OSCE ODIHR followed the national elections in the United States, on 5 November 2002 (general election to the U.S. Congress), 2 November 2004 (the elections of the President of the United States), November 7, 2006 (the perineum election to the U.S. Congress), 4 November 2008 ( general elections in the U.S. Congress and the U.S. President), 2 November 2010 (the perineum election to the U.S. Congress). In their South American authorities from time to time it is recommended to solve the problem of excessive and disproportionate restriction on active electoral rights of entire categories of the American people. Unfortunately, over the past 10 years, significant configurations to the best and I got nothing. Since the U.S. has taken on the role of "Arbiter", the state of the electoral system and the provision of electoral rights of people go far beyond the purely internal difficulties of the United States. Let's try to briefly analyze some major difficulties.
The electoral system. South American experience in the conduct of the election is unique: more than 18 thousand elected positions of the U.S. President to the sheriff of rural communities, but the flip side of such experience is difficult, decentralization, politicization, lack of transparency and, in the end, partial archaic electoral processes.
It is believed that on November 6 this year South American people will elect their own president. In fact elect the head of the country endowed bolshennymi might not be people, but only a very limited number of so-called electoral college. So Makarov, President will not elect of the American people, and the one who will determine 270. With all this electors can not support the candidate, for whom "entrusted" to vote. In general, the right of the American people to elect their own president can be read at a stretch, and the right to be mean to them Yankees general read is not necessary.
The report, "The segregation of the American people: disenfranchisement of Hispanics in 2012," the human rights organization Advancement Project states that the electoral politics of many of the federal subjects of the United States poses a danger of the role of millions of people — Hispanics in the November presidential election. According to the organization, in 23 states legislative discriminatory barriers may impede the registration and voting more than 10 million Spanish-speaking people of the U.S.. South American defenders rightly believe that laws restricting the right to vote, undermine naturalized in the United States representatives of national minorities to the people "second class" compared with "pure white", undermine the possibility of their role in the overall democratic development of the country.
The electoral law. In the U.S., has a decentralized system of organization and conduct of federal elections, each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia and six territories have separate legislation on the U.S. presidential election. The differences in the regulatory legislation and procedures is even in the middle of the 1st district of the state. With all of this significant volume functions of electoral bodies legally entrusted to the bodies of the executive authority of the state and the legal regulation of campaign candidates virtually absent.
The last presidential elections were held in 2008, and the introduction of legal innovations began only in 2011. For the true time to different institutions 41 State made a minimum of 180 draft laws toughening of voting people. Another 27 of the laws of this kind are pending in six states. Adopted 25 laws and issued two executive orders that affect the electoral process in 19 states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin).
Of these 17 states (Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Mississippi, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin) have passed laws limiting temper which, in the views of political scientists, can affect the results of the election on 6 November. These city states in the totality push the 218 electors, in other words, in fact, 80 percent needed for election of the President of the United States.
The election administration. The natural drawback of the American electoral system, international observers say the lack of a centralized self-contained entity for the elections, which is one of the causes of numerous violations of electoral rights of the people.
In accordance with the laws of the United States engaged in the organization of the voting power of the states and other territorial entities. Based on these characteristics, the main equipment in use obscure election technology at the level of individual states may act (well, stand) authorities in the field, which have the primary responsibility for the formation of election commissions, the company voting and the announcement of its results.
According to the American press, at the present time the Republican Party of the U.S. has several bolshennymi abilities than the Democratic Party. So, the Republicans are kept under control 29 governorships compared to 20 for the Democrats. The advantage of the Republicans is that of 9 "swing" states only 2— North Carolina and Colorado — governorships held by Democrats. In addition, it is believed that M. Romney supporters have an advantage in the use of administrative resources in Florida, Ohio, Iowa and Virginia in favor of the Republicans.
Registration of voters. With countless violations of the rights of people in the United States by the U.S. and the registration of voters.
