Remember clearly the day, when I first read the "White Guard" by Bulgakov. This was 1983. Winter. Surely, January or February. I was given a book by a certain number of days. According bolshennomu pull. In the USSR, it was Andropov strshnym disadvantage. For Kiev window it was snowing. Slowly made his way down the street tram. And I stood at the window, and my head still spinning Petliurists, Hetman, darkened from the cold Myshlaevsky badge on his cap and on the stove immortal phrase: "Rumors harsh, terrible — attacking gang red" …
I was fourteen. And I'm sorry about one thing — he was not born in the reign of Tsar Nicholas II, Emperor and I can not, as it should be a cadet, cadet, or the Life Guards Lieutenant-Captain in the cavalry longish coat. The story seemed to be passed by. Boredom with the lieutenant! Happened to me the same as with Don Quixote. Anyone having read the books of chivalry, he wanted to become a knight-errant. And I — White Guard. After all, what is the "White Army"? The most that neither is a real romance!
In general, the time on the decline of stagnation entirely consistent with such dreams. A breath of freedom can only be pulled from the movies of the civilian war. Defeated in her reddish. But movies can not be removed only on favorites. They must also be "enemies." And these enemies look much nicer than the Bolshevik revolutionaries. How could a small bald Lenin beard compete with wonderful general blackness of the "Run"? How could a bloody maniac-machine-gunner Anka — apparently latent lesbian, fierce hatred hates guys, compared with going to certain destruction systems officer in the "Chapaev"? Remember that with a smoking cigar in his mouth? It was worse than the Japanese Samurai — this Russian luxury suicide prushchego right on the gun, but would not live in a country of victorious socialism?
"The adjutant of his excellency" campaigned against the Russian authorities are better at least some "enemy's voice," coos NIGHT MODE for the western media by Bi-bi-si. "And Quiet Flows the Don" undermined the collective farm system reliably all fists in the world. If this system is ruined for the sake of the Cossacks as Grisha Melekhov and Pantelei, then the hell is it for?
Because with the Russian Union in '91, I just parted. I was sick of his Reds banners, party members, at the sight of mutated in the "democrats" and "nationalists", lies the stands and kitchen, a padded jacket and tarpaulin boots. It does not suit me aesthetically. The country is not capable of producing silk ties and vicious ladies' stockings, had no right to exist, despite all of his success in the social sphere. But with the snow-white I did not part until now. This is my beloved fun. Sometimes, close your eyes — and apparently from a height uzreesh steppe, the chain of people in overcoats, dark toy guns. Only found that even snow-white color has a lot of colors.
Let's start with the fact that most of the leaders of the snow-white case is unlikely to be ready to sing "God Save the Tsar." General Kornilov — first commander of the Volunteer Army — generally had a democratic beliefs. Even a little left. Own the first exit on the huge stage of history, he began with an act that is no way that I could not get into the Russian films, for a communist point of view, had no explanation. It was he during the February Revolution personally arrested the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna at the Royal Selo. As such a "good" person could later go against the Russian government? But the fact is that the future Russian general beheld as a bourgeois republic with a topping. And myself — something like a new Napoleon who was to come after the turmoil and restore order. Bolsheviks, of course, in this modern Orthodox raschudesno Russian Federation without a king is not expected. Is that some of them had to hang out for a beauty on lampposts after taking a holiday in Moscow.
"General Kornilov was not considered a monarchist — wrote in his memoirs came to replace him Denikin. — General Mark made no secret of his own monarchical convictions, but firmly believed that reveal their beliefs should be only after the liberation of the country. Gen. Kutepov specific monarchist who fought within themselves and their feelings of attraction and stated that if the will of the Constituent Assembly will stop to another, without the monarchical form of government, he put his hand to his cap and say: "Go ahead!".
General Denikin, Alexeyev also called a "monarchist". True, it was a weird monarchist. After all, it was he who in March 1917 recommended Nicholas II to abdicate. Not to say, "What are you, Your Majesty, crazy? What is renunciation? At the moment all together — the coaches and in Petrograd! Stifle freedom! ". So in its place (and the place was the highest — Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Army!) Would claim at least some real monarchist.
