In 1935, the Soviet Union the "Regulation on the service commanders and officers of the Red Army" were introduced individual military ranks. Marshals have 5 Red Army generals, among them Budyonny (1883-1973).
At the young Russian state it was a living legend, the "father" of reddish cavalry commander of the "men", abroad it was called "red Murat."
But after the end of the "era of Stalin" was evenly shape the image of the "Horselover", near horseman. Even formed a layer of legends and anecdotes about the marshal.
Started and reviewing awards — remember that the idea of creation belongs to reddish cavalry Trotsky-Bronstein, that the true founder of Horse-composite body of the Red Army was BM Dumenko (professional leader shot dead on charges of anti-Semitism and the preparation of the rebellion, although Stalin and tried to justify it but the position of Trotsky-Bronsheyna were much stronger) Budennyi was his deputy. "Red Murat" were incriminated in mediocrity, the failure of the campaign to Warsaw in 1920, because he, allegedly, failed to comply with an order of Tukhachevsky and threw Cavalry Army from beneath Lviv to Warsaw.
Was created a myth that Budennyi resisted modernization of the Red Army, leading the famous phrase, membership of which is not confirmed by the marshal — "The horse show itself more." Given the fact of its "failure" in the military — a marginal position occupied by them at the end with a step majestically Russian War — Commander of the Russian Army cavalry.
Start military way
Born in 1883 on the Don, in a remote area of the village Kozyurin Platovskaya (now Rostov region), to a poor farming family. In 1903 he enlisted in the Army and served in the Far East, Primorye Dragoon Regiment, the same was re-enlist. He participated in the Russian-Japanese war in the 26th Don Cossack Regiment.
In 1907, it is the best rider regiment was sent to the capital, a Cavalry officer school, taking courses for riders of the lower ranks. Their he studied until 1908. Then until 1914 he served in a seaside Dragoon Regiment.
In World War waged war on three fronts — the German, Austrian and Caucasian non-commissioned officer of the 18th Regiment of Dragoons Seversky. Budennyi was awarded for gallantry crosses of St. George (the soldier's "Egorov") four degrees ("full bow") and 4 St. George medals.
In the summer of 1917 as part of the Caucasian Cavalry Division Budennyi arrived in Minsk, where he was elected chairman of the Regimental Committee and Deputy Chairman of the Divisional Board. In August 1917, together with the MV Frunze controlled disarmament trains troops of Kornilov (Kornilov revolt) in Orsha. After the October Revolution, returned to the Don, Platovskaya to the village, where he was elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Council of the District de Sales and was appointed head of the district department of earth.
In February 1918 Budyonny made a cavalry unit that acted against the snow-white army in the Don area. The detachment has grown rapidly in the regiment, then a brigade, and eventually became the Division, which successfully operated under the Tsaritsyn in 1918 — early 1919. In the second half of June 1919 was created cavalry corps. His commander was BM Dumenko, but a month later he was severely wounded, and his deputy corps commander — Budennyi. The case was involved in heavy fighting with the Caucasian Army General PN Wrangel. Because military incompetence Budennogo if she were a reality came to light would be very fast, especially when you consider that he fought against some of the best snow-white cavalry generals — Mamontov, Golubinci Ataman Ulagay.
But the Corps under the command of the peasant Budennogo acted decisively, skillfully remaining more efficient division of the 10th Army, defending Tsaritsyn. Budennogo division covered the retreat army, constantly appearing on the most threatened areas, and did not allow parts of the Caucasus Army of Wrangel out on the flank and rear of the 10th Army. Budennyi was fundamentally opposed putting Tsaritsina snow white and the proposed strike back at the enemy flank. Plan Budennogo had on a reasonable basis, and the chances of success, as the Cossack units stormed the Tsarina were exhausted and suffered severe losses. This is Wrangel wrote directly to Denikin. But the commander Kluev showed indecision and ordered to throw Tsaritsyn. The retreat of the 10th Army had cooperated bad and Budyonny barrage had to create special units, in order to prevent disruption of the infantry. In the end: the 10th Army has not collapsed, the left wing of reddish Southern Front was naked, and this award Budionov.