At the beginning of 2012, every fifth adult Yankee was not considered in the lists of voters, details of 24 million voters are not clear. Many Americans when moving forgets to file a change of address information, and 2.75 million people registered in multiple states. There are instances when they are registered immediately in 6. The list also has about 1.8 million "dead souls" (According to USA TODAY newspaper on February 14, 2012). For the proof of the vulnerability of the system of voter registration in the state of New Hampshire in the Republican primaries in 2012 a group of activists without presenting any documents received ballots in the names of a few who were registered, but have lost members of the Democratic Party and has recorded this video shooting. In January 2012, the Attorney General of South Carolina claimed to discern the facts, in accordance with which more than 900 died Yankees "voted" in the 2010 election in the state.
Voter lists is governed by local law, while every state has its own way. According to the OSCE ODIHR, which worked first in America in 2012, about 51 million American voters were not registered in the coming elections. Overall, 4.1 million people who live outside the country the United States, can not vote. More than 5 million former prisoners continue to be deprived of voting rights because of prohibitive legislation or cumbers
ome procedures to restore their rights.
Voter identification documents. As you know, the U.S. has no internal passports, they can be changed, for example, driver's license, in connection with which the country lacks a unified approach to the identification of people at the polling station.
In 19 states in areas with voters generally do not ask identity card, but just cross-checked with the lists in 16 regions of the country are allowed to do with the document without a photo.
According to statistics from 11 million the Yankees in the main poor, no certificate with a photograph, and the idea of mandatory filing for eligibility to vote of any official document with the photo is sharp debate in the United States. On this approach, insisting Republicans, while the Democrats are staunchly opposed to them.
In 15 states, where the need to present a document with personal photos, citizens are denied the right to vote, even if they are in the lists. In itself, the introduction of a single identification document in order to vote is quite a logical step only in this case does not lead to a breach of a number of the legitimate rights of the Yankees, and once that happens, because, for example, in some states, the only study on the issuance of the document works Only every fifth Wednesday of the month.
Vulnerability of individual data. The growing concern of the American public insecurity secret disk imaging on the political preferences of the voters again confirmed through monitoring the vote in the primaries in 2012.
For example, the data on party affiliation are stored in an electrical form. They are available most voters, as employees of the county and state governments.
Based on these data, the party headquarters hunt down the dynamics of growth of the number of their own supporters. Surprisingly, the designated official statistics are not considered parties as confidential data about voters. So, in 2008, the day of voting in the state of South Dakota Secretary of District Election Commission said that in Hughes County for a role in the election of November 4, 2008 in the lists of recorded 11,162 local voters, of which 2,940 — supporters of the Democrats, 6935 — Republicans 14 — libertarians and 1274 — the proponents of "-independent." And at a polling station in Davie County (South Dakota) on the desktop Commission was printed version of the full list of voters from the county designated it a roll-call data on party affiliation (accessories).
In the U.S., there is no political party membership. Such information has been reproduced in printed list of voters on this site. In the absence of reliable telephone connection with the administration of the county PEC were asked to create such makarom establishing voter identification. On the same stretch of observers recorded a separate list of electors under "inactive voters" also indicating their party sympathies. Copies of these lists were available and at the disposal of national NGOs to observe the elections in this sector, it was available to all voting.
Early voting. Numerous violations of voters' rights are often allowed during early voting, which in itself is one of the issues in the electoral system and is, namely, that during the period of early voting "in the country are very basic steps, namely, candidate debates in presidents, which could affect the will of the voter, but can not because he has already given its own voice ahead of schedule ".
Yet, in the last couple of years in the United States made a concerted effort to significantly expand the ability of voters to vote not only in the usual first Tuesday (after the first Mon) in November, but is more comfortable in time and format. As a consequence, the possibility of early voting required by law 32 states. In addition, the U.S. is allowed everywhere absentee ballot by mail, in which the very problem to trace the fate of a sent newsletter.
