Vice-Admiral ZP Rozhestvensky

Soon the identity of the commander of the 2nd Pacific squadron of Vice-Admiral ZP Rozhdestvensky is a lot of enthusiasm. A number of publications is an attempt to look at the knitted his actions in the battle of Tsushima, damage developed over decades of stereotypes. At the same time, the pages of encyclopedias and reference books in recent years edition full of classic features admiral as "one of the main culprits," the defeat of the Russian fleet, which showed a complete lack of talent in the military. " Give an impartial assessment of the actions Commander — task of future historians, we're trying to schematically outline the current and battle your way admiral, to give his mental picture without resorting to an analysis of his mistakes and unfulfilled by the will of fate far-reaching plans. Zinovy Petrovich Rozhdestvensky was born March 17, 1848 From youth he felt a desire to sea service, and seventeen young men entered the Marine artillery classes, and made the first practical diving. In 1870, at the end of the Naval College he was promoted to warrant officers, and three years later he graduated from the course of the Artillery Academy. The acquired knowledge there needed to time Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Lieutenant ZP Rozhdestvensky was involved in almost all military campaigns and clashes with the enemy, namely, in the famous fight steamer active defense "Vesta" with battleship "Fethi-Bulent." Military valor of the young officer was awarded the Order of sv.Zhoru grade 4 and St.. Vladimir, 4th Class with swords, he was promoted to lieutenant commander.

Vice-Admiral ZP  Rozhestvensky

To the person of Vice-Admiral ZP Rozhdestvensky at the current time in the history buffs valued relationship. Certainly, being a squadron commander in so difficult circumstances, he could not win gromozvuchnuyu victory, as foreshadowed by Nicholas P. willed him very far stalled Marine Department — this is a tremendous bureaucratic machine — with the connivance of the governor. Yet almost all were able to ZP Rozhdestvensky. Save part of the combat-ready ships, bringing them up to Vladivostok, was completely solvable problem. The compilers do not divide the world creator articles about the infallibility of full admiral, allegedly so much hamstrung by events. Personality as a squadron commander in the days of sailing ships, and during the Russian-Japanese war was still one of the major reasons for the victory. One characteristic of an unknown episode relating to the initial period of service Rozhdestvensky (1873), described in the memoirs of the admiral Tsyvinski. "At one point, walking in tow with the clipper" Almaz "in a foggy morning we were thrown out of their own beds from a strong push. Springing up, we have seen that in our bowsprit sits strung his front sail merchant brig, caught between 2 — mja our courts and the dangling tow. turned out that the brig shtileval under sail and almost did not budge, but the chief officer of the watch on the "Diamond" Leith. ZP Rozhdestvensky, of course, missed it and did not give him the road, hoping to jump to the front of the tug his nose, but the brig was unimportant stroke, and he crashed into a tow. " More impartial, in our opinion, should be considered as world-historical commission on the description of the war at the Naval General Staff, which states: "The actions of the Chief of the squadron, as in the conduct of the battle, and in his preparation, it is difficult to find at least one correct solution. Subordinate flagship acted slowly and without any initiative. Admiral Rozhdestvensky was a man of strong will, courageous and dedicated hot own business, an experienced organizer of supply and the economic part, a stunning sailor, but devoid of the tiniest shadow of military talent. The campaign of his squadron from St. Petersburg to Tsusimy bespritsidenten in history, but in the military operations he showed not only a lack of talent, and the complete lack of military education and military training — properties that he could not say his own squadron. "

"Russian-Japanese War" of 1904-1905. PGA seventh book. 1917, p.218. "Tsusimskaya operation."

Since 1890, Zino P. alternately commanded clippers (from 1892 Cruisers 2nd rank) "Rider" and "Cruiser" gunboat "Wag" cruiser I rank "Vladimir Monomakh", battleship of coastal defense "firstborn." Later, he was appointed chief of artillery training unit, and then the artillery detachment of the Baltic Fleet, where he was able to significantly advance the gunnery in our fleet. It directed the attention of Nikolai II, and ZP Rozhdestvensky enlisted in the Royal Suite. Commanding a different ships and connections, Zino P. proved himself an expert seamanship, serious and demanding boss — for it was not the word "impossible."

