March 27, 1878 Russian peasant FA Blinov has applied for a patent for the invention of a "wagon with endless rails" (the world's crawler).
TRACK PROGRESS — Invention is as great and fundamental as the wheel. BUT IF THE NAME OF THE CREATOR WHEELS get lost in the mists of time, INVENTOR TO TRACKS FROM WHICH WENT TRACTORS, tanks, KNOWN. THIS IS RUSSIAN PEASANT FEDOR Abramovich Blinov.
Blinov was born in 1827 in the village of Saint Nicholas, Volsky County. Saratov province. The parents were serfs. Ordinary peasant childhood of the time — work from an early age, boon for the landlord. With the technique was first introduced by working with his father in the forge. As soon mastered reading and writing, has a lot of reading. Came across the book and on the "mechanical cause." It was then and there was his interest in the technology, the desire to get acquainted with it in practice. Where at that time the easiest way to realize this wish could peasant boy from the village of the Volga? Of course, on the Volga River, on which walking handsome ships — marvels of technology!
Received from the landlord "free", Blinov sent to the Volga. The boat was able to get at once — at first worked as a loader, boatmen. Eventually he entered the ship "Hercules", which served nearly a quarter-century as a fireman, assistant engineer, engineer. Across the Volga Shipping Company, he was known as a skilled mechanic, able to not only repair the equipment, but also to improve any machine to produce a complex part. One day, in the midst of navigating to the "Hercules" busted propeller shaft, driven by two steam engines and rotating water wheel. Production and replacement of the shaft entailed a great simple and, accordingly, the damages to the owner. Masters approached by the owner of a merchant ship Meshkov, refused to repair the shaft. Everyone thought that we needed a new one. Then Blinov proposed an unexpected solution — cut the tree into two parts to separate steam engines led paddle wheels. This greatly accelerated the repair and improved maneuverability — "Hercules" could turn freely even on the spot by turning off one of the cars.
Blinov invited for consultations, trying to lure to other ships, promising increased pay. But he quits his job at all. At the beginning of 1877, which-what saved enough money, Blinov returned to his native Nikolsky. He decided to take the free creative activity — dreams to build "self-propelled", which would facilitate the peasant labor for plowing and in all kinds of transportation.
First he invented in 1877, "car" on the tracks. He looked like a railroad car with wooden body and frame. In the lower part of the frame are two springs fastened on trolleys that can rotate in a horizontal plane with the axes of the support wheels. "The endless rails", "car" is a closed iron belt consisting of separate units. The car had four support wheels and four drive sprockets. At the front of the base frame was reinforced pivot shaft for two-horse sleigh. "Wagon" had a braking device of the "rock lock", which was used when going downhill. In essence, it was the first tracked trailer.
Despite the seeming simplicity of "chain-like devices" Blinov it contained all the elements of a modern track mover, and, despite a century progress of design ideas proposed by Blinov principle remains unchanged to this day.
Having developed the project "car" refers to a variety of Pancakes with entrepreneurs to assist in its construction. All denied. We have to rely on yourself. To have some spare cash on inventions, Blinov is a lot of work to repair and improve agricultural technology, creating new engine design. In particular, he coined the single cylinder fire pump — a more efficient and reliable than the then two-cylinder.
By the way, Blinov have been very valuable for the inventor quality — all that he invented, he could himself and do perform casting, turning, metalwork, woodwork. When he was told that this or that detail can not be made, he immediately roll up his sleeves and proved the opposite.
In 1878, the merchant Kanunnikov, hoping to profit from the introduction of crawler, entered a petition to the Department of Trade and Manufactures, with a petition to grant privileges Blinov, what is the number for 2245 and a year later was obtained. The introductory part reads: "The privilege issued by the Department of Trade and Manufactures in 1879, the peasant Fyodor Blinov, on a special device wagon with endless rails for transportation of goods by road, country roads … "
In early 1880, Fyodor Abramovich moved and the county town Vol'sk where arranged a mechanic at a cement plant on the condition that he be given the opportunity to build a "car". At the same time he engaged in urban water supply device and on the orders of merchants designs high-speed river towboats. In the summer of 1880 "car" built, and Blinov experience it for plowing, dirt roads and even on marshy terrain. The tests confirmed the efficiency and demonstrated the benefits of crawler compared with wheel. In the two-horse sleigh "car" could carry the goods to be transported on a wheeled carriage of no less than ten horses.
This was followed by the official test, which "Saratov leaf" wrote Jan. 8, 1881: "Vol'sk, January 3 (from our correspondent). Let me share with you our news and the interests of the last days. News of our most enjoyable content. This invention was Blinov, promising to have no doubt, in the near future great economic importance. Blinov, inventor of the endless rails, did the other day trial of their platform. Self-propelled platform with rails, loaded 550 poods (2000 bricks and adults over 30 people), drawn by a pair of ordinary horses, recently drove a few times on the streets of our cities, causing widespread approval. A well-deserved honor and glory, the Blinov, a self-taught mechanic of peasants Wolski County. "
In autumn 1881 Blinov moved to Balakovo Saratov province, near Vol'sk. There, he arranges repairs, and started to build a "creep" — the tractor crawler. Simultaneously performs many orders for repair and manufacturing of agricultural equipment. But the works for the construction of "self-propelled" go slow: not enough money, skilled workers and equipment. In 1887, Blinov rents a small iron foundry "Blessing", which establishes a broad issue of fire pumps to solve financial problems. In 1888, the first example of a "creep" was made. He had a device similar to "car", but instead of two-horse harnesses steam boiler was installed at six atmospheres, who worked on oil. Boiler drives the two slow-moving steam engine 10-12 hp at 40 rpm. The movement of the steam engine to the drive sprockets of crawler handed cast-iron gears. Each track is powered separately. Turning the "creep" capable of switching off or turning on the appropriate machine.
The car developed a speed of up to three miles per hour and had a traction 1100-1200 pounds. That was enough to work with multiple plows.
Construct a "self-propelled" long, during which time some of its components have been tested repeatedly. But damn so responsible attitude to their work, that when the car was already fully prepared, even a month had her in all sorts of conditions, without showing anyone. Only when he was certain all over, introduced his creation to people. Not just demonstrated, but also explained the design, talked about the benefits of mechanical traction in agriculture.
Their "self-propelled" Blinov twice exhibited at the Russian trade shows. In 1889, he was featured in the work at the agricultural exhibition in Saratov. The inventor was awarded a silver medal (the same award was given to one landlord savings and bast mats), but that was the extent of all. In 1896, the improved design of the "creep" was shown at the Nizhny Novgorod industrial and art exhibition. Pancakes pinned great hopes on it, hoping that the "self-propelled" to receive official recognition. Demonstrating its many visitors, he called his "Locomotive for unpaved roads", stressed the importance of agriculture. However, this time is no benefit to the invention was not. Blinov received a silver medal at the exhibition … for fire pump and a letter of commendation for "self-propelled".
— Do not understand me merchants — said after the show Blinov his assistant J. Mamin. — And you will live, you will see what value will have a "creep" for the Russian people.
Foreigners are better understood. There, at the exhibition, Blinov received the offer of a German firm to sell "self-propelled" for good money. It was supposed to organize a wide release.
Fyodor Abramovich, having experienced by the time the serious financial difficulties, the proposal still has not accepted, explaining his decision, according to his daughter Ustinov Feodorovna, as follows: "I am a Russian man, thought and did for Russia."
Despite deteriorating health, Blinov continued to improve his tractor. Many worked hard to replace the boiler combustion engine.
Blinov died in 1902. He was far ahead of foreign technology of the time, laying the foundation tractor.