We litsezreem what is happening in the world, which here piling up serious danger. The reality of the current day or — the growth of ethnic and religious tensions. Nationalism, religious intolerance are the ideological basis for the design groups and trends. Destroy, undermine the country and divide society.
The enormous migration flows — and all have reason to believe that they will be enhanced — have already called the new "great migration of peoples" that can change the normal way and the view of entire continents. Millions of people in search of the best of life to leave the region suffering from hunger and acquired conflicts, poverty and social disorder.
With the "worsening state issue" very tightly faced the most developed and prosperous country, which until then were proud of their own tolerance. And now — a string declare the failure of attempts to integrate into society inokulturny element, to provide conflict-free, harmonious interaction of different cultures, religions and ethnic groups.
"Melting pot" of assimilation knocks and smokes — and is not able to "digest" all the growing scale migration flow. Reflecting this, the policy was "multiculturalism", which denies integration through assimilation. He builds an absolute "right of minorities to be different" and for all that is not enough balances that right — civilians, behavioral and cultural obligations imposed on the indigenous population and society as a whole.
In almost all countries add up closed national and religious communities, which not only assimilate, and even adjust shall be removed. Known neighborhoods and entire town where generations of immigrants already living on welfare and do not they say in the language of the host country. The response to such a pattern of behavior — the growth of xenophobia in the middle of the local indigenous population, an attempt to aggressively defend their interests, jobs, social benefits — from "foreign competitors." People are shocked by the brutal pressure on their traditions, the usual way of actual and serious danger of losing the fear of national-state identity.
Totally respectable European politicians are beginning to talk about the failure of the "multicultural project." To maintain their position and exploiting "ethnic card" — to run across the field, those who previously considered themselves marginalized and radicals. Recent strength, in turn, dramatically gain weight seriously claim to the municipal authority. In fact, it is proposed to speak of forced assimilation — against the "closed" and a sharp tightening of migration regimes. Carriers have a different culture or "dissolve in most" or remain marginalized minority government — even off the various rights and guarantees. And almost — to be cut off from the ability of a successful career. To be frank — a citizen, delivered in such conditions, it is hard to wait for loyalty to their own country.
For the "failure of the multicultural project" stands the crisis of the model of the "national state" — a country historically built only on the basis of ethnic identity. And it is — a stern challenge that will be faced and Europe, and many other regions of the world.
Our homeland as a "historical state"
With all the external similarity of our situation — a fundamentally different. Our national and immigration problems directly linked to the destruction of the USSR, and in fact, historically — big of, existing in its own base in the XVIII century. With the inevitably ensuing degradation of municipal, social and economic institutions. With a huge gap in the development of the post-Soviet space.
Having declared sovereignty 20 years ago, the then deputy of the RSFSR in the heat of combat, "the Union center" initiated the process of construction of the "nation-state", while even the most inside the Russian Federation. "Union center", in turn, trying to put pressure on the opponents started a game behind the scenes with Russian autonomies, promising them the increase of the "nation-state status." At the moment, the participants in these processes shift the blame on each other. But of course one thing — their actions to the same extent and will inevitably lead to the collapse and separatism. And they did not find neither courage nor responsibility, nor the political will — that alternately and aggressively defend the territorial integrity of the motherland.
What maybe did not give myself a report for the founders' ploys to sovereignty "- all the others, including beyond the borders of our country — realized very true and fast. And the consequences are not forced himself to expect.
With the disintegration of the country, we are on the brink, and in some regions of the recognizable — and beyond civilian war, while specifically on ethnic grounds. Great exertion, bolshennymi victims of these centers we have been able to repay. But this, of course, does not mean that the problem is removed.
But even at a time when the government as an institution critically weakened, Our homeland is not lost. It turned out that, as Basil Klyuchevskii read with reference to the first Russian Time of Troubles "broke down when the political ties of public order, the country was spared the moral will of the people."
And by the way, our prazdnichek November 4 — a day of national unity that some surfactants referred to as "the day of victory over the Poles," in fact — is "a day of victory over an" over the internal strife and quarrels, when caste, nationality understood themselves as a community — one people. We have every right to consider this prazdnichek days of the birth of our civilian civilization.
