The experience of the second world war showed that one of the most vulnerable aspects are the front-line aviation airfields. Even in the case of aircraft survivability in shelters with their use of the ruined runway becomes unfeasible. The way to solve prepyadstviya was obvious, but lacking in the level of technological development is not allowed to make a plane that does not require a longish runway — the first jet machines because of the low thrust-weight ratio (cases traction motor to the weight of the aircraft) had the run more than a mile. But the development is not standing still.
The possibility of the creation of the aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL aircraft, the British term — VTOL, Vertical Take-Off and Landing) open a discussion at the beginning of the 1950s, when the world was experiencing rapid growth engine building. For vertical take-off thrust engine was to surpass the weight of the aircraft, but such machines could soar by anxiety or right of the hangars with all unprepared sites. A similar scheme promised exceptional advantages for naval aviation. Projects, not so long ago seemed unattainable, have been intensively funded.
In 1957, made its own first flight of a South American plane X-13 Vertijet office Ryan. This extraordinary machine soared vertically in every sense. Since after the take-off direction of thrust engine had to be changed to start acceleration in the horizontal plane, and in the 1950s the development of the rotary nozzle there was no speech, the designers decided to start right from the vertical position. The tiny plane was hanging nose hook caught on a ledge on a special mast, and when the machine started to rise, the system disengages.
From the outset it was clear that the usual method of control of the aircraft by means of aerodynamic surfaces (ailerons, elevators and direction) quite inefficient at low speeds. Change to "hanging on the engine" of the machine can only jet rudders (deflectable additional thrust jet thrusters), and designers, sorting through about forty of design options have been able to create such a system. Vertijet successfully flew, and during the demo flight even made a landing near the Pentagon, but the complexity of the management has made plane easily accessible to the pilots of average skill and example program was closed. Numerous projects of other U.S. companies such as Lockheed and ConVair, also did not reach the series production.
From the "table" to "Harrier"
Tackled this topic and on the other side of the ocean — in the Soviet Union and Great Britain. For testing and debugging of new technical solutions were built different test beds, such as English TMR and its Russian analogue of "Turbolet." On these devices turbojet engine was mounted vertically, and jet rudders are spaced around 4 truss mounts. Due to its own external appearance "Turbolet" dubbed "flying table." In tests apparatus fully justified latest concept, showing a good maneuverability. But if the shield is not required special tactical and technical characteristics, the fighter plane was due to own properties and applicable in normal, level flight. This required a new "up-and-marching" engine (PMD), the change of the thrust vector is achieved through the introduction of rotary nozzles, reject the jet in the right direction. The first of these was the British turbofan engine, Rolls-Royce Pegasus.
Design by Rolls-Royce new motor went at once to the development of the new aircraft, which took over the company Hawker. In the development of the machine took over the role himself, Sir Sydney Camm — one of the most famous British engineers, the famous aircraft designer Hurricane, formed the basis of fighter aircraft of the Royal Air Force during the "Battle of Britain". NATO is very interested in the new project and agreed to fund the development, so that in the autumn of 1960 from the factory shop Hawker rolled out the first prototype. Initially R.1127 Kestrel (so was soon named the plane) made a series of test ups "on a leash" (it was attached to the land of iron cables). It was necessary to clearly define the features of the power plant and studies of the aerodynamics of the aircraft. In the end, after a painstaking process acquired info and make the necessary configurations, test pilot Bill Bradford lifted the car into the air for real. Debugging and testing Kestrel were in a very frisky pace and a year later the Bradford made the first successful landing on an aircraft carrier Arc Royal. Meanwhile, the designers of Rolls-Royce significantly improved the property's own motor, and almost completely redesigned R.1127 went into a series entitled Harrier Gr.1 (harrier means "marsh harrier"). 1st squadron of 12 aircraft was equipped in 1969. Its main task was the development of tactics to implement extraordinary aircraft.