In general, even in origin fascinating audience gathered at the helm of the Volunteer Army. No sooner said Alekseev — the son of a fighter. Denikin had almost the same ancestry. His father — a conventional land man — got into the army under Nicholas I, as many as 20 were 5 years, and raised himself to the rank and file of the Majors. He married a poor Pol
ish lady. And from this marriage Russian officer "of the ordinary" with polka was born Anton Ivanovich Denikin — Kiev cadet and a staunch adherent of a united and indivisible Russia. In the Patriots resurgent Poland it is not drawn — very well aware of what "ugly offspring of the Versailles system" of this venture succeed.
Almost the only aristocrat in the top of a snow-white army was its last commander, Baron Wrangel — Guards officer, First World War, the squadron commander of the Life Guards regiment. But this one was all over except for! A complete moron! In 1914, under the command of Wrangel Konnogvardeytsy blow to the forehead captured German cannon. It was almost the last in the history of this attack on horseback. Picture this: two hundred square meters of riders rushing gallop towards volleys and death. Above them claps shrapnel — advanced technology against cavalry. Who galloped not enough. Save Photo: skinny as Kashchei Immortal Captain Wrangell sits after the fight taken to implement. Eyes — country-and-a-shnye! He did not realize he had done.
More such attacks in the Russian cavalry not walked — the right people left. But Wrangell earned for it the first in the war officer Order of St.. Zhora. Such could take on a hopeless case! Yes, and by 1920 he was already under a Democrat. Even sent a messenger to Makhno to agree on joint action against the Reds and was going to give, if not independence, autonomy Ukraine.
In the movie, all these undertones are lost. Let's go back to the well-known psychological attack from "Chapaev" Vasilyev brothers. Something similar is really the case.
But staged action so that the truth was only smoke. In the movie, the attack on the soldiers marching Vasily Ivanovich, as if on parade, "the officer Kappelevsky regiment." In reality, he was not an officer, and never wore it specially invented for the movie longish dark uniforms with cuffs. He is not walking in the psychological attack against Chapayevites. It became famous in Izhevsk team — mind-boggling part of Kolchak's army, formed entirely of Urals workers. Nyuhnuv commissar of power, these proletarians rise up and put forward the slogan: "For advice without Bolsheviks!". It's hard to believe, but they fought against the Reds at … reddish banner!
Izhevtsy were the most ordinary woolen tunic with blue epaulets, officers of their own choosing, and appealed to them "comrade Lieutenant" or "Comrade Colonel," and in the coming Chapayeva on July 9, 1919 near Ufa moved, nayarivaya harmonica revolutionary "Varshavyanka"! Their psychological attack at full height without a single shot was not for a good life — the white-reddish under the banner just ran out of ammo.
But it did not fit into the scheme of civilian war that imposed in the 30 years of communist winners. Working against the Bolsheviks? Yes, God forbid, find out who! Because Whites prescribed represent only a neat, polished nobles, as if only that of the beauty salon.
It's hard to believe, but the choice between the service of the pure white and the Reds in most cases determined by geography. Collapsed revolutionary propaganda royal army Top disbanded in 1918. The lists of established before his death in it there were about 300 thousand officers. In addition to three or four thousand obvious passionaries, immediately caught up in the Don Kornilov, all the other went home. Those who lived in the vicinity of the revolutionary Moscow and Petrograd, and mobilized the army emerging reddish. The scheme was ordinary. A former officer of the Royal brand new power put before a choice: either serve us or we will shoot your family. Time for the moment difficult, go to our situation … There was another version of "persuasion": what a difference for you — snow-white or reddish Our homeland? With a star or two-headed hawk? After all, this is still our home, and you are in fact Russian! So in the army of Lenin appeared broadest stratum "military experts" — the pre-revolutionary cadre officers of the General Staff. It is they who planned the operation, commanded divisions and regiments. Specifically to care for them, not for spiritual conversations with all sorts of CHAPAYEV, and were invented by the commissioners.
And officers Southerners and Siberians, who lived on the outskirts of the collapsed empire, in the main were Kolchak or Denikin. Takes the snow-white army Kharkiv — and immediately in its ranks is all local officers, holed up in their homes. Captures Ekaterinoslavl — here for you still replenishment. Taken prisoner by the Reds in the regiment after the shooting of 10-ka obvious Communists here reshape and becomes pure white. Such was the reality! And reddish did the same: for example, all of the remaining after the evacuation of Novorossiysk Denikin Don and Kuban Cossacks here were enrolled in the first Budennogo Red Cavalry and sent to the Polish front — hack resurrected from oblivion gentry.
