Cool war was on the wane. It seemed that the United States and Russian Alliance are prepared to discuss their differences. Suddenly Russian fighters shot down Korean civilian aircraft. What was it — a mistake, provocation or a logical ending of paranoid politics?
Now I will try to rocket — rang through the interference of radio measured voice. — I'm getting closer to the goal … I made a start. Target is destroyed. At 6.47 am September 1, 1983 Russian pilot of a supersonic fighter "Su-15" is satisfied that the purpose of amazed, "Boeing 747-200B" began to drop in a spiral toward the icy waters of the Sea of Japan. Hunter struck his victim with 2-weapons systems — thermal rocket that brought down the engine and radar homing missile, possibly trapped in the fuselage. "Korien Air 007 …" — had to shout over the radio pilot of the Airbus. Later quiet. Within 14 minutes of the big plane fell from a height of 11,000 feet in the sea west of the Russian military bases on the peninsula of Sakhalin. Located near the Japanese fishermen felt the smell of burning fuel. On board were 269 civilians and members of the crew.
Pangs of uncertainty
Was not the "KAL-007" hijacked? Not whether there was a tragedy? In over 18 hours of hope gave way to fear, since there was no official explanation for the missing ship. No one received an SOS signal from his commander. Japanese air traffic controllers, of course, did not see that their radar showed a severe deviation of the aircraft from the course. South Korean pilot of another aircraft is in the air at a distance of 160 km from the Airbus, was unable to contact the commander of the ship Chong, but did not deem it necessary to raise the alarm. In the end, the Municipal Secretary George Shultz stunned the world by announcing that U.S. intelligence learned experts at analyzing the information generated by computers, "KAL-007" was shot down by Russian military in the air. "People in the world are shocked by this incident," — said President Ronald Reagan. One South American congressman said: "To attack an unarmed civilian plane — no matter what storm the bus with the students." Day or two representatives of the Russian Union did not allow virtually any comments. Then the Soviet Union issued a statement regarding the "unidentified aircraft", which "flagrantly violated the municipal border and invaded the tremendous depth in the Russian air space of the Union." TASS claimed interceptors made only warning shots tracer shells. In a statement, there were also hints that the flight took place under the control of the Yankees with espionage purposes. Passions ran high in the international arena. "Civilized countries do not recognize the deviation from the route crime for which the death penalty" — raged Kirkpa Jean-trick, the U.S. representative to the United Nations. Numb from the nightmare of the delegates listened to a tape recording of radio transmissions from Russian pilots. Acquired from the Office of National Defense land of the rising sun, the film proves that the plane was shot down in cold blood. The reaction of Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrei Gromyko was belligerent: "The Soviet territory, the borders of the Union of Russian — sacred. No matter who resort to provocations of this kind, he should know that will suffer the brunt of the responsibility for such actions. "
The Hunt for the "black box"
Both the Russian and Americans immediately rushed to find so called "black box" that contains the recording characteristics of flight crew and negotiations. Worked with a battery beacon "black box", even though he was designed in such a makarom to transmit a signal even at a depth of 6,000 meters, is discharged to a maximum of one month. With fully charged BATTERY it could be heard at least some of the points within the five-mile zone. In the feverish atmosphere, according to reports from the South American aircraft carrier "Stertet" only by chance nezapyatannoy managed to avoid a collision of ships on the high seas west of Sakhalin. All efforts have been in vain, "black box" was not found. Instead he returned a fierce sea just pieces of metal, personal belongings and scattered human remains are not identifiable. Despite the terrible weather conditions and the great depth of the ocean canyons, searchers continued to work right up to November 7. The truth had to be established by using computer records and data of the last hours of flight, "KAL-007," purchased by very sensitive equipment and observers of the intelligence services.
South American spies?
