After gaining 24 August 1991 Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union began the revival of the saturated state and religious traditions not only Ukrainians, and other peoples living in the republic, including people professing Islam. The first Muslim community in Ukraine began to revive first-1990s. They acted in the main under the control of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the European part of the USSR and Siberia, whose yurispundentsiyu were Muslims of Ukraine. The communities have been reported in almost all the large cities of Ukraine — Kharkiv, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Lviv.
First Islamic community in Kiev was founded in 1991 in the Shevchenko district. August 14, 1992 decision of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the European part of the USSR and Siberia was founded muhtasibatskoe General Administration of Muslims of Ukraine. Muhtasibs imam was appointed Sheikh Ahmed Tamim, invited the community to promote the study of Islam and founded the first school in Kiev to study the foundations of the religion in 1991. On 27 September 1993 the organization became known as the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Ukraine (DUMA), whose main purpose was to unite the Muslims and the training of religious knowledge. May 11, 1993 opened the first in the history of Ukraine Muslim educational institution — the Islamic Institute of Kiev.
But, in the same period in Ukraine, as in Russia, began to filter ideas of Wahhabism and other extremist movements. In addition to the officially registered religious communities began to appear public organizations, national, cultural and Islamic cultural society that became promote the ideology of radical extremist parties "Muslim Brotherhood" and "Hizb-ut Tahrir."
In the middle of the 1990s in the Ukraine, a number of organizations of foreign students, focusing on the party "Muslim Brotherhood", which have been intensively interfere in the internal affairs of Islamic communities.
After the first registration of the primary organizations in 1997 (February 7) in Ukraine was officially registered already interregional association of public organizations "Arraid" ("Leader"), bringing together under its own auspices, all public organizations of foreign students. "Arraid" Moise led Abu Obeid, who after some time has been banned arrival to Ukraine.
It must be stressed that the representatives of the organization before the official registration of a couple of years acted illegally in Ukraine. In one of the documents of the organization in the year of education states that the association would like to thank the participants already the fourth Islamic youth camp, held in 1997 in the village of Simeiz. On the form is signed by Muaz Abu Obeid, as indicated by the address on it is one of the member of the Global Association of Muslim Youth (WAMY), which is heavily promoting the Wahhabi ideology in the world, despite the fact that its activity is prohibited in almost all countries of the world. WAMY headquarters is located in a suburb of Washington. President and treasurer of the organization is now one of the relatives of the deceased Osama bin Laden, Abdullah, part of the financial elite of the world.
In the summer of 1997 in the Crimea "Arraid" seminar was organized two youth camps and "caravan of enlightenment." Under this heading the various towns of the Crimea was sent 11 groups with advocacy applets. Apart from the representatives of Crimea, took part in the camp inhabitants of Donetsk, Zaporozhye, Kiev, Odessa, Kharkov. The program of training included lectures, discussions, watching movies. All activities were carried out with the knowledge and approval of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Crimea.
In addition to the Crimea, in July 1997, "Arraid" was also held for the seventh yearly camp in Irpen for foreign students. In his work, participated Isam al-Bashir and Faisal Mavlyaviev. The latter is one of the managers of the well-known radical extremist organization "Muslim Brotherhood." He was invited by the association "Arraid" and in 1998 the first International Round Table "Muslim minority between theory and practice", which was held on October 16-17 in Kiev.
In the summer of 1998, from 8 to 15 July, the association "Arraid" was held once a youth camp in Simeize. Apart from religious matters, has been affected the role of Muslims in modern society, and stressed the need for a more active role in the cultural, public and political life of the country. According to some participants, the training was conducted by the book Dagestani Wahhabi ideologue Bagautdin Muhammad "Namaz". On the territory of Ukraine, this book was published in Odessa organization "Al-Masar," part of "the Arraid." 25-26 July 1998 accomplished a festive opening ceremony of the 3 new mosques in the Crimea (spring, spills, Stroganovka). The official opening ceremony was director of international companies and the development and welfare fund "Zam Zam" Saad Eddin al-Labban, which at one point left Russia after the apartment bombings in Moscow and Volgodonsk in 1999.