Summer — autumn 1919 housing successfully waged war against the forces of the Don Army. In the course of the Voronezh-Kastornoye operations (October — November 1919) Cavalry Corps in conjunction with the divisions of the 8th Army crushed the Cossack generals of the Mammoth and skins. Parts of the body occupied the city of Voronezh, covering the 100-kilometer gap in the positions of the troops of the Red Army in the metropolitan area. Cavalry Corps Budennogo victory over the forces of General Denikin near Voronezh and Kastornaya accelerated the destruction of the enemy on the Don.
In November 1919, the body was reformed into the 1st Cavalry Army, commander of the army was appointed Budennyi, he commanded the army to illumine 1923.
In December 1919, The cavalry took Rostov-on-Don, the Cossacks gave it up without a fight, having gone beyond the Don. Part Budennogo tried to cross the Don, but suffered a severe defeat of the White Guard divisions. But this is not the fault faster Budennogo — commander of the Southwestern Front Shorin gave the order to cross the Don in the "head" and to force large water hazard when another Preserving the busy defending enemy units, but the cavalry is not easy. It seems to be there it was, the defeat of white army in southern Russia suffered almost all due to the actions Cavalry, committed the deepest round of white troops in February 1920.
Against Wrangel in the Crimea army Budennogo acted not very successfully — the army could not prevent the departure of the main forces behind the Crimean snow-white necks. But it is not only the fault Budennogo, almost all were wrong deeds 2nd Cavalry FK Mironov. Because of its slow Wrangel had to withdraw for strengthening Perekopa.
The war with Poland
In the war with Poland Budennogo army in the South-Western Front operated on the southern flank and completely successful. Budennyi broke through the defensive positions of the Polish troops and cut the supply lines of the Kiev group of Poles coming deploying the Lions.
In this war it was destroyed by the legend of the "invincible" strategy Tukhachevsky. Tukhachevskiy not critical apprehended by reports to the headquarters of the Western Front that one hundred percent of Poles defeated and fleeing in panic. Budennyi is more appropriately assesse
d the situation, as evidenced by the lines of his memoirs: "From the operative reports of the Western Front formed the story of the Polish troops, retreating, do not bear the huge loss, created impression that before the armies of the Western Front, the enemy moves, keeping force to decisive battles … ".
In the middle of August the Polish army attacked from the north to bypass Warsaw troops of the Red Army. The right flank of Tukhachevsky was defeated. Tukhachevskiy Budennogo asks to withdraw the army from the battlefield and prepare it for a strike to Lublin. At this time, the 1st Cavalry Army was fighting on the Bug River and just could not get out of the fight. As he wrote Budennyi: "Physically, it was impossible for one day out of the fight and make stokilometrovy march, that focused on August 20 in the designated area. And if that is not feasible, and work out, then exit to the Vladimir-Volyn Cavalry still not been able to take part in operations against the enemy force of Lublin, which operated in the vicinity of Brest. "
The war was lost, but personally Budennyi did everything to win, entrusted to him the troops acted quite well.
As of 1921-1923. Budyonny — Member of the PBC, and then deputy commander of the North Caucasus Military District. Did a great job of organizing and managing equestrian plants, which in the end many years of work brought new breeds of horses — Buddenovskoye and Thirsk. In 1923 he has been assigned as assistant commander of the Red Army's cavalry and a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. In the 1924-1937 years. Budennyi appointed inspector of the cavalry of the Red Army. In 1932 he graduated from the Military Academy. MV Frunze.
From 1937 to 1939, has been assigned a military commander of the Metropolitan Area, since 1939 — Member of the Head of the military council NKO, Deputy People's Commissar, from August 1940 — first deputy People's Commissar of Defence. Budennyi noted the important role of the cavalry in the war of maneuver, at the same time advocating the modernization of the army, initiated the formation of horse-mechanized units.