Necessary for a successful landing X-13 precision approach to starting the mast was about 20 cm, which was a force far not every pilot. During the landing the pilot had to rely on a special mark on the mast home and rely on command from the ground.
Anatomy of "Lun"
The main design features of Harrier — in its propulsion system and control system aircraft. Engine Pegasus («Pegasus') has four jet nozzles arranged in pairs along the edges of aircraft capable of synchronously rotated 89,5 ° with a special chain transmission. So Makar, a vertical take-off lift force is applied to the 4 points that assigns aircraft added stability. Wheel two nozzles connected to the low-pressure turbocharger and the rear — with the engine combustion chamber. Due to the fact that the engine on the aircraft just one rassredotachivanie traction on the four nozzles much easier because there is no need for precise coordination of multiple engines. Due to the configuration of the nozzle position along the axis of the aircraft can create a vertical take-off and landing, level off and even fly "tail first."
Rod PMD is so great that when the nozzle Pegasus folded down, the pilot did not actually able to keep himself under control stable position of the aircraft. At these unsafe modes cut one automatic reaction control. It consists of micromotors set in the fore and aft portions, also on the wing. Combustion chambers of engines there, and they work by ejecting compressed air that is supplied to them by a special pipeline from the main compressor motor. The system allows control of reactive Harrier hovering position rotated in any direction and controlled by the slope. Because of the characteristics of the assembly on the aircraft used "bicycle" scheme chassis. It consists of a 2-main pillars along the axis of the aircraft, and 2-enabled set at the wing tips.
The total capacity of the internal fuel tanks of the aircraft is 2861 liters, likely as pendant 2-dis
charged additional tanks from 455 liters. A huge amount of fuel needed because of the tremendous expense for vertical take-off and landing, so to increase the efficiency of application of the regime, "truncated" take-off, in which during a part of the non-long runway wing creates lift, and some — the engine. Such a solution significantly increment radius conduct aircraft, but because of his own very appropriate manner flight Harrier was nicknamed Jump Jet — «Jumping jet." In the event of tragedy plane is equipped with one of the most reliable ejection seats — Martin-Baker Mk.9. Take-off is followed by this: turning the nozzle to the horizontal position and putting a brake on the plane, the pilot brings the engine to the largest momentum transfer special pen down the nozzle down and the Harrier jet stream separates from the ground.
In the process of fighting the Falklands Harrier jets showed the highest efficiency and have proven unsafe opponents even for such a harsh opponents as standing in the arms of Argentina French fighter Mirage III. But the loudest about the qualities Harrier evidenced by the fact that the emergence of this amazing machine U.S. and other NATO forever renounced the development of their own VTOL aircraft.
"Harrier" on takeoff. Pay attention to the little bump on the left vozduhopoglotitele: This fairing rod aerial refueling system, located at that time in the retracted position
In the Russian Union of vertical take-off theme taken up by many EDO. In the main experiments were limited to the installation of lifting engines on production machines. But to design a serial VTOL managed only Yakovlev. As you work on the "vertikalkoy" has undergone a lot of projects considered. One unusual suggestion was to use the turbofan engine (through the mechanism of a similar "Pegasus"), overhead fans which were installed in the wing, and their rotation produced gas stream rather than a mechanical drive. But Yakovlev was aware that the creation of a new engine with high specific thrust due to the tremendous difficulties, and offered to do prototype with a combined power plant — a combination of up-and-propulsion and auxiliary hoisting motor. Experiments began with the installation of the lift engines for serial interceptor Yak-28, and in 1963 the first Russian Yak-36 VTOL aircraft, operated by Yuri Garnaeva, rose into the air.