In late 1998, the newspaper began publication "Arraid" in the Russian and Arabic. The newspapers printed materials Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the head of the organization, which known for his calls for Muslims to boycott the Russian presidential elections in Russia. Also in the paper makes reference to Ibn Taymiyyah and Havva Amagov publishes articles that promote the ideology of Wahhabism.
For a more active implementation of its own ideology by using the state association factor "Arraid" was to establish cooperation with the cultural and national centers. So, in 1999, were established with the cultural and ethnographic center "Alushta". Since there were still offer classes that led Naji Murtazayeva of Simferopol and Feyruz Hatip of Alushta. They distributed the newspaper "Arraid" and "Al-Bayan" and the literature published provahhabitskim known by the "Zam Zam" and WAMY. With the assistance of Alushta Feyruz Hatip youth attended classes in Simferopol division "Arraid" organization "Ahrar", and she, in turn, held seminars in Alushta, the impact of the organization spread to the entire area of Alushta. In 2002 Feyruz Hatip was deputy director of the camp, held "Arraid" Simeis.
For verbovaniya in the numbers of new adherents provahhabitskie organizations held charity events, intensively using religious activities and prazdnichkom. For example, the first in 1999, in the month of Ramadan, members of the "Arraid" — students residency medical institute in Simferopol — iftars held in 40 villages Fri Crimea. At each of the events attended by between 30 and 300 people. Iftar is also carried out and the fund "Zam-Zam." They went into the Saki, Sudak, in the villages of the dam and Reddish Poppy Bakhchsarai area, too — in the Youth, Strog
anov, spring, Andrusovo, Simferopol Kebir-Jami mosque.
March 28, 1999 by the association "Arraid" Russian and Ukrainian branch of the charity fund "Zam Zam" have cooperated celebration of Eid al-Adha. In Crimea, the celebrations were organized society "Ahrar". Apart from this, in the Crimea intensely acted funds "Birlik" (Unity) and "Crimea 2000".
At the end of March 1999 the Department of Justice in Kiev was officially recorded a Ukrainian branch provahhabitskogo international charitable foundation "Zam Zam". The company was headed by Yasser Al-Hassan, former head of the fund, "Bushra" and who had a relation to the "SAAR Faundeyshin." This organization became the official sponsor of the newspaper "Al-Bayan".
In the summer of 1999 was also a number of camps, organized by the Wahhabis for additional verbovaniya in the numbers of young people. First, in July camp was organized in the Bakhchisarai region of Crimea in the camp "Halt." Teachers in this camp were from Saudi Arabia.
First, in 2000 the negative activity "Arraid" was seen by the municipal authorities of Ukraine. April 17, chairman of the organization was not admitted to the Ukraine after the next trip abroad. Oh, so he knows about the situation: "The story begins with the February 2000 … The authorities refused to renew the registration of my wife and kids. After the energetic appeals to the appropriate authorities have extended the registration of only one month. First of March, I went to Egypt, and two weeks later came back. But after two hours of waiting at the airport "Borispol" Border Guard officer said that my arrival in Ukraine is limited. Apparently, the motive of this decision — inciting enmity between different cultures and nationalities. "
Despite this, the association "Arraid" has continued its work. From 28 June to 23 July 2000 in Simeize "Arraid" was held the next (seventh) camp for ladies, men and children. In his work, participated not only the citizens of Ukraine, and other CIS countries (Our Fatherland). In the children's changing rested 68 people. Camp director was Muhammad Abu Armiz. In contrast to the 1999 teachers were the main inhabitants of Ukraine. According to the views of the organizers, in particular the future they need to manage similar activities. Earlier in the camps could participate at least some hope, that since 2000 has been set a specific aspect of selection. In youth camp taking young men from 16 to 25 years who have a basic knowledge of religion. There have already seen the principle of a selection of the participants of the camp. A similar method is widely used in the step structure verbovaniya members of the organization "Muslim Brotherhood."
July 30, 2000 about the camp in Simeize aired a report NTV journalists. Special emphasis was placed on the fact that in Simeize uchyat ideology of Wahhabism, a favorite of the Crimean Wahhabis was named Muhsin Muhammad. This information caused a great resonance in the peninsula. On this occasion, the League of Crimean Tatar Lawyers "Initium" and fund "Crimea-2000" held a press conference, during which it was said that Crimea there is no ground for the spread of Wahhabism. Reports shown on NTV, has caused not a good reaction Tatar Lawyers League "Initium" and the Office of the High commissars for Refugees (UNHCR), with the assistance of which was formed betrothed organization. To the question of "the time of the Crimean" Alexander Mashchenko on extremist literature, the head of the fund "Crimea-2000" Kubeddin Kubeddinov said similar books had never seen. A Muhsin Muhammad is a question that is Wahhabism, and did not answer. In addition to phrases that Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was "an outstanding scientist."
In support of the follower of Wahhabism Muhsin Muhammad and his ideology were also made by the newspaper "Voice of Crimea" and "Qırım." On the pages of the newspaper "Qırım", namely, states: "The ultimate goal of Wahhabism in the Crimea, as it presented some of the forces — state reconstruction and restoration of the caliphate. How is it true? Associate the situation in the Crimea with the situation in Chechnya, 1993-1995, or — delirium, or — the evil intent. " It should be recalled that such expressions were heard recently in Dagestan invasion followers of Wahhabism in Chechnya. Regarding the reporting of NTV in the address of the general representation of the Russian Federation expressed his bewilderment and Crimean Prime Minister Serhiy Kunitsyn. He referred to the information journalists blatantly untrue. His point of view was supported by the SBU.
As of 2002, year Ukraine operated a network of student organizations, the closing on the "Arraid." This — "An-Nur" in Kiev, "Al-Isra 'in the winery," Al-Masar "in Odessa," Al-Manar "in Kharkov," Al-Amal "in Donetsk," Ahrar "in Simferopol," Al -Bayan "in Lugansk," Al-Nibras "in Lviv," Al-Fajr "in Zaporozhye," Al-Huda "(This Way) in Poltava," Al-Mustaqbal "in Dnepropetrovsk. There are a number of ladies' clubs in Kiev, Donetsk and Simferopol. All of these organizations continue to spread the ideology of Wahhabism in the territory of Ukraine.
Ukraine also have taken samples of opening a network of Islamic cultural centers in areas across the country. One of these organizations appeared in Kherson. Its activity has caused discontent of Muslims in the region. At the community meeting, held on 10 April 1994, and it was said: "For Muslims, the emergence of the ICC was a complete surprise. Was not brought to the attention of the community of Muslims got tired of ICC. On the question to the chairman of the ICC D. Faizova: Does your registered ECC? — The answer was negative. " Attention is drawn to the fact that this organization has received fundamentalist literature and distributed it in the middle of Muslims Kherson. At the designated meeting it was unanimously decided to petition the city government to ban the registration center under David J. Faizova. Ever since the mid-1990s, there was also a regional cultural center of Islam in Donetsk, who has been active in religious activities, namely, the production of literature contributed to the organization "Muslim Brotherhood." But, according to documents the Department of Religious Affairs of Donetsk regional administration, classes conducted by the organization were not religious, as it should, the company could not be attributed to this.
Cultural center in Donetsk in Ukraine represented the interests of the Islamic Congress of. The members of this organization were imported to Ukraine and distributed literature provahhabitskuyu Islamic Congress of the Russian Federation, which is namely directed to the municipal library. Islamic cultural center in Donetsk has also established a tight fit relationship with the association "Al-Bushra," and assisted in the distribution of the newspaper "Al-Bayan", which is one of the first mass media in Ukraine who spread the ideology of the party "Muslim Brotherhood." In the paper, namely, published articles and reference was made to such religious and political figures such as Abu Ala al-Mawdudi, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Khuram Murad, Mukaddas Bibarsov, Abdulrahman Tahir (head of the foundation, "CAAP Faundeyshin"). Last on the pages of the newspaper praised the ideological predecessor of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Ibn Taymiyyah and the 1st of the ideologists of the extremist organization "Muslim Brotherhood" Abu Ala al-Mawdudi.
In Kiev Islamic cultural center and has worked extensively with the organization "CAAP Faundeyshin.&qu
ot; With the assistance of this organization in the cultural center was opened Arabic language courses, built a number of mosques in the Crimea (Pioneer, Oaks, Spring, Stroganovka, Simferopol). With the support of "CAAP Faundeyshin" also began operating fund "Shafakat" (Compassion). But more fascinating is the fact that this company with main office in the South American state of Virginia, the most Intriguing economic situation in Ukraine. In one of the letters sent to the Kherson region, the head of the organization was interested in the economic situation of the region (the state of the industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, etc.). In 1995, the organization abruptly ended its existence.