He correctly identified the role of the cavalry in the next war: "The reasons for the rise or decline of cavalry should be sought in respect of the main parameters of this arm to the main data of the situation of a certain historical period. In all cases, when the war took on agile character, and sought the operational situation of moving troops and decisive action, horse masses became one of the crucial parts of the armed forces. It appears certain regularity in the history of the cavalry, was deployed as the possibility of maneuver warfare, the role of the cavalry at the same time increased, and it ended with those punches or other operations … We stubbornly fighting for the preservation of a strong self-reddish cavalry and for the strengthening of its forthcoming only as a sober , a real assessment of the situation assures us of the need to have the unquestioned cavalry in the system of our Armed Forces. "
Unfortunately, the outlook Budennogo the need for maintaining strong cavalry was not fully assessed the control of the country. In the late 1930s, began to decline cavalry, the war left 4 cases and 13 cavalry divisions. Lofty war proved him right — Mechanized Corps were the least stable than cavalry. Cavalry Division did not depend on roads and fuel, as mechanized units. There were more mobile and maneuverable than the motorized rifle divisions. They successfully operated against the enemy in a wooded and hilly terrain, be successfully carried out raids in the rear of the enemy, in conjunction with the tank units developed breakthrough enemy positions, develop and reach parts of the coming of the Nazis.
By the way, the Wehrmacht also appreciated the importance of kavchastey and seriously boosted their numbers in the war. Reddish cavalry passed through the war and ended it on the banks of the Oder. Cavalry commanders Belov, Oslikovsky, Dovator entered the elite of Russian generals.
Marshal of the Russian Union Semyon Budyonny speaks to the Black Sea Fleet sailors, in August 1942.
Joseph Stalin, Semyon Budyonny (in the frontal plane), Beria, Nikolai Bulganin (in the background), Anastas Mikoyan sent to Red Square for the parade in honor of the day or tanker.
During the Russian war majestically Budennyi came into the Supreme Command. He was appointed commander of the forces a reserve army (June 1941), then — the commander in chief of the South-West direction (July 10 — September 1941).
South-West fortunate enough to restrain the pressure of Hitler's troops counterattacked. In the North, Baltic, and troops were under the command of Voroshilov. In the end, in Berlin realized that Army Group "Center" under the greatest threat — an opportunity to strike from the flanks, from the North and from the South. Blitzkrieg was defeated, Hitler was obliged to throw south 2nd Panzer Group Guderian to get out on the flank and rear of the defending Kiev Russian group.
September 11 to meet with Guderian Kremenchug bridgehead deployed Coming divisions of the 1st Panzer Group von Kleist. Both tank groups merged on September 16, closing the ring around Kyiv — the troops of the Southwestern Front were in the boiler, Reddish Army suffered a languid loss. But cast significant heavy fighting the enemy, won the time to strengthen the defense of the central strategic direction.