At the current time in 21 states voters must explain — to prove that a day of voting, they will be out of town, busy at work, will not be able to come to the polling station for family accident or medical evidence. In 27 states you can vote early by mail without any explanation of the circumstances. In two states — Oregon and Washington, in general, there are no open polling stations, the elections are conducted by mail. In this case, all ballots must be received by the electoral commission until their closure in the day of voting, in other words, almost all the inhabitants of the vote in advance (post goes some days).
Mississippi Secretary of State Delbert Housmann conducted a study on premature vote. As a result, he opened numerous violations of the law in more than 10 around the state during the local elections in 2011. D. Housmann noted that 21 surrounded by a number of "dosrochnikov" and more than 2 times higher than the average percentage across the state, and in the 101 case does not indicate the reason for the request for early voting ballot.
According to the same survey, around 16 in the state was recorded more voters than their residents that the Census 2010 With years of voting age.
Voting rights are violated then the American people and, when used another form of voting — confidence vote when the voter chooses a trustee and instructs him power of attorney to vote for themselves.
The Pentagon, for example, provides almost 100 percent turnout troops to the polls and vote on them is held under the supervision of officers.
Accounting and counting of votes. In the U.S., intensive embedded electrical system of voting. With all of this in American technical devices not designed for printing or any other documentary evidence of the role of citizens in the electoral process. Moreover, their software announced the commercial lurking and can not be controlled, in principle, allows operators of such systems or rewrite reset to vote in favor of the candidate or the other, leaving no trace violations.
In Maryland, even had the experience of computers to hack. Specialists just cracked the system, cooked the results, but faced with the fact that the firm is a manufacturer Diebold machines is still a good result announced by writing off all the "bugs" to "inevitable growing pains." Everything that happened is explained simply: the owners of Diebold openly supported Republicans, including money.
Not the case in the U.S. so far vserasprostraneno worldview that in 2004 the Bush team extensively resorted to vote rigging with the introduction of electric voting systems.
Since the early 2000s, experts say prepyadstviya constantly ODIHR election in the United States using electric cars. It is kept secret voting and non-compliance, and taking into account the need to pay tribute to the cardboard voting results with the possibility of a mechanical inspection, and ensuring transparency of electric cars, and issues of public confidence in the technical means voting with the ability to obtain the codes, software, and independent testing of electric vehicles, and the introduction of power conversion votes in the small difference of votes, and much more.
But none of these problems in the United States at the federal level is not resolved.
Judicial protection of the right to vote. U.S. officials prefer to avoid public discussion of violations of electoral rights of the people. Almost a substantive discussion of violations of the electoral law and the electoral rights of the United States Yankees in the current time is within the scope of activity of bloggers on the web as. But, despite the obvious value of blogs as a fundamental means of communication and a source disk imaging gathered witnesses, the facts given by the U.S. authorities did not provide any official proceedings or judicial appeals.
One of favorite American bloggers followed properly assessed the situation: "We litsezreem reports of fraud in the elections in other countries, but never think serious
ly about what is happening here in the scale large enough to change the outcome of elections. This is America, we speak for themselves , this simply can not happen here ".
Election observation. Monitoring the presidential and parliamentary elections in the U.S. in the main carried out by observers (poll watchers) from candidates and political parties. In problematic from the standpoint of the rights of minority regions are connected to this activity, local NGOs (about 100) that are part of the coalition "Protection of the election" (Election Protection Coalition). Apart from observing the vote, these organizations help voters to go to specialized commissions and courts with complaints of violations of their rights.
Status of U.S. NGO activists at the ballot remains uncertain. Under the laws of some states of the local human rights defenders are allowed to stay in the voting and counting of votes. In other regions, the permission applies only to the first or second step.
In almost all states, the law generally avoids the question of state observers, and the regulation of observation, as in the case of foreigners, is left to the discretion of the officers of election commissions.
