the "suspended" state.
Meanwhile, the designer is not allowed to work on their offspring, without annoying improving them, so there were The Ka-52
which it was decided to start batch creation. But the purpose of these war machines will be different. The Mi-28 has completely changed aviation veterans in combat units, and the Ka-52 will leave for part of the special purpose, and in addition, the helicopter will be decked in the Russian Navy. This truly "Solomonic solution" will allow much use of advantages of both helicopters. The main advantage of the Mi-28 (not counting the strong armor) is its continuity with its predecessor — the Mi-24, which simplifies training and training of new personnel. Agree that this is just the quality you need for the main army helicopter. Ka-52 to equip modern equipment and has the best features of the flight and the lowest noise level. Initially, it was planned that the Ministry of Defence will acquire 200 to 300 Mi-28 and Ka-52 100, but due to the conclusion of a contract for the construction for the Russian Federation Navy UDC "Mistral" and the choice of the Ka-52 helicopter deck as the impact of orders for this battle the machine can be to grow to 200.
Apart from these 2-fighting vehicles in a military helicopter fleet will remain RF and Mi-24, and their deeply modernized followers Mi-35.
Given the current GPV-2020 to the end of 2020 in the Russian army will be more than 500 units of military equipment.
The word "modern" can cause a skeptical grin. After all, how can you call today that was designed in the 70's? But judging by the world experience — you can. For example, a recognizable European helicopter "Tiger." Its creation took up in 1973, the most experienced model took off in 1991 and went into mass creation only in the middle of "zero".
It must be emphasized that at present the main task in the helicopter flight is accelerating. The solution to this tasks involved in virtually all countries where the development of the aviation industry (special attention is paid to this issue in the U.S.). In order to find the right solution, it is necessary to greatly reduce the harmful resistance and the ability to increment the rotor. To lower the resistance of the helicopter fuselage in the projects of designers are becoming more sophisticated aerodynamic shape, in some projects even considering and implementing the retractable landing gear. Most of the new carriers have improved helicopter rotor geometric shape, if their predecessors. Zabugornye military engineers admit that the speed of the helicopter 400km / h is reached in the near future. That contribute to the emergence of new materials and the latest technology for the production of screws. During the last decade the interests of professionals smoothly moved towards the development of jet rotor. Seasoned standards have already been made in the United States, Germany and other Western countries. Ball screw jet runs straight through gas jet which passes through the slit disposed on the trailing edge of the last third of each blade. There is a perception that accelerate and improve the technical characteristics of the helicopter can be achieved as a result of "stopping" the rotor in flight. Landing and Take-off of the unit itself will be like a helicopter, and the flight to happen, like an airplane. Thus, for example, the 1st of the developed projects carrier "latching" screw turns only "take-off" and "landing" under the influence of the thrust, which is due to the nozzles at the ends of the blades, and during the flight even stops and does role little wing.
Exhaust gases are also using a jet engine valves are sent to the tail nozzle, where they will create thrust for forward movement. At the same time, the screw is removed when moving horizontally at a speed of 150-250 km / h But testing of these cutting-edge designs found that stopping the flight screw and take away its next tipping points appear helicopter. This is due to uneven loads on the rotor blades. While responding to the tasks appeared, was created by British designers hard screw, whose hollow blades have a circular cross-section, providing a significantly higher hardness.
Such rotor design reduces its sensitivity to wind gusts and prevents tilting moments. Also, it has the advantage over the others is that it can be suspended in the air, with all this without taking into the fuselage. Studies of this model rotor confirmed the possibility of creating a new economical aircraft with low noise and vertical landing and take-off. Also in the latest designs of the helicopter with a wing increases its speed, improved maneuverability and stability.
Such schemes have already been implemented. Considered to be more reliable in their scheme of rotary-wing aircraft, which not only has a wing, and an additional engine, it required for the creation of additional horizontal thrust. In the test compound helicopter set a record speed — 480 km / h The decision of tasks to improve the speed of the helicopter can be and increase the capacity of the engine, and improved its design. As a result of tests to increase the payload found a solution with the creation of a helicopter carrying capacity from 20 to 100 tons. Since 1970, some South American company engaged in the development of helicopter with a lifting capacity of 50 tons. It is clear that at this point the designers of different countries are working to develop a helicopter with a lifting capacity of 100 tons. To increase the safety of flight in helicopters with such capacity likely will have two motors.
Due to the growth in demand for military helicopters, which have to solve more problems in the near future and the growing requirements for helicopter avionics. This equipment is constantly being improved by new principles used building installations, subsystems and components, and by using the latest technologies. All lasers are often used, improved radar antennas that improve the operation of the navigation device. For example, the weight of navigation devices in 1965 was 125 kg, and the use of transistors can reduce the weight of the reduced navigation devices up to 17 kg.
Price of all electrical equipment of the modern military helicopter takes 15% of the total price. And this is not because the electronics in the near future will be to "tighten" is actually 40% of the total price. Stepped forward and used in the construction materials of fuselages. Now it more often in the helicopter used for their titanium, and for secondary structures — glass. Designers are working on the creation of single and helicopters. Seasoned standards already established their right to life as a fighting machine.