Eight days after the crash of the Chief of General Staff Nikolai Ogarkov appeared on television with the latest version. Implicitly acknowledging that the Russian fighters "stopped" plane with 2 missiles "air-to-air", he presented two contradictory excuses. On the one hand, he argued that the Russian service of ground tracking confused "KAL-007" with the South American spy plane, who was in the same area. On the other hand, he is accused of involvement in the Korean plane with spying for the United States. A purely military solution to the winding up of the passenger airbus was made commander of the Far Eastern Military District, not the senior military or civilian administration, as explained to Ogarkov. Western observers have raised laughter on both expressions. Indeed, the South American reconnaissance aircraft RC-135 two hours before the missile attack took place 145 kilometers from the "KAL-007", following in the opposite direction. According to records, the Russian fighter pilot watched the Korean plane, which is one and a half times the RC-135. He twice reported that he sees the flashing lights and navigation. What did the accusation of espionage, then there is a certain amount of curious events. The commander Chung tried to lead his own plane off course on a very secretive area. On the peninsula of Sakhalin were placed naval center and 6 air bases, which had a very crucial. Carried out on the Kamchatka Peninsula test launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was actually a fundamental limit of the Russian defense. In the Okhotsk Sea, which stretches between them, cruised nuclear submarines, whose missiles were aimed at targets in the United States. Yet experts at thought that there was no need to expose threats to civilian life of persons carrying out furtive reconnaissance operation. "747" NIGHT MODE flying at high altitude, could not muster any disk imaging nothing. South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan angrily torn Marshal Ogarkova explanation: "No one in the world, not counting the Russian authorities do not believe that a 70-year or four-year-old man would have allowed the child to fly on civilian aircraft, the objective of which was a violation of Russian air space for spying purposes . "
Why, then, an experienced pilot, using the latest equipment, so far strayed into the Russian countryside? In all three, "Inertial Navigation Systems" (ANN), established on the Korean plane, included gyroscopes and accelerometers, which were to carry on the plane in advance of the planned route. For greater precision, all three computers to work autonomously, receiving the information independently. What happens is that all three computers were introduced by the wrong coordinates? Maybe if the crew ignored the obligation to verify the coordinates of the ANN with the coordinates on the flight map, as it is usually done? Could an experienced pilot forgot to check if it matches the actual seat of the airplane with control points, marks the INS during the flight? Commander Chung in his own last radio contact with Tokyo confidently reported that he is in a 181 kilometer southeast of the Japanese island of Hokkaido. In fact, it was exactly 181 km north of the island. Why air traffic controllers did not inform him about the error? Could he deliberately closed proparhat over Russian territory in order to reduce the consumption of expensive fuel-efficient for its own owners? And so he was flying on the route "Romeo-20", which runs in a particular vicinity of the Russian countryside: pilots normally use weather radar to make sure that they do not cross the border. Changing the route, the pilot of the plane had subjected the threat, and not a lot of money saved would be. Documents show that never before in DC Flight plane did not deviate from the approved flight plan. In addition, the South Koreans knew better than others about the risk associated with the deviation from the course. In 1978, the Russian has already fired on another wayward Korean aircraft and forced it to land. Struck thermal rocket "Boeing-707" lost control and fell almost 10,000 feet, before he managed to equalize and make an emergency landing in the Arctic Circle on a frozen lake near Murmansk. Two passengers were killed. Russian rescued the survivors, including the wounded 13, and then put the South Korean government a bill for services — 100,000 dollars.
The hasty assessment?