It must be emphasized that the greatest interest for the followers of radical extremist organizations in Ukraine Crimea is having a motley ethno-religious composition. The peninsula is valid beyond the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Crimea. It was established in 1992 from an organization that previously subordinate DUMES (Our Fatherland). Branch left, despite the fact that the VI Extraordinary Congress DUMES decided to keep the unity of the organization and not to allow the division of regional and national basis. In a letter Talgat Tadjutdin to the chairman of the Council for Religious Affairs under the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on this issue stated: "The central body for coordination and spiritual guidance Muslim congregations of Ukraine is the main muhtasibatskoe management, led by Imam Sheikh Ahmed Tamim muhtasibs. The question of secession of Muslim congregations Crimea communities of this region is not rising. Documents about the separation of Crimea from kazyyata DUMES been reported. Taking into account the decision of the Extraordinary Congress of the VI, I ask you during the registration and community centers in Ukraine to deal only with the main muhtasibatskim Board of Muslims of Ukraine. "
Separately on the situation in Crimea. Third step distribution Wahhabism in the Crimea began back in the early 90 years. Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Crimea was then headed by Syed Jalil Ibragimov, who was educated in Saudi Arabia and is closely supported the case against the Wahhabis of. 4th step began in the mid 90's. Then the establishment of several political organizations with Islamic names. During this period the latent aggravation of interethnic relations, sometimes poured into a small conflict (1993-2000). At first it was purely nationalistic character. The Wahhabi factor was to join him later. Here one can draw some parallels with the events that took place during this period in the North Caucasus, where the Wahhabis to the merits of the objectives has been used intensively ethnic factor — the desire of some ethnic groups in the region to obtain municipal autonomy. It must be emphasized that appeals to review the status of Crimea does not stop until the present.
In the last decade of the last century, books were distributed in Crimea Bagautdin Muhammad Fathi Yakana, Abu al-Ala Maududi, Sayyid Qutb, the capital of Wahhabi literature publishing house "Badr" Fund "Ibrahim al-Ibrahim," and co-operative "Satlanda." On some editions dwell. In the book "Namaz", published in Pakistan, unknown maker urges believers to obey the state and make a revolution: "If we are on the earth will obey any state — this government needs to be a Muslim. If the State is alien to these properties, then it is not your government, and you do not have to obey a similar state. " Apart from this, in the Crimea distributed books of contemporary Wahhabi ideologue Muhammad bin Jamil Zina, namely, "The Pillars of Islam and Faith" and "Islamic Softeners."
Overall, from 1994-1998, in Crimea, are vigorously spreading Wahhabi ideology. Indeed, as noted political scientist Rustam Zhanguzhin and Archpriest Alexander Kubelius, the creators of the fundamental research on the impact of the Islamic factor in the internal political life of Ukraine, "the fate of the Crimean Tatars interest shown and Saudi Arabia, which is the birthplace of Wahhabism. It provides assistance in the preparation of priests, finance educational projects. " And he who pays the piper calls the tune. As stated in an interview to UNIAN vice-president of the "Strategy 1" Mike Potter, despite the fact that at the moment the activities of Islamic fundamentalist centers in Crimea does not have the scale unsafe, it carries within itself the potential long-term risk. According to him, it is about Wahhabi wing preachers who have a few hundred followers. They are engaged in preaching work, spread in the middle of the Crimean Tatars, the professional literature. In order to gain credibility in the middle of the Muslim community provide funds for the construction of mosques. Possible risk lies in the verbovanii to this tendency of the Crimean Tatar youth, who has continued the work and lives with a load of unsolved social problems.
According Chetinoglu Oguz, a correspondent for the Turkish magazine "Kalgan" happened more than once on the peninsula during this period, the group visited the Crimea Wahhabi missionaries, who, being in the villages and towns of the peninsula, held meetings where their ideology promoted and distributed pamphlets and books. Also, the supporters of this political trend in a number of villages began to build mosques, but the system works deliberately hampered by requiring residents joining the Wahhabis.