For example, in Germany, was built by a single pilot helicopter. His unblemished weight — 152 kg, the boundary weight at take-off — 270 kg, rate of climb — 4.5 m / s, a very developed speed — 130 km / h, cruising speed of -105 km / h, service ceiling — 4100 m, a distance of 40 l Fuel — 2130 km. Also there are unmanned cargo helicopters intended for the transfer of real property. So you can safely take risks if the conduct of the battle it is useful. And using it to overcome the difficult terrain. Military units that own special helicopters, will be able to instantaneously react according to the situation, in other words, to concentrate or disperse power assist to overcome the infantry bridges, etc. Some German theorists voiced the possibility of creating pieces of armored helicopters, fighters, armored combat helicopters, transport helicopters for landing infantry , which will be able to fight in combat, and also with
helicopters. Naturally, such a military unit must be level with the firepower of the highest flexibility to do their tasks to conduct independent operations. The creation of such parts could be a signal the beginning of the transition from military formations of infantry to air mobile.
Taking into account the above, could the re-Russian military helicopter fleet happen earlier? Of course, yes. To begin mass creation refreshed Mi-35 helicopters to ship more than 20 per year in the ranks of the Russian Air Force can be had at the very beginning of "zero", but most likely it would lead to the fact that the Mi-28 would never have got into the series.
Marine and transport helicopters remain the same
If in the armed forces was found for two promising project, with all civilian aircraft remains as before, in other words, the average The Mi-8
and hard Mi-26
they will change the same, but only a very modernized with new equipment and new engines. And it will be made no judgments of the economy, not at all. Just for today, the aviation industry is not yet able to give them the nomination. In general, the planned purchases of these ts is not known for certain, but by focusing on some data, you can imagine that the Mi-8 will get about 500 cars, and the Mi-26 for about 40 cars.
The same trend is also visible from the sea by helicopters. In the coming years The Ka-27
and upgraded its "brothers" and all will play the first (and only) violin. This was stated by Chief Designer Sergei Mikheyev Kamov design bureau at the naval show, held in St. Petersburg: "Naval Aviation is now in a difficult position. It was not financed almost 20 years. Until the late 80's, we had to re-aircraft fleet in the Ka-27 and its modifications. Then CB made plainclothes version of Ka-27 — Ka-32, and marketing of this helicopter support has permitted the creation of units and devices that will eventually assist in the ranks and keep the helicopters fleet. Now, despite the increase in defense procurement, the special funds for R & D on new issues are released, and the problem is severe. Therefore expected in the foreseeable future, any fundamentally new machines is not necessary, but we are continuing to improve existing. "
But there are new helicopters to be necessary as training, reconnaissance and light transport vehicles. First it Ka-60/62
and private industrial development KB Kazan, which is known under the title "ANSAT".
The total number of light helicopters in the Army Air Corps, along with naval aviation will be around 200 units.
In general, to say that the producers do not work on the creation of the modern medium transport vehicle, it is the anger on his head. Already at this point are carried out tests of the new helicopter Mi-38,
Technical features that are very identical to the EH-101 Merlin, intensively used for military purposes. Defense Ministry reported that it was prepared to consider the possibility of purchasing the Mi-38, but only after the test helicopter. And it will not happen before 2014. Naturally, the weaving of these helicopters would be a nice tool in the ranks of the Mi-8 and Mi-26.
And instead of the heart — fire engine
Heart least some tf is the engine, because the development and creation of aircraft engines for helicopters is a more fundamental problem, the solution of which directly depends on the current performance of the LG-2020 in its helicopter unit. Yet in the middle of "zero" was accepted in principle the establishment of a strategic decision about the production of helicopter engines in Russia, previously the main points were bought in Ukraine. The solution solution, but in practice the run up to the full establishment of the so far failed, because to this day Ukrainian engines, produced by "Mothra Sich", set to Russian helicopters.
This provision is acceptable until such time as Kiev held friendly relations with Russia. But if you look at the issue from a different angle, conditioned on a huge part of Russian helicopter programs from the Government of Ukraine — is not ideal. Because the primary task OPK "Oboronprom", which looks not only for the creation of machines ("Helicopters of the Russian Federation"), and the engines for them (United Engine Company — APC), the extension must be Russian-made engines. Some progress in this direction are already being felt. For example, at the St. Petersburg JSC "Klimov", a new design and production complex, which is able to produce about 450 engines per year. Initially planned to be launched in the creation of the VK-2500 engines and the TV3-117, to initiate the development of new models of engines. For the realization of these goals, APC has received a loan almost 5 billion rubles. The new establishment will be located in Shuvalov.
Myth or reality?
Get the answer to this question can only be a couple of years, but a start. And it must be said that a good start. "Helicopters of Russia" already we have made since the beginning of the year more than 200 cars. And despite the fact that the plan for the year they have to pass all 267 helicopters. Fluctuate because they ramp up the pace in 2015 and will be able to produce annually 400 cars, is not necessary. Against this picture of the prospects for the production of more than 100 helicopters a year for the military departments seem quite bright. Almost execution acting CPC 2020, part helicopter depends on 3 factors: support for running the country, economic development and systematic funding. If these factors are favorable, the first 30s of the XXI century Russian army helicopters would be equipped with new modern combat and support vehicles.