The rules that regulate the activities of public election observers, contradictory. In the 39 states of the U.S., they have the right to challenge the legality of the role of people in elections at a polling station right in the day of voting. Usually, it must be done in writing or under oath. Despite the fact that the observer is required to have "reasonable grounds" to challenge the rights of voters, only 15 states have to prove their validity.
There are cases where some public organizations in public and voters blamed without evidence of illegal voting. So, in May 2012 in North Carolina limited observer J. O'Keefe took the camera "suspicious" persons entering the polling place with the following placement of video on the Web, for which, however, was later prosecuted for innuendo.
Overall, the acting U.S. monitoring of the civilian society over the organization will of the people tied to the two-party system, operated by the local customs faster than the law. It is fragmented and exposed by the election commissions, which often leads not to the defense, but on the contrary — a violation of electoral rights of the American people, including the free will and secret ballot.
International election observation. For the majority of the American people the role of representatives of foreign countries to observe the ballot for election to the United States to this day remains a kind of exotic, but in almost all the polling area of the international obligations of the United States in the electoral sphere just do not know.
At the current time only in the states of Missouri, South Dakota and New Mexico, as in the federal environment Columbia have laws that allow the access of foreign observers during the elections. In other regions, the question of the activity zabugornyh observers is the responsibility of local authorities.
National Association of Secretaries of State of the states in 2010 adopted a resolution inviting international observers for the OSCE bands come to the United States with monitoring missions. In past years, members of such missions were not once denied access to polling stations, even in surroundings that were "discovered" for foreign observers.
Very soft-spoken would be that the United States has never been vsepolnotsennyh OSCE missions. With all this ODIHR than once urged the U.S. government to take measures to implement its own international obligations, including securing the rights of international observers, their ability to be in the voting and vote counting operation of law, and not at the discretion of the local organizers and managers polling stations. President of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Todd Jealousy described the actions of 2012 as follows: "For over a century the United States does not beheld such a wide coming to the voting rights of man." The Minister of Justice was required to agree to the demand associations and invite the UN on this presidential election.
The introduction of electoral political strategies. Perfectly clear that the U.S. is home to different polling political technologies, while not always honest.
In the presidential election of 1864, in what was Abraham Lincoln, was born as a pronounced at the moment, "black PR": cartoons have appeared in newspapers on the Democrats, put them outright traitors, was fabricated and propagated in the amount of 100 thousand copies of the text of the agreement kept secret between the Peace Democrats and the Confederates, which was distributed in the form of a pamphlet only among the people who sympathize with the Democratic Party.
At the same time in various forms and are widely used administrative resources, particularly in the military vote.
As a result of all the contrivances for Abraham Lincoln gave their votes to 55 percent of voters and 78 percent of the electoral college (in electoral college votes are 212 as against 21).
In the future development of technology had brought their own elective contributions "Tammany Hall" — political organization of the Democratic Party in New York, which appeared on the base made in 1789 by the Society of St. William Mooney. Tammany (named after the famous Indian chief), speaking at the time against the nobility and intensive supportive Jefferson.
In 1808, the Company has built a New York private room, dubbed the "Tammany Hall." In the coming it turned into a political machine for candidates for elected positions of the Democratic Party, which became famous for countless variants of bribery, gangsterism, embezzlement of public funds by the chiefs of the organization for many years held in his hands the executive branch of the town and the State of New-york.
It should be noted that the practice of televised debates began in America with the famous debates Kennedy and Richard Nixon September 26, 1960. Since then, the country has been the favorite to plead not only about uveritelnosti and logical order of his own voice, and the color of his own tie, and the presence of the person's own dazzling grin, on the representation of public integrity own personal family life and political activities.
Along the way, on TV twisted family paid advertising — short transmission "for a cup of coffee at Kennedy." The viewer got a warm and prosperous atmosphere, "the South American common home" and "normal American family": his mother Rosie deftly knits on the needles and answers questions housewives, younger kids touching and obedient, John himself with a pleasant smile on his lips from time to time is in the background. Unobtrusive, but well-known. This show Fictions his brother Bobby. Proper introduction of television in 1960, decided the final election, in which Kennedy defeated its own competitor with the lowest score, gaining 50.5 percent of the vote in Massachusetts.