In 1903, Rear Admiral ZP Rozhdestvensky was appointed Chief of Naval Staff of the Head of human companion (deputy) of the control by the Marine Department. He constantly fought for the creation of a large armored fleet and supported the idea of merit winning the naval war by defeating the enemy in a pitched battle. The war against Japan caused a vigorous activity admiral to strengthen the naval forces. Reputation as an experienced sailor initiative with steel willpower almost all influenced the decision about the purpose of ZP Rozhdestvensky, in April 1905 the commander of the 2nd Squadron of the Pacific Fleet. Preparing it for the campaign, Admiral vyznat the present value of the armada and amused themselves unfulfilled hopes of winning, but, true to duty as close remarked knew Rozhdestvensky creator of the famous "Reckoning," the captain II rank Semenov, no one would give way to the honor of being the first in the the ranks of people voluntarily coming to a bloody settlement. After receiving the news of the death in Port Arthur of the First Squadron, Admiral decided that the only chance of success — immediate progress and a breakthrough in Vladivostok. But at the behest of St. Petersburg squadron forever stuck in Madagascar. The ships started its teachings, exits into the sea for practical service and maneuvering. But each shell was at a premium, and reluctantly heart in one of the orders of Admiral wrote: "… you need to train hard. We can not waste a lot of ammunition for target practice … If God be upon meeting the enemy in battle, you need to conserve ammunition … "

Vice-Admiral ZP  Rozhestvensky

On the deck of the cruiser "Svetlana". Emperor Nicholas II and Admiral ZP Rozhestvensky during the show ship in Libau.
Vice-Admiral ZP  Rozhestvensky

Admiral Togo Rozhdestvensky visits to the hospital in the seaside city of Sasebo.

Sent from St. Petersburg directive said that after the death of the First to the Second Squadron assigned task of
great significance: take hold of the sea and cut off the enemy's army from the Land of the Rising Sun, but if the squadron today its composition can not do the puzzle, then it will be sent in care of the Baltic Sea all combat-capable ships. Rozhdestvensky said that with the forces that are at his disposal, he has no hopes to take over the sea, that the promised reinforcements would not lead to the strengthening of the squadron, and only a burden to her, and that the only plan appears to him likely — to try to break with the best forces in the Vladivostok and from there proceed to the communications of the enemy. But the "reinforcement" in the form of the Third Squadron Admiral Nebogatov still be sent, and came out with such a burden of the bay Kamrang, vice-admiral ZP Rozhdestvensky has lost some of the smallest shred of hope for success.

In the fateful day May 14, 1905 after the failure of the flagship battleship "Prince Suvorov" when hit almost all who were in the conning tower, control was transferred to a protected post. Despite the fact that Rozhdestvensky was shot in the head, back and right arm (not counting the bruises from small fragments), he kept quite cheerfully. To better monitor the progress of the battle, the admiral went right into the middle 6-inch tower, but has got a splinter in his left leg broke in the main nerve, and the foot was paralyzed. The commander brought to the tower already creased and does not rotate. From time to time he raised his head and asked questions about the course of the battle, and later again was sitting silently and dejectedly. Short glimpses of consciousness and bursts of energy, interspersed with oblivion, it lit up the dark with soot face covered with streaks of dried blood. When a board crippled "Suvorov" on its own initiative stuck "exuberant", an artillery lieutenant Courcelles (then heroically dead) claimed to give the admiral on board the destroyer. The team with great difficulty, tearing it uniform, taken out of the tower (her door jammed) and lowered his hands, almost thrown off by the destroyer, sparking jubilation in the middle of the surviving sailors, "Suvorov". But the overall health of Admiral — tiredness, drowsiness, delirium, and short intermittent flashes of consciousness, making it incapable of using the already moribund squadron. Passing command Nebogatov, Admiral firmly stated: "Going squadron! Vladivostok! NO course 23 °! »But fate had a different way: the feeble admiral, transplanted to the destroyer" mischievous "ranks along with some of his staff, who have passed the ship seized by the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun.