Our historical homeland — not ethnic government and South American "melting pot," where, in general, is all one way or another — migrants. Our homeland appeared and evolved over the centuries as a multinational government. The government, in what was a process of constantly mutual addiction, mutual penetration, the mixing of peoples on the family, on a friendly, at the service level. Hundreds of ethnic groups living on their own land along and near the Russian. Mastering tremendous territories that filled the history of, was a joint affair of many nations. Suffice it to say that ethnic Ukrainians live in the area from the Carpathians to Kamchatka. As ethnic Tatars, Jews, Belarusians …
In one of the most of early Russian religious-philosophical works "Sermon on Law and Grace" rejected the very theory of the "chosen people" and preached the idea of equality before God. And in "The Tale of Bygone Years" as described by the multinational character of ancient country: "But who in Slavic states in Russia: clearing drevlyans, Novgorod, Polotsk, Dregoviches northerners buzhane … But other nations: Chud, Meria, the whole, muroma, Cheremysi, Mordovians, Permian, pechera, yam, Lithuania, kors, Narva, Livs — these they say in their own languages … "
Specifically, this was particularly fond of Russian statehood Ivan Ilyin wrote: "It is not
to eradicate, not suppress, not to enslave someone else's blood, not to stifle the lands, and the non-Orthodox life, and breath, and give everyone a stately home … all to observe, to reconcile all, to give all to pray in their own way , to work in their own way, and the best from everywhere to engage in a public and cultural development. "
Rod fastening fabric of this unique civilization — the Russian people, the Russian culture. Oh, so this time the rod various provocateurs and our opponents will try by all means to pull out of — through a fake Russian discussion on the right to self-determination of "racial purity", the need to "finish the job in 1991 and completely damage the empire, sitting on the neck of the the Russian people. " So that in the end — to force people with their hands to destroy their country.
I am deeply convinced sample preach the idea of building a Russian 'national' mono-ethnic country contrary to all of our thousands of years of history. Moreover, it is the shortest path to the destruction of the Russian people and Russian statehood. Well, at least some viable, sovereign state on our land.
When people start to shout, "Enough to feed the Caucasus" — expect tomorrow will inevitably be followed by a call: "Enough to feed Siberia, the Far East, the Urals, the Volga, Moscow …". Specifically for such prescriptions are subject to the one who led to the disintegration of Russian Alliance. As for the unfortunate state of self-determination, which, fighting for power and geopolitical dividends, not just speculating policies in different fields — from Vladimir Lenin to Woodrow Wilson — that the Russian people have long gained independence. Self-determination of the Russian people — it's multi-ethnic civilization, sealed with Russian cultural core. And the choice of the Russian people confirmed over and over again — and not on plebiscites and referendums, and the blood. The whole self-thousand-year history.
Single cultural code
Russian municipal development experience is unique. We are a multinational company, but we are one people. This makes our country a complex and multi-dimensional. Gives enormous capacity for development in almost all areas. But, if a multinational company hit the bacteria of nationalism it loses its strength and sturdiness. And we have to realize what far-reaching effects can cause conniving attempts to ignite national enmity and hatred towards people of other cultures and other faiths.
Civil peace and international harmony — this is not done once and forever frozen picture. On the contrary, it is unchanging dynamics, dialogue. This — the careful work of the country and the society, which requires a very thin making balanced and wise politician, able to provide a "unity in diversity". It is necessary not only compliance with the mutual responsibilities, and finding universal values. You can not be against the will of the force together. And you can not compel to live together on the calculation, based on the weighing of costs and benefits. These "settlements" work until the crisis. And in a moment of crisis are beginning to act in the direction of working.
Confidence that we can provide the harmonious development of a multicultural community, based on our culture, history, identity type.
You may recall that many Soviet citizens who found themselves abroad, called themselves Russian. At the same time considered themselves such, regardless of ethnicity. Fascinating, and the fact that the ethnic Russian, not ever, in any of emigration were not sustainable public diasporas, although numerically and qualitatively were presented very much. Since our identity — another cultural code.
