May 7, 2012 10:02
Despite all the advances in science, there still exists a lot of white spots. Magazine «New Scientist» published a list of mysterious phenomena, explain that scientists can not.
1. The placebo effect
Unbelievable, but true, seriously ill patients reduce pain with morphine, and then one day replace the morphine with saline solution. What's going on? Saline solution also relieves pain. This — the placebo effect: somehow the composition of anything can have a very powerful impact. Doctors know about the placebo effect long ago. But other than that, apparently, he has a biochemical nature, we do not know anything. One thing is clear: the mind can affect the body's biochemistry.
2. Horizon problem
Our universe is inexplicable is one. Look at the space from one edge of the visible universe to the other, and you will see that throughout the microwave background radiation in space has the same temperature. This is not surprising as long as you do not think that the two edges are on a distance of 28 billion light years apart and our universe is only 14 billion years old.
Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, so it is impossible to heat radiation could proputeshestvovat between the two levels and balance the hot and cold zones formed during the Big Bang, then setting the thermal equilibrium we see now.
From a scientific point of view is the same temperature of the background radiation is an anomaly. To explain it would be a recognition that the speed of light is not constant. But even in this case, we still are powerless before the question: why?
3. Ultra-energy cosmic rays
For more than ten years, physicists in Japan observed cosmic rays that should not exist. Cosmic rays — are particles that travel in the universe at a speed close to the speed of light. Some cosmic rays reach the Earth in violent events such as supernova. But we know nothing about the origin of high-energy particles observed in nature. And even that is not the real mystery.
When cosmic ray particles move in space, they lose energy in collisions with photons of low energy, for example, the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, the University of Tokyo have discovered cosmic rays with very high energy. Theoretically, they could only come out of our galaxy, but to find the source of these cosmic rays in our galaxy, astronomers can not.
4. The phenomenon of homeopathy
Madeleine Ennis, a pharmacologist at Queen's University of Belfast — a disaster for homeopathy. It is opposed to the statements of homeopaths that chemical substance can be diluted to such an extent that the sample will contain almost nothing but water, and at the same time have a healing power.
Ennis decided once and for all prove that homeopathy is just chatter. In her latest work, she describes how her team in four different laboratories have investigated the effects of ultra-dilute solutions of histamine on the white blood cells involved in inflammation.
Surprisingly, scientists have found that homeopathic solutions (diluted to such an extent that, apparently, did not contain even a single molecule of histamine), worked in the same way as histamine. Prior to these experiments, no homeopathic remedy has never worked in clinical trials. But the Belfast study suggests that still something going on. "We — Ennis says — can not explain our findings and report them to encourage others to investigate this phenomenon."
If the results are real, she said, the consequences can be significant: we may have to rewrite physics and chemistry.
5. Dark Matter
Take our best knowledge of gravity, apply it to the rotation of galaxies, and you will immediately discover a problem: according to our knowledge, the galaxy must decay. Galactic matter revolves around a central point, as its gravitational attraction creates centripetal force. But to create the observed rotation in galaxies is not enough mass.
Vera Rubin, an astronomer at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution in Washington, said the anomaly in the late seventies of the last century. The best answer that could give physicists, is to assume that the universe has more matter than we can see.
The problem was that no one could explain what this "dark matter." Explain it, scientists can not so far, and it's a nasty gap in our understanding. Astronomical observations suggest that dark matter should be about 90% of the mass of the universe, and yet we are astonishingly ignorant as to what the 90%.
6. Life on Mars
July 20, 1976. Gilbert Levin sits on the edge of his chair. At a distance of millions of miles away on Mars, landing spacecraft "Viking" took samples of the soil. Levin equipment to blend them with a substance containing carbon-14. Scientists involved in the experiment, consider that if the soil are detected methane emissions containing carbon-14, the Mars life should be. Analyzers "Viking" give a positive result. Something absorbs nutrients, convert them, and then allocates a gas containing carbon-14. But why not a holiday?
Because the other analyzer, designed for the determination of organic molecules that are essential signs of life, but found nothing. Scientists sostorozhnichali and announced the opening of the "Viking" false positive. But is it? Results transmitted from the last NASA spacecraft show that the surface of Mars in the past will almost certainly contain water and therefore was favorable for life.
There is other evidence. "Every mission to Mars — says Gilbert Levin, — provides evidence for my conclusion. None of them it does not conflict. " Levin defends his views no longer alone. Joe Miller, a microbiologist at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, analyzed the data again and believes that the emissions are showing signs of the circadian cycle. And it is very likely that implies life. Do these scientists are right — is still unknown.
Four years ago, were found six particles that should not exist. They were called the tetra — four neutrons, which are in communication, ignoring the laws of physics.
A team of scientists from Caen led by Francisco Miguel Marquez fires a beryllium nucleus in a small carbon target and analyzed their trajectories through the detectors. Scientists expect to see that four different neutron will fall into different detectors. Instead, they found only a single flash of light in a single detector. The energy of this outbreak showed that all four neutrons were in the same detector. Maybe it's just coincidence, and four neutrons accidentally hit in the same place at the same time. But it is ridiculously unlikely. However, this behavior is not unlikely for the tetra.
However, some may argue that the standard model of particle physics, the tetra simply can not exist. After all, according to the Pauli principle, in one system does not exist even two protons or neutrons, which could have the same quantum properties. Hold them together nuclear power is such that he can not even hold two single neutron, let alone four.
Marquez and his team were so overwhelmed with the results, that "buried" the data in scientific papers, which read about a certain probability of opening of the tetra in the future. After all, if you start to change the laws of physics in order to justify the connection of four neutrons, there will be chaos.