In Sasebo Rozhdestvensky had the surgery, removing a piece of bone stuck in his skull broken. First, in September the prisoners were taken to Kyoto and situated in the temple. In conversations with officers admiral often read about that a radical reorganization of the Navy Department and to improve combat training of personnel. He expressed the idea that the war on almost all opened her eyes, and do not use inherited so dearly conscious experience will be a crime.

After the peace vorachivalis former prisoners of war to their homeland. 3 November 1905 on the steamship Volunteer Navy "Voronezh" Rozhestvensky came from Osaka and 10 days, arrived in Vladivostok. Everyone who met him there, filled with the hope that the admiral in full squadron survived the Way of the Cross from Libau to Tsushima and miraculously saved, will revive the Russian fleet. Even the last chief of the armed forces in the Far East, General AN Kouropatkin in person said that "once again to you all hope that arrive, tell the truth, the whole truth … if you listen to … "On the way to St. Petersburg, and hundreds of thousands of people at the stations and halts ecstatically welcomed Admiral, meeting and seeing off a thunderous" cheers "his train; shed blood for their country and languid wound made him a martyr in the eyes of citizens and public hero. "The power of God would not take yes happiness is not given" — bitterly answered them Rozhestvensky, so touched by the cordial reception of ordinary people.

But in the capital of Admiral waited more than a lukewarm reception. When it became clear that he was going to a stone was cast from the dispatched a squadron of the death of the officials who considered navy own "Zhalovannoj patrimony" against him formed a powerful coalition of opponents. They did their best, that made Rozhestvensky reports about the campaign and the fight were not available, while at the same time, newspapers were full of fantastic story of the battle. Opponents of the admiral was necessary at all costs to keep in the public consciousness that picture of the battle, which hastily constructed armchair strategists on hasty to Western correspondents. On the campaign with the name of the squadron and Rozhdestvensky was tightly woven RF hope of winning, and the Tsushima defeat a negative impact on the reputation of Admiral in the eyes of the public. Works of many writers clearly showed that the blame for the defeat of Tsushima wholly unrealistic to attribute to one Rozhdestvensky, yet admiral, felt guilty, resigned and asked him to try to alleviate their moral anguish. The blame for the catastrophe of Tsushima last commander took over, but the tribunal acquitted him how badly wounded in combat.

Since 1906, the admiral himself ordained public work in the "Special Committee to strengthen the navy by voluntary donations. Namely, it should be specifically considered godfather of the coming of the famous "Novik" as Zino Petrovic opened a "green light" finance its construction. But Admiral excommunication from active duty relentlessly undermined its spiritual and physical strength. Proved prophetic prophecy doctor who treated a prisoner Admiral: "If in St. Petersburg will start up to business — to quicken … Have deposited in the archive — will not stand. " Admiral was sick for a long time, and in 1908, news agencies even incorrectly told of his death abroad. New 1909 Zinovy Petrovich met with your own family and friends. He lived in the house number 8 on Ertelevu Lane (now Ul.Chehova) and felt quite bodrenkim. After escorting guests, Admiral in the 3rd hour of the night on the eve of their own room collapsed and died, struck down by a heart attack. After a day or two funeral service was held at the Cathedral of St. Admiralty. Spiridony and burial at the Tikhvin Cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra last respects to the admiral gave the higher ranks of the Naval Ministry.

Personality Admiral ZP Rozhdestvensky, his office, an unprecedented shift in the Far East and the Tsushima battle — and the richness of our world's history.

Like this post? Please share to your friends: