Specific geographic location of the Caspian Sea makes it possible geopolitical conflict zone. There are a number of international treaties, to which, first, is to settle the question of use of natural resources. But due to some circumstances, there is reason to hesitate is that these agreements can be a real safeguard against any conflict. Because the media disk imaging, the statements of politicians and professionals, as in the "kitchen" debate often rises topic possible military action in the Caspian Sea. Try to understand what forces a country whose coast is washed by the sea.
A stronger force is the Caspian region flotilla Navy Russia. It consists of ships and boats of various projects, the total number of which — almost three 10-minute. The biggest, massive and armed ships of the Caspian Flotilla are the two guard-project 11661 "Cheetah". Ships "Tatarstan" and "Dagestan" are artillery, torpedo and missile weapons: one 76-mm gun mounts AK-176 anti-aircraft two AK-630M, two torpedo tubes 533 mm and two quad launchers for anti-ship missile family "Caliber" . In addition, the disposal of the crew has a single Sticky bomb launcher RBU-6000 anti-submarine and anti-aircraft missiles of 20 "Osa-MA" for the defense. Patrol "Tatarstan" is the flagship of the Caspian Flotilla. In addition to patrol as part of the flotilla ships, and there are other classes. This small artillery ships project 21630 "Desperado" and 12411. Project "Desperado" is presented by the ships "Astrakhan" and "Volgodonsk." Any of those incurred by a 100-mm gun mount A-190 and 40-barrel multiple rocket launchers A-215. In addition, for defense against air attack ships "Desperado" have anti-aircraft machine guns and AK-306 launchers for the missiles 3M47 model of "flexible." In addition, as part of the Caspian Flotilla has one small artillery ship MAK-160, belonging to finalize the draft 12411. His service in general, similar to weapons past the ships, but it does not carry launchers of anti-aircraft missiles. Chief caliber MAK-160 — 76-mm gun mount AK-176. Driving characteristics ships of projects 11661, 21630 and 12411 allow them to move for the most part of the Caspian Sea without replenishing supplies of fuel. Such acts may be added to the radius of the firing range anti-ship missiles (in the case of the "Cheetah"). In practice, under the supervision of patrol alone and small missile ships is at least half of the Caspian Sea.
Despite the presence in the Caspian flotilla fairly large ships with a relatively huge tonnage, bulk techniques are boats of different classes and projects. With all of this the majority of combat boats used in the Caspian Sea is not the first dozen years. Thus, the most recent of gunboats project 1204 was passed into service in 1972. Approximately the same situation with missile boats, but even the old times of their (R-50 "Karachay-Cherkessia") began service later gunboats 1204 to 1978. At the same time, on the Caspian Sea there are new and more than a boat. AK-326 (project 1400M) was adopted into service in 1990, and P-32 Project 12421 — in 2010. In view of such a huge variation in time of construction and operational decision-arming artillery rocket ships is quite diverse. Artillery is represented in the main settings AK-176 and AK-630 Missiles — complexes with anti-P-15 "Termite" and T-270 "Mosquito". A list of the Caspian flotilla of warships of the Russian Navy's short 6 landing craft projects, 11770, 1176 and 21820, and 5 trawlers projects 1258 12650 and 10750.
The main objectives of the Caspian flotilla, according to official statements, is the protection of the coastal area, the fight against poaching and protection of state interests in the oil producing regions. Practically speaking, these objectives are declared and other countries bordering the Caspian Sea. But in terms of quantity and high quality with respect to their fleet palpable behind the Russian.
Stronger in the middle of the marine group of foreign countries has Iran on the Caspian Sea. On the Caspian Sea Islamic Republic has three naval bases, one of which is used for training purposes. The corresponding feature of the Iranian flotilla is the lack of large ships. Iran's military power base of the fleet in the Caspian Sea consists of missile launches projects Houdong Chinese production, Kaman German Sina and its development. The main armament of these boats — the Chinese anti-ship missiles YJ-82. In addition, Iran on the Caspian bases are a few 10-s light boats and motor boats filled with the least decent weapons, from machine guns to medium-caliber recoilless guns. In the near future more frequent discussions about strengthening the Iranian presence in the Caspian Sea. Admirals of Tehran's promise at times translate into more severe Caspian ships, patrol frigates either. But until the ent
ire Caspian flotilla Iran consists of the boats of different classes.