The Russian people is the state-forming — on the fact of the existence of. Lofty Russian mission — to connect voedinyzhdy, fasten civilization. Language, culture, the "world responsiveness", as defined by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian bond Armenians Russian Azerbaijani, Russian Germans, Russian Tatars … Bond in such type of state-civilization, where there is no "natsmenov" and the principle of discernment "friend or foe" is defined a common culture and common values.
This civilizational identity was based on the preservation of Russian cultural dominance, the carrier of which serve not only the ethnic Russian, and all media such identity regardless of nationality. This is the cultural code that has undergone in recent years severely tested, which tried and are trying to crack. Yet he, of course, survived. Together with the fact it needs to nourish, strengthen and save.
A major role here belongs to education. Selection of educational applets, an abundance of education — our undeniable achievement. But the variation should be based on immutable values, basic knowledge and understanding of the world. Plainclothes task of education, the education system — to give each one the amount of mandatory fully human cognition, which is the basis of self-identity of the people. And the first focus should be on improving the educational process of the role of such subjects as the Russian language, Russian literature, Russian history — of course, in the context of the wealth of state traditions and cultures.
In some leading U.S. institutions in the 20 years of the last century, a movement for the study of Western cultural canon. Every self-respecting student would have to read 100 books on a specially crafted list. In some institutions the U.S., this tradition has been preserved and now. Our civilization has always been a reading civilization. Let's do a survey of our cultural influencers, and form a list of 100 books that should be read every graduate of the Russian school. Do not cram school, and specifically without the help of others to read. And let's create a final exam essay on the topic read. Or at least the latter will give young people the opportunity to develop their knowledge and their understanding of the world to competitions and contests.
Appropriate requirements should be set and municipal policy in the field of culture. This refers to tools such as television, film, Web, popular culture in general, which forms the public consciousness, ask behavioral standards and norms.
Recall how Americans by Hollywood forms the consciousness of several generations. At the same time introducing not the worst — and from the standpoint of the public interest, and from the standpoint of public morality — values. There's a lot to learn.
Emphasize that nobody attempts to creative freedom — not to censor it, not the "breech ideology," and that the Government must have the right and their efforts, and to direct its resources to address the social conscious, public tasks. Including the formation and understanding of the world, fastening civilization.
In our country, where many of the minds is not over yet plainclothes war, where the past is very politicized and "razdergano" on ideological quotes (often understood by different people up to the contrary), we need a narrow cultural therapy. Cultural policy, which at all levels — from school benefits from the historical documentary — sformirovyvaetsya be more conscious of the unity of the historical process, in which a representative of each ethnic group, as well as a descendant of the "red Commissioner" or "white officer" would have beheld his place. Would feel the heir of "one for all" — a controversial, catastrophic, but majestic stories of.
We need a strategy of public policy, based on the civilian patriotism. Though some people living in our country should not forget about their own faith and ethnicity. But it must first be a citizen of the Russian Federation and proud of it. No one has the right to put the national and religious peculiarities above the laws of the country. But with all this, the very laws of the country should take into account nati
onal and religious characteristics.
I believe that in the federal government to make a special structure responsible for issues of national development, international well-being, the interaction of ethnic groups. At the moment, these difficulties are the responsibility of the Ministry of Regional Development and a pile of current tasks being replaced by the second, and even third plan, and this situation should be corrected.
This should not be a standard office. Faster focus should be on the collegial body that is specific interaction with the President, the government and the management has some compelling features. Public policy can not be written and implemented only in the offices of officials. In its deliberations and should specifically involve national, public associations.
And, of course, we look forward to an active role in this dialogue conventional religions of. At the base of Orthodoxy, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism — with all the differences and peculiarities — are basic, common moral, ethical and spiritual values: compassion, mutual aid, truth, justice, respect for elders, family and labor standards. These value systems impossible to change anything, and we need to fix.
I am sure the government, society should welcome and support the work of in the usual religious education and education in the social sphere, in the Armed Forces. With all of this must be, of course, preserve the secular nature of our country.
Public policy and the role of strong institutions
System prepyadstviya society very often find out specifically in the form of inter-ethnic tensions. You should always keep in mind that