Unusual machine delivered many wraith and designers, and pilots: new Yak trained to fly at great cost. The designers, led by Stanislav Mordovina had to overcome a lot of hitherto unknown problems associated with the jet flow around the airframe and located near the surface of the earth. Even had to invent a defense to cover the concrete runway, which does not withstand the impact of the hot gases. The problem was a separate feature aerodynamics of vertical takeoff — the emergence of a rarefied place under the wing, which it virtually impossible to drive off the ground. And delivered a lot of trouble working out of rudder systems, the mechanism of a similar one that was on the "Harrier." Yet prepyadstviya were resolved, and soon the Yak-36, driven by Valentin Mukhin, showed his ability in the aviation prazdnichkom at Domodedovo. But the plane had a very reasonable radius of the act and a small payload, because the serial production of combat vehicles were not discussed.
Assembling fighter JSF F-35 VTOL
Trying to — not torture
In general, the experience gained has permitted soon to do the Yak-38, which entered service with the naval aviation. Due to the lack of suitable PMD in the USSR Yak-38 equipped with a descent with 3 engines, two of which were installed vertically behind the pilot's cabin and just cut one off and landing, and the third — equipped with rotary nozzles — has been up-and-marching. On the one hand, this scheme eliminates the need for the creation of a new mine action, but on the other — two switched off at cruising speed hoisting motor become useless ballast and fucking "ate up" properties of the aircraft.
The introduction of a descent 3 separate engines require the creation of a special system set up to coordinate their work, and traction control. Managed to solve the problem of no use of electronics: the device was one hundred percent mechanical, which further increased the reliability. Because of the huge problems with "overweight" Design Yak-38 greatly facilitated in some cases even to the detriment of supplies strength. This has made feasible the creation of modifications created to catapult launch. There are problems with the power plant Yak-38 — in the criteria of the tropics in the southern campaigns of aircraft carriers lifting engines simply refuses to start. I had to install extra oxygen tanks to supply the engines, which allowed them to develop an acceptable draft.
Fighting ability Yak-38 was very limited: in-1's, for the sake of saving weight had to turn away from the radar, and in-2, of early Yaks could not lift anything into the air, not including rockets and bombs, small-caliber, making them virtually useless in the defense — against both marine and air targets. Aircraft carrier in which case would have to absolutely rely on their defense and a powerful anti-ship missile system "Granite".
Flight modes F-35
Despite the very average flight data and annoying nickname "aircraft defense topmachty" acquired because of the very mild radius acts Yak-38 has permitted the engineers and the military to gain a truly invaluable production operation and use of VTOL aircraft. Modification of the Yak-38 is armed with guided missiles, and trained with a small rocket takeoff (saving up for all that fuel), and for the training of naval pilots have developed a special program that allows fine to teach them to fly in the management of a complex machine. His baptism of fire, "cucumber", as it was called pilots, took place in Afghanistan, as part of a specially designed for this air group.
During the construction of the Yak-38 was designed for the unique safety system for automatic ejection forced SK-3M. The fact is that in almost all cases, the number of systems failure during take-off the pilot will not have enough reaction speed to have time to respond to the evolving threat. For example, in case of failure of rudder systems when hovering plane flips "on the back" for 1.5 seconds. SK-3M analyze a huge amount of features, allowing you to find the risk of earlier rights, and sends a signal to the automatic pilot's ejection seat K-36VM. As a result, even though the accident rate for the Yak-38 Soviet Union was a record for the operation of these aircraft are always included in the SC-3M is not dead either pilot. On the aircraft carrier "Minsk" incident occurred when the crew was catapulted out of the water: the Yak-38U (educational version) refused e
ngines, and the ship crashed near the plane began to sink rapidly. It is time to catapult tripped threw both pilots have departed from the cabin into the water plane — the pilots landed by parachute directly to the deck cruiser. After the collapse of the USSR, all Yak-38 was written off as a country these machines are no longer needed. The last flight of the aircraft took place in preparation for the exponential programmke at MAKS-95 and ended in tragedy. Both pilots were alive.
Made in the late 1980s, the Yak-41 was the specific development of the concept of Yak-38, but with the possibility of supersonic flight. Managed the project scion Alexander Yakovlev — Sergey Yakovlev. Initially, the aircraft was planned to establish a single up-and-marching engine, but in connection with the death of Dmitry Ustinov, patron, the entire program that works on the latest power plant was delayed, and soon died away altogether, and the designers had no choice but to accept the decision to use the scheme with the composition engines. Despite the already become apparent from the experience of Yak-38 viciousness of such solutions, the construction of aircraft needed for testing of all systems and components with the following alteration of the machine under the new, powerful and economical turbo-fan engine. Flying the upgraded version of the Yak-41M began March 9, 1987, and with the passing of each step of the testing has become increasingly evident that the plane came out pretty successful. His uniqueness and says that the pilot Andrei Sinitsyn installed on it 12 global records of climb and altitude for VTOL aircraft. With the collapse of the Russian Union of progress of work on the car received a new name — the Yak-141 — slowed, as occurred in the 1991 tragedy served only as pretext for ending the project.
Certain of success in the design of VTOL aircraft and headed for France, first the 1960s, which began developing their own machines. The first of them was the fighter Mirage-Balzac, except propulsion engine equipped Orpheus 803F as much as eight-lifting! Tests aircraft in 1964 ended in disaster. Subsequent aircraft, Mirage V, repeating structure predecessor, the world's first supersonic VTOL aircraft. But he suffered a tragedy, and the work was stopped in favor of conventional aircraft with common takeoff and landing.
In the late 1960s in Germany developed several projects VTOL: the first was a tactical transport aircraft Dornier Do.31. Despite the successful tests, work on Do.31 were terminated … due to competition with transport helicopters, ultimately proved to be more comfortable to use. Another extraordinary development of German Engineers — supersonic fighter-interceptor EWR-Sud VJ-101, hoisting march engines which were placed in 2-rotary engine nacelles on the wingtips (with additional lifting — in the fuselage). According to the calculations of rotation of the motor system was to provide a gain in weight in comparison with the configuration of the thrust vector by a revolving nozzle. Reactive control of the aircraft worked by adjusting the traction power plant itself. So Makar, hovering plane teetered on 3 engines. Despite the beauty of the design and the good properties acquired during flights, VJ-101 was never put into production. The works of German concern VFW-Fokker fighter by VAK-191 engine with Pegasus also not crowned success: the properties supplied to the stream were higher than the Harrier, and "bring" the latest car was just not practical.
Despite the widespread use of the U.S. Navy Harrier aircraft, VTOL development in this country is not braked. According to some reports, in the middle of the 1990s between the OKB. AS Yakovlev and company Lockheed Martin signed an agreement on joint work within the framework of programs from JAST to create a promising fighter for the U.S. Air Force (later renamed JSF). In accordance with this agreement, OKB. AS Yakovlev presented the U.S. side of the information and results of research on the VTOL, and preliminary designs of the future of Yak-201. These data were used in the development of JSF F-35 Lightning II, the latest developments in this direction. At present, the aircraft is in flight test stage. A new functional fighter will have to change a whole range of combat aircraft, many of which become outdated and, in spite of continued and effective upgrades, Harrier. In the power plant used F-35 turbofan engine F-119-PW100, which was developed by Pratt & Whitney specifically for the F-35. A distinctive feature of the new aircraft in the version VTOL — the introduction of the external fan mounted in the fuselage upright. The torque on the spinning in the opposite direction from the turbine impeller is transmitted through the shaft.
Many modern military analysts are skeptical to the F-35 in the version VTOL, partly believing that the use of the outdoor fan (which is turned off in flight) — not the best solution from the standpoint of saving weight and that Lockheed Martin was repeated in almost all errors Yakovlev . Yet the development of aircraft with a small (or vertical) take-off and vertical landing — today one of the most pressing issues and promising directions. Indeed, thanks to the use of spy satellites and high-precision weapons such a structure, as a military airfield, evenly goes into the past, giving way to mobile VTOL aircraft capable to fly out on a mission with at least some Piglet.