It should be noted, second place in the power of its naval forces in the Caspian Sea with Iran could divide Kazakhstan. Last significantly behind in the total amount of equipment, but it has a few more severe ships. The flagship of the fleet is the only Kazakh missile boat "Kazakhstan" project 20971. It was developed by Russian CMDB "Diamond" and is built on the Kazakh plant "Zenith" in the town of Uralsk. Base weapons ship — eight anti-ship missiles Kh-35. Apart from their ship has guns, and air defense. In the coming years, Kazakhstan will receive three missile boats such as Yoon Young-ha, ordered in South Korea. Three more boats Korean-made, but only with artillery weapons were produced in the middle of the two thousandth. This "Shapshal" ("Fast"), "Batyr" ("Brave") and "Izet" ("Fearless"), belonging to the project Sea Dolphin. Astana slightly earlier bought from a Turkish patrol boat project Turk. It should be noted, the big boats are not a priority of the Kazakh navy. The most widespread class of technology in Kazakhstan are the Navy patrol boats, of which there are more than fifty. Noteworthy that most of the patrol boats that are included in the system after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan has been built with or without the help of others, or with the help of Russia. Abroad was bought just about 2-10-s boats. Armament patrol boats quite heterogeneous: from machine guns, including mnogokalibernyh up to 76 mm caliber artillery.
Comparable to a huge fleet of Azerbaijan. This country has one patrol boat project 159A and 5 missile boats 205P project built in the Russian time. In addition, in the battle of the Azerbaijani Navy patrol boats have 5 different projects, including those purchased from Turkey. Fascinating that the most massive type of technology in Azerbaijan are the Navy amphibious ships and boats. At the naval bases is about 10 ka ships of projects 770, 771 and 106. The reasons for such a unique structure of the Azeri Caspian flotilla, apparently, are the features of the Soviet Navy bases in the Caspian Sea, as the economic ability of the new independent state.
But dozens of ships and boats with harsh weapons and 10 amphibious ships are not anti-record at the Caspian Sea. Turkmenistan was "inherited" from the Soviet Union had acquired after the collapse of yet the least amount of equipment. At the current time, this country has only 2-name Project 12418 missile boats "Molniya", 10 patrol boats Russian, Ukrainian and Turkish origin. In addition, the Turkmen sailors are on the same landing craft LCM-1, an ambulance and a tow boat. With all of this to make a point: launch of the "Lightning" became part of the Turkmen Navy exclusively in 2011.
As we see, the composition of the naval forces of the Caspian Sea is quite heterogeneous both in quantity and in high-quality nuance. Who can name the favorites of Russian and Iranian Caspian Flotilla. With all of this harsh perceptible differences in the approach to the formation of these operational units. Thus, our homeland in recent years trying to equip the Caspian Flotilla missile and artillery ships. Iran, in turn, prefer to create a so-called mosquito fleet. Prerequisites such differences are obvious: the Caspian Flotilla and the Navy of the Russian Federation has always had a slightly smallest value than the other fleets. Because not too long ago began upgrading was the reason and the means for a significant increase in the capacity of the Caspian connections and updating its technology. In the case of Iran, a prerequisite for specific equipment of naval forces is the need to accommodate the bulk of the ships in the Persian Gulf. In addition, given the current political situation in the region, we can come to a conclusion about the direction of the expected impacts Tehran. Judging by the mosquito fleet in the Caspian Sea, the Islamic Republic does not consider Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan or potential adversaries, from which the urgent need to "isolate itself" a massive fleet.
With regard to the hypothetical nature of the military conflict between states in the Caspian region, here are some things are clear already at this point. It is easy to guess that the same Turkmenistan with their small numbers, ships and boats is unlikely to compete with Iran or Azerbaijan. Much more will be unpredictable collision of states with different fleets — Our homeland, Iran, Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan. In the case of these final states of sea battles will be more dependent on the interaction between departments and management. In addition, a conflict will certainly turn on other kinds of troops, which, in turn, makes it difficult to predict even stronger. Regardless of the current balance of power or the ability of the appearance of a military conflict, all the countries of the region should continue to develop and strengthen their own armed forces. In the coming years the Caspian flotilla RF supplemented with 2 ships of Project 21631 "Buyan-M" and a few other boats for different purposes. Construction of this technique is to update the fleet, and to maintain its combat potential. In light of the constant statements about strengthening of the fleets of the Caspian flotilla update our looks logical and useful. Maybe in the future strengthening of the Caspian Flotilla will be able to even prevent conflict — a "hot head" of the adjacent countries will not start war actions, risking encounter in battle with the "whoop it up", "cheetah" and other Russian ships.
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