This incident sowed suspicion in the minds of the Russian, who were deeply concerned that the Korean "Boeing-707" discreetly slipped into their air space. Now they are watching picture "KAL-007" on the radar about 2-a-half hours while he was flying along the border. As the plane crossed the eastern border of the Kamchatka Peninsula, four aircraft, "MiG-23" and "Su-15", hurried meet the offender, although negotiations are recorded only 2-pilots. Another four interceptor later joined the chase. One danger faced interceptor pilots — a lack of fuel. All the planes could be in the air a bit less an hour, even with the extra fuel tanks. The pilot at number 805, who made the fatal rocket salvo, threw their empty cans in a few seconds after the detection of 'KAL-007. " He was only just 35 minutes to complete the task and return safely to base. Approaching from behind and capturing unsuspecting target, 805-th transmitted signal on the plane "or a stranger» (IFF) in order to identify it. But the only Russian aircraft would be able to take the signal at the frequency which was used by the fighter. The pilot of the 805 th said that he sees as flashing strobe lights Korean jumbo jet. It is situated about 11 kilometers pilot 1st of the "MiG-23," said that he sees and interceptor, and its purpose. According to Western professionals that night visibility at an altitude of over 10,000 feet had to be good. Moreover, from the Russian pilots, as well as the pilots United States and other Western countries, requires the ability to distinguish the silhouettes of aircraft. Humpback "747", which is called "eggplant", with nothing do not be confused. Painted snow white jet airliner flying over the clouds, lit by a crescent moon. In addition, experts at intelligence converge on the fact that operators are Russian Radar magazine, which recorded details of all commercial flights whose routes pass close to the border. Later pilot of the 805 th claimed that he did Tipo 120 warning shots tracer shells. Tape recording of his talks this version confirms it. As "KAL-007" headed for the point from where the international air space remained 90 seconds of the summer — about 19 km — "Su-15", which became empty fuel tanks with terrifying speed, volley-made and only for a short time stopping to behold results.
Despite the harsh accusations and counter diplomats and politicians, no one wished that the incident resulted in a confrontation majestic powers. President Reagan had read about the "crime against humanity", but the response of the United States, such as a request to other countries to complete a two-month air links with the Russian Union were suspended. 11 Western countries have agreed to not so long sanctions. Bane of innocent civilians was a disaster, but the international community seemed to be in accordance with the fact that revenge or punishment should not stand in the way of development of relations, through which can be saved millions of lives. Even the publication of the facts of the winding up "KAL-007" did not prevent Russian and South American representatives in Geneva to continue active negotiations on the draft agreement on nuclear weapons. According to Reagan, the U.S. approach was to "demonstrate anger at continuing the negotiations." Specialists did not seek revenge, but wanted to solve the mystery. Could not a similar terrible navigational error repeated again? Investigate, research and guesswork to nothing lead. But as a result of calculations performed after the simulation test flight on a mechanical panel of "Boeing" at the factory in Seattle, it was suggested one explanation convincing enough. When the commander of the Airbus Chung flew from Anchorage, he was unable to verify the previously programmed flight path with the INS, as the beacon frequency Alaskan airport was temporarily shutdown for maintenance. Relying on take-off on his own compass, the pilot set it on a course 246. Deviation from the prescribed route "Romeo-20" in this case would amount to only 9 ° of the compass. If the commander of the crew continued to walk this course and switched to the INS his fault together with wind speeds in the upper atmosphere could result in "KAL-007" directly under the watchful Russian missile interceptors. Could a problem with the electricity on board the Airbus immobilize it, just knocking out important navigation systems, lights and radios? The possibility of such events is very low. Any of the 3 blocks of the ANN had an independent power supply. The lights might maintained even which of four electronic generators, one for each jet engine of an aircraft. Just before the fatal explosion of the crew for a minute did not lose touch with the ground tracking stations located along the route.
The human catastrophe on global stage
— Nothing special, the most ordinary flight. It was a very, very measured flight — remember the steward responsible for the economic part of the first step of Flight "KAL-007." Indeed, except for the 1st South American congressman alone flying first class, the other passengers were ordinary citizens. Many were flying with their families. Most of the passengers spent time prototype — whiled away the weary hours sleep in the faded-lit cabin. Everything was as usual. A huge number of commercial flights each month followed by the route "KAL-007." Because of this ordinariness relatives and friends was even harder to endure grief. From Korea grieving r
elatives were taken in Hokkaido and planted on the ferries that took them to the water, where it was found the body of the baby-one of the passengers of the flight. In memory of all the victims were lowered wreaths and bouquets of flowers.
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