As for other forms of political and social advertising, the first political icons also appeared in America still under George Washington and looked like uniformed buttons. One of the methods for the expression of electoral sympathies, was wearing a party functionaries and supporters of political parties tapes with portraits of candidates, or drawings on a patriotic theme. Not so long ago, there was brand new trend — the introduction of virtual images of the icons in the web — web buttons, where users can place on their personal sites and those expressing sympathy own candidate. It is significant that until 1972 "Znachkova" pre-election campaign was only in the UK. But since the Nixon campaign icons appear for the state of minorities: Poles, Armenians, Estonians, etc.
The pressure on the off-grid "third" parties and forcing employees subo
rdinate to the "right vote" has become the hallmark of today's presidential election campaign in the United States. Jill E. Stein (Jill Ellen Stein) — officially registered candidate for President of the United States of dwarf "Lots of greenish" — was arrested on October 16 this year while trying to hold a "sitting protest" in front of the venue of the debate between Barack Obama and M. Romney in the suburbs of New York. Ecologist protested against non-members of the "third parties" for the role in the debates (in 2008, they voted for the 2 million American men). Police filed J. Stein charged with violating public order, and the old American as much as eight hours are spent at the police station in handcuffs, although this appeal clearly not the gravity of the offense — obstructing public transport, much less that any vehicle on the street at that time was not because of the overlap of the movement hidden service.
In accordance with the criminal code of New York candidate of the "greenish" faces up to 15 days or a fine of up to $ 250. With all of this in a more "serious" states it could get up to years of imprisonment.
South American human rights activists are fixed and other examples of pressure to "third parties" that are virtually excluded from the political process by establishing different administrative barriers (more stringent conditions for registration, more than the highest rates for advertising, etc.). Representatives of these parties (in today's election campaign than J. Stein involved libertanets G. Johnson and ultra-conservative B. Goode) are gaining a maximum of 1-2 per cent, but in the rating criteria of equality between Barack Obama and M. Romney can play the role of "spoilers" for favorites of the race.
This situation makes more problems for the Republicans (specifically their "field" play Johnson and Hood) than for Democrats, hampered by J. Stein. Supporters M. Romney in several states are trying to prevent rivals for the role in the elections, with all this does not hesitate to act on the brink of a foul. For example, in Pennsylvania, they hired a private detective to check the validity of signatures for Johnson. Someone posing as an FBI agent, which in itself is an offense threatened to collectors of signatures of prosecution for fraud.
During today's election campaign in the United States a vast common practice, when the owners of companies practically force workers to vote for the right candidate. Thus, the owners of the conglomerate "Koch Indusrties" brothers Charles and David Kohi, who are the main sponsors of the ultra-conservative "Tea Party", sent their lists of 50 thousand employees' right candidates. " The letter says that the choice — a private affair citizen, but contained an unequivocal "warning-stimulus": in the case of the Obama victory is inevitable dismissal. Similar in content and focus of the documents sent his subordinates to support the Republican holders of the hotel chain "Westgate Resorts" and the computer company "ASG Software Solutions".
These facts appear to represent only a small — the visible part of a large iceberg Zapyataev technologies and outright violation of electoral rights of the American people.
Summarizing, it should be stated that all the 223 year history of the organization and holding of democratic elections in the United States (the first presidential elections took place in 1789), replete with examples of violations of electoral rights of the American people. These facts represent only a small portion of their pleasant and are evidence that the electoral system and electoral laws of the United States are far from perfect. They are contradictory, archaic, and more than that, do not meet the democratic principles that are fundamental in the United States have announced their own internal and external policies.
In my rigid belief unbiased observer would be able to see this again in the course of the U.S. presidential elections in 2012.