Marshal S. M.Budenny Headquarters warned of the impending forces of the Southwestern Front threats recommended throw Kiev and withdraw the army, that is not offered to conduct trench warfare, and agile. So, when Guderian's tanks stormed the Romny General Kirponos addressed to the Chief of the General Staff, Marshal Shaposhnikov to allow the evacuation of Kiev and the withdrawal of troops, but was refused. Budennyi supported its own subordinate and, in turn, sent a telegram to General Headquarters: "For its part, I believe that by this time absolutely delineated plan to reach the enemy and surroundings South-Western Front directions Novgorod-Seversky and Kremenchug. To counter this plan to make a strong military force. South-Western front to make it not. If the Supreme Command, in turn, does not have the ability to focus on this point, such a strong group, the departure for the South-Western Front is fully ripened … The delay in departure of the South-Western Front may result in the loss of troops and materiel sets. "
Unfortunately, the situation in Moscow beheld on the other, and even that of a professional general staff, as Shaposhnikov, not considered fit for future threats. One might add that Budennyi possessed tremendous courage to defend his point of view, because Marshal Stalin knew about the desire by all means to defend Kiev. One day after this telegram, he was removed from his post, after a number of days the troops were in front of
In September and October 1941 Budennyi was appointed commander of the Reserve Front. September 30, the Wehrmacht launched Operation "Typhoon", the Wehrmacht struck defense Russian troops in the region Viaz'ma were surrounded by troops of the Western (Konev) and Reserve fronts. It was a tragedy, but Budennogo not to blame. In 1-x, exploration of the General Staff could not reveal areas of concentration strike groups Wehrmacht were in existence because the troops were stretched across the front and could not withstand the impact such power, when the defending division had 3-4 division opponent (the main areas of impact ). In-2, Budennyi could not use his favorite strategy of maneuver, retreat was impossible. Incriminate him in the military ineptitude of stupid, Konev has become one of the most recognizable characters of the war, and he could not do anything.
Almost exclusively in the North Caucasus, he was appointed commander in chief of the North Caucasian direction (April — May 1942) and the Commander of the North Caucasian Front (May — August 1942), he was able to show his skill. When in July 1942 the Wehrmacht came to the Caucasus, Budennyi offered to withdraw to the lines of the Head of the Caucasus mountain range and the Terek, reducing enormously distended front, also form two spare Army in the Crucible. Stalin considered these proposals optimal and approved them. The planned Budennyi limit troops withdrew in August 1942, and as a result of fierce fighting stopped the enemy.
In January 1943 Budennyi became commander in chief of cavalry, apparently Stalin decided that the time has come to demonstrate their skills to young. Award Budennogo that he has promoted of the Red Army to survive and learn to wage war.
More impartial evaluation of Marshal Budennogo majestically in Russian words can be called the chief of staff of the Southwestern direction of General Intercession: "He did not offer solutions, he did not get the situation so that to offer a solution, but when he reported, offered these or other solutions, programs , the one or the other, action, he in-1's, and quickly grasped the situation, in-2, usually supported more optimal solutions. Thus did it with enough determination. "
The scion of the Russian peasantry did not disappoint their country. He served faithfully Russian Empire in the fields of Russian-Japanese, World War I, courage and skill has earned for itself the merits. Supported the construction of a new country and honestly he served.
After the war, he was the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on February 1, 1958, April 24, 1963 and February 22, 1968 was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union and became three times Hero of the Soviet Union. He fully deserves it.
Russian commander, Marshal Russian Union (1935) Semyon Budyonny takes parade on Red Square in Moscow on November 7, 1947.
From the personal property of this worthy man can be noted bravery and courage (For example: in July 1916 Budennyi received the George Cross 1st degree for the fact that with 4 of his friends led forays into the enemy's rear 7 Turkish fighter). Legend has it that at one point, Marshall decided to "feel" the KGB. Marshall met the night armed with a sword unsheathed and click "Who first!" Rushed to the guest (in another version — put a machine gun in a window). Those hasty retreat. The next morning Lawrence P. reported to Stalin about the need to arrest Budennogo (outlined in paint event that occurred). Comrade Stalin said, "Good for you, Simon! So they need! "More Budennogo not bothered. According to another version, shooting the security officers who came after him, Budennyi rushed to call Stalin, "Joseph, the counter-revolution! Came to arrest me! Alive not give up! "After that Stalin gave the order to throw Budennogo alone. Most likely, it is a historical anecdote, but even he characterizes Budennogo as a very brave man.
Masterfully played the accordion, great dancing — during the reception of the Russian delegation in Turkey Turkish folk dances, and later offered a Russian answer is the same. And Budennyi, regardless of age, danced, panting for all. After this option to enter the Voroshilov ordered all military universities dance lessons.
Possessed with 3 languages, read a lot, collected a huge library. Could not resist drinking. In the food was unpretentious.