May 12, 1570 — Foundation Day of the Cossacks

The founding date of the Don Cossacks is 12 May 1570. But, of course, the Cossacks existed before that day — the first time since the Cossacks mentioned in chronicles in 1444 year. But then these Cossacks were still not Don, and Ryazan. Because on-Don, which is the boundary of the Ryazan principality lived free people, which Prince of Ryazan periodically hired to guard the border. The basis of the Ryazan Cossacks were settled on the Upper Don Novgorod ushkuyniki — soldiers from the voluntary professional teams created to protect Novgorod and Novgorod frontier to capture and develop new land and river routes.

By ushkuynikov eventually joined the first inhabitants Bezhetskaya fifths, and then began to pour from the Ryazan land farmers who either have been deprived of the land, either because of the free disposition could not get along in the peasant community. Cossacks themselves called themselves the villagers, and the word "Cossack", meaning both "Runaway" and "free man", they dubbed the Turkic Nogai. Temporary cessation of Tatar invasions that has occurred after standing on the Ugra river, has led to a sharp increase in population, and the Cossacks Ryazan, Ryazan as simple peasants, the land is no longer enough, and down the Don land was inhabited by no one, but fertile steppes abundant wild beasts and ponds full of fish. Back and then began to move to the Cossacks, who since the beginning of the 16th century became known as the Don. 

 

The first is Don stanitsa village Razdorskaya. That is the date of its occurrence and is considered the starting point in the history of the Don Cossacks. Don Cossacks of Rostov took today, as well as parts of Volgograd, Voronezh, and Luhansk regions of Kalmykia. The Don Cossacks were the most numerous among the group of Russian Cossacks. During the wars of the Cossacks Ataman chosen with unlimited power. The army was divided into hundreds and fifty, led by captains of hundreds, of fifties and Khorunzhaya.

The first is Don stanitsa village Razdorskaya. That is the date of its occurrence and is considered the starting point in the history of the Don Cossacks. Don Cossacks of Rostov took today, as well as parts of Volgograd, Voronezh, and Luhansk regions of Kalmykia. The Don Cossacks were the most numerous among the group of Russian Cossacks. During the wars of the Cossacks Ataman chosen with unlimited power. The army was divided into hundreds and fifty, led by captains of hundreds, of fifties and Khorunzhaya.

An interesting fact is that learning military skills among the Cossacks began in early childhood. Years from three to five Cossack accustomed to riding, shoot taught from seven years to ten slashing sword. Fighting was taught to three years, passing the special, each genus stored receptions. The boy was brought up much stricter than the girl, and his life from early childhood was filled with work and training. With five years of working with parents of boys in the field: sent on errands of oxen for plowing, herding sheep and other livestock. But the time for the game remains. And the godfather, and chieftain, and the old saw to it that the little boy, "no-show", allowed to play. But the games themselves were such that they Cossack trained or work, or military iskusstvu.Synovyam Cossack officers time to children's play lets go less than the sons of ordinary Cossacks. Typically, with a five-seven years of age fathers took them to the removable hundreds, shelves and took with them to the service, often at war. It was purchased in the happiest years of his childhood helping skills to become the best in the Cossack craft, for which he was born — the military.

In order to capture the spoils Don people organized raids on Turkish territory along the coasts of the Azov and Black Seas, as well as on the coast of the Caspian Sea. In the course of social stratification distinguished two groups of Cossacks: thrifty, especially the grassroots, and the poor, consisting mainly of runaway peasants, concentrates in the upper reaches of the Don, not obzavedshiysya economy and easy adjoining the raids and uprisings. From the 17th century Russian government used the Don Cossacks, not only to protect the southern borders, but also in the wars with Turkey and Poland. For Service issued a salary money, gunpowder, lead, cloth and bread. The affairs of the Don Cossack Army was in charge of the Foreign Chancellery, with which it is sending the demolition of "light" and longer-term "winter hut villages." In 1637, the Don Cossacks captured Azov from the Turks and has withstood the three and a half month siege, held it until 1642.

In 1763 Russia introduced mandatory military service lifetime of the Cossacks. During the Peasants' War (1773-1775) under the direction of Don Cossack EI Pugacheva Don was busy parts of the regular army and finally lost independence. And the severity of the service led to the impoverishment of ordinary Cossacks, which caused riots 1818 — 1821 period.

Don Cossacks took part in all the wars in Russia XVII — XX centuries. After the February Revolution was founded by Don "Don army government" headed by Ataman Kaledin which opposed the Soviets arose in Novocherkassk, Rostov and Taganrog. And in early 1919, with the successful advance of the Red Army at the Don began decomposition White Cossack army. During the Civil War, much of the Cossacks had time to do some fighting in the Red and White armies. But in view of mastering the Soviet troops of the Don region, in 1920, the Don Cossack army ceased to exist.

But the April 20, 1936 published by the CEC of the USSR for the restoration of the Cossacks, and in the years of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army was formed Don Cossack Division, which participated actively fighting, with a particularly distinguished Fifth Guards Don Cossack Corps.

In the 1980s, a revival of the Cossacks. June 28, 1990 in Moscow, gathered a large circle of founding the Union of Cossacks, which was attended by 263 delegates. The capital of the Don Cossacks Novocherkassk is fixed. In the Cossack environment have become popular idea of turning Don into a special autonomous region of Russia on the basis of the Rostov region, to which should be attached to the Volgograd region of Russia, as well as the Donetsk and Lugansk region, Ukraine. It has been suggested recognition of the Don Cossacks as a separate nation.

In 1993, on the bank. Hopper was a monument to the Don Cossacks — Defenders of the Fatherland.

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