A separate theme — Kiev Whites, described by Bulgakov. "The White Guard" for many has become a major novel about civilian war. It also believe, as a historical source. Meanwhile, the Kiev white — quite white. Or not quite white. They serve as "Hetman All Ukraine" Paul Skoropadsky. At the same time, serve as self-employed. Officer's squad described in Bulgakov, were actually mercenaries formations — disappointed in all ex-military personnel of the Russian army, in one way or another reason, found themselves in Kiev. Incidents of their formation are described in the warrant officer Roman Gul memoir "Kiev epic" posted in the "Archives of the Russian Revolution": "I'm going to welt the street — the headquarters of the brigade … The small rooms are full of officers who came. Then the excitement, the noise … Everybody wants to find out about the criteria for the service, whether it releases from the Ukrainian troops, etc. Beautiful slender brunette — Colonel Roth preventive and politely answering inquiries … "Gentlemen, the service only for the protection of the city … 500 karbovanetses salary per month hostel is … … … diem allowances … arrival in the squad frees the total mobilization "… The officers are satisfied. After all, all of them already pogolodovali learned unemployment. And here is excellent and the "protection of" necessary for any government "…
So decide who these people are? The Ukrainian army did not want to serve, but still, in fact, are — get the allowance, salary. Powered by Skoropadskiy and immediately his curse. But do not envy them. Volunteers were much smaller than the extras, filmed in another film adaptation of "The White Guard". Formed only two squads — General and Colonel Kirpitchev Sviatopolk-Mirsky. Word of the same Goulue: "People in the department is not much — 60 people, and in spite of the orders of the upcoming mobilization, the number does not increase. Sleepless service, with virtually no cha
nge, tedious … On one of those days came gene. Brick with some civil sovereign. All raised, built, and General addressed a speech: "Gentlemen, we are now joined the army gen. Denikin, cheers! .. To the organizer and initiator of the officers' squads, Igor Kistyakovsky, hurray! .. "
Shout hurray, and civic sir kindly removes his hat. This minister Kistyakovsky. "Entry" in the army gen. Denikin amazed many, but no one could loaf that gene. Brick and Kistyakovsky advance lied. "
Meanwhile, it was all very relevant history of the Russian-Ukrainian friendship with cunning. Kistyakovsky — Interior Minister Hetman government — forms the Russian officer's squad at the expense of their own departments, but in order to lift their spirits, convinced that they are subject to far-General Denikin, whose army was already in the Kuban. Porridge? Absurd? No, really. This is the true story of a war without civilian literary luster. As there was no gloss on live its participants, which now represent unconvincing fed as house cats, Knightley with Porechenkova receiving for his on-screen exploits not 500 Hetman karbovanetses.
In his memoirs, Ensign Markov artbrigady Nicholas Pryutsa is funny episode. After being wounded he first comes out of the infirmary for a walk in Rostov-on-Don. Ensign writes about himself in the 3rd person: "Following in Gardening, he saw that stands out in the mass of passers-by. Not receiving any outfit and not having enough money to buy anything because of lading, in the heat of the summer, he was a soldier in winter fur hat and a shabby, shot through the cadet coat. " This means lohmotnika was only enough for what to order coffee and cake in the cafe and buy a "simple soldier's cap, which he later wore a half of the eighteenth and nineteenth year. And that was all he had acquired over the first 18 months of service in the ranks of its own battery. " But Pryuts served in one of the most famous military units and snow-white army! Even after the fever and injury to the eye, he still returned to duty.
Mikhail Frunze known, the commander of the southern front reddish — that took the Crimea, after the war has remembered snowy plain good word: "In the military, they were obviously bolshennymi masters. And held against us is not a professional operation. And they did, in their own way, a lot of feats, for certain identified many of the personal heroism, courage, and the rest. In our political struggle — who can be our worthy opponent? Just do not wimp Kerensky and others like him, and Terry Black Hundreds. They were able to peel and chop like this, we were able to. "
In the end, despite the current Russian double-headed hawk, tri-colored banner and the ashes of Denikin was transferred to his homeland, who will doubt that in civilian war overcame all the same snow-white? Defeated after death, the spirit of their whitewash reddish country.