Recognition of the existence of the tetra would mean that a combination of elements formed after the Big Bang, is not consistent with what we are seeing now. And, even worse, formed elements become too heavy for the space. However, there is other evidence that speak for that matter may consist of multiple neutrons. This is — a neutron star. They contain a vast number of neutrons, and this means that when neutrons gather in masses come into effect is still unexplained for us strength.
8. Pioneer Anomaly
In 1972, the Americans launched a spacecraft Pioneer-10. On board were a message to extraterrestrial civilizations — sign with images of men, women, and the layout of the Earth in space. A year later, after it went to Pioneer-11.
To date, both machines have had to be in deep space. However, the unusual way their paths diverged greatly from the design. Something began to pull (or push), as a result they began to move with acceleration. It was tiny — less than a nanometer per second, which is equivalent to one ten shares of gravity on the Earth's surface. But it was enough to move the Pioneer-10 with its trajectory at 400 000 kilometers.
With Pioneer-11 NASA lost contact in 1995, but until then, he deviated from the path in the same way as its predecessor. What was the reason? No one knows. Some of the possible explanations have already been rejected, including software errors, the solar wind and fuel leaks. If the cause was a gravitational effect, then we're on the do not know. Physicists are just confused.
9. Dark energy
This is one of the most famous and the most intractable problems in physics. In 1998, astronomers discovered that the universe is expanding with increasing speed. Before that, it was believed that after the Big Bang expansion of the universe is slowing down. Reasonable explanation for this discovery, scientists still have not found. One suggestion — is responsible for this phenomenon is some property of empty space. Cosmologists call it dark energy. But all attempts to identify it failed.
10. Tenth Planet
On the edge of the solar system, in the cold area of space beyond Pluto something strange happens. After passage of the Kuiper belt — an area of space, replete with ice cliffs — suddenly found a completely empty space. Astronomers call this boundary the Kuiper cliff, because the density of the space after the Stone Belt drops sharply. What is the reason?
The only answer to this may be that the tenth planet in our solar system. And, so to clean the space debris, it must be as massive as Earth or Mars. But, though the calculations also show that such a body could be the reason for the existence of the Kuiper belt, no one has ever seen this fabled tenth planet.
11. WOW signal space
It lasted 37 seconds and came from outer space. August 15, 1977 on the printout of the radio telescope in Delaware recorders drew: WOW. And the twenty-eight years later, no one knows what was the cause of the signal. The pulses come from the constellation Sagittarius at a frequency of about 1420 MHz. Transmission in this range are prohibited by international agreement. Natural sources of radiation, such as thermal emission of the planets, cover a much wider range of frequencies. What was the cause of the radiation from these pulses? Answer is still no.
Closest star in this direction is at distance of 220 light years. If the signal came from there, then it should either be a huge astronomical event, or advanced alien civilization with a surprisingly powerful transmitter. All subsequent observations in the same area of the sky either to no avail. Signal, like WOW, no longer registered.
12. Such fickle permanent
In 1997, the astronomer John Webb and his group at the University of New South Wales in Sydney analyzed the light coming to Earth from distant quasars. In his journey lasting for 12 billion years light passes through interstellar clouds composed of metals, such as iron, nickel and chromium.
The researchers found that these atoms absorb photons of light of the quasar, but are not at all what was expected. The only more or less reasonable explanation for this phenomenon is that the physical constant, called the fine structure constant, or alpha, has a different value for the transmission of light through the clouds. But this is heresy!
Alpha is an extremely important constant that determines how light interacts with matter, and it should not be changed! Its meaning, among other things, depends on the electron charge, the speed of light and Planck's constant. Is it possible that some of these options really changed?
None of the physicists do not want to believe in the correctness of the measurements. Webb and his team for many years trying to find errors in your results. But they still have not. Webb's results — not only to prove that in our understanding of Alpha's something wrong.
A recent analysis of the only known natural nuclear reactor were almost 2 billion years ago, where there is now Oklo in Gabon, also suggests that in the interaction of light with matter, something changed. The proportion of certain radioactive isotopes, developed in such a reactor depends on alpha, and that the analysis of the fission products, preserved in the soil Oklo, allows us to determine the value of a constant in their education. Using this method, Steve Lamoreaux and his colleagues at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico suggested that, since the action in Oklo alpha decreased by more than 4%. And this means that our understanding of the constants may not be true.
13. Cold fusion (STC)
After sixteen years of absence, he returned. Although, in fact, HTC has never disappeared. Beginning in 1989, the U.S. Navy laboratory conducted over 200 experiments designed to find out whether nuclear reactions at room temperature to generate more energy than it uses (it is believed that this is only possible inside stars).
Controlled nuclear fusion would solve many of the world's energy problems. Not surprisingly, the U.S. Department of Energy as it is concerned. In December last year, after a long consideration of all the evidence, it stated that is open to proposals for new cold fusion experiments. This is a rather sharp turn. Fifteen years ago, this same ministry concluded that the initial results of the NTS produced by Martin Fleischmann (Martin Fleischmann) and Stanley Pons (Stanley Pons) at the University of Utah and solemnly presented at a press conference in 1989, can not be confirmed, and thus they are likely to be false.
NTS is the basic principle is that the electrodes of palladium in heavy water (which is connected to the oxygen isotope of heavy hydrogen) can release large amounts of energy. The catch is that all the generally accepted scientific theory believe that nuclear fusion at room temperature is not possible.