According Chetinoglu, proponents of Wahhabism sought to undermine the authority of Islamic religious leaders who are not amenable to their ideology. To this end, as in the North Caucasus, was used intensively cash method and the impact on local authorities. Because of the connections in the police authorities are also forced into the fold of the Crimean Tatars, who have difficulty with the law, promising solution emerged problems. According to the creator, the impact of Wahhabi authorities extend to more Russian than the Crimean Tatars. In some regions of the Crimea, where supporters of the religious-political movement, a better job, there was a split of the Islamic communities.
The spread of Wahhabism and also badly affected by family relations, leading to a confrontation between the individual family. The mayor Vitaly Bakhchisarai KURBATOV also familiar with the Wahhabis firsthand. "I know several members of the Wahhabi current in town — he said. — They pulled up to discover kids, talking about his own faith, but behave peacefully and quietly. As long as they are on a peaceful track — up to a point. All in good time. "
It seems that proponents of Wahhabism in the Crimea perfectly mastered the technology of modern public relations and seriously worried about your style. Editor in Chief of favorite and one of the Crimean newspapers told of draw, as representatives of constructive Islamists offered her encounter, so that readers can make a more complete picture of Wahhabism. "They were measured, educated, very well prepared to talk people — says the editor. — I realized that I just did not have enough knowledge to lead a discussion on this their highest intellectual level. "
As of 2001 in the Crimea, there were about 300 activists of the Wahhabi movement, whose average age — 30-45 years. They were 30 cells in different cities of the Crimea Fri. Between a cell were connected occasionally, all directly concentrating on overseas representatives. It was also reported that some of the religious communities are legally controlled by the Wahhabi emissaries from the Arab states. Now, you need to consider the number of Wahhabi activists has increased significantly, as wel
l as the complexity and make them network.
First 2000s zabugornyh Wahhabi preachers task was to disseminate literature and verbovanii to his side as many adherents. With all of this in various regions of the Crimea chosen people who can recruit followers. New immigrants paid up to $ 100 per month, subject to the involvement, in turn, new people. More capable of directing to study in Saudi Arabia.
Monitoring the ongoing efforts made by foreigners as well. After one of their visit to the Crimea appeared subsequent reports: "Over the summer in the Crimea in 20 villages Fri worked a group of Arab students. Processed 120 Crimean Tatar families. The aim — to use in the promotion of Wahhabism. Crimea in the year 1017 was visited by Arab students. The purpose of the distribution of religious literature and ideas of Wahhabism. "
Taking into account the establishment of Islamic institutions and the weakness in the Crimea, Wahhabism can quickly take precedence over other areas of Islam — a similar turn of events, many analysts predict. In the meantime, of course, that the situation is getting out of control as the municipal authorities and the Majlis of the Crimean Tatar people.
Considering the above facts, we can make the following conclusions. As in Russia, since the late 80's — early 90's in Ukraine gradually, but every year more and more actively began to spread Wahhabism and the ideology of "the Muslim Brotherhood." All this was done and is being done under the guise of Islam.
In the middle of the 1990s, Ukraine was already on the second step of the spread of Wahhabism — were actively recruited followers in Muslim communities. Increased attention was paid to young people, for verbovaniya which began to organize summer camps. In the same period, and once held the third step — the desire to lead the community, to appoint its own people imams. All this led to the formation of community-independent, which later formed a separate Spiritual Directorate (DTSMU). Legalized underground organizations. For a successful work Wahhabis recorded various cultural centers (Islamic, national), funds and offices. In fact, the same people represented several legal entities. Some of similar organizations intensively collected strategic information about Ukraine. Establish links with organizations provahhabitskimi "Al-Jamaat al-Islamiya», WAMY, funds "Zam Zam" and "Ibrahim al-Ibrahim."
Since the end of 1997, Ukraine is already on the fourth step, the spread of Wahhabism. Having issued the organizational structure and getting a real feeding from abroad, supporters of Wahhabism registered political organization, and since 2000, we can say, opened the final stage of the fourth step. After the deportation of Muaz Abu Obeid, public organization "Arraid" in sharp form the question of relations between Ukraine and the organization "Arraid 'demands as to the state, and more than that — Office of Ukraine intimidated loss of lucrative economic contracts in the Gulf countries.
By the way, verbovanie profitable economic agreements — one of the ways to spread Wahhabi own impact on the municipal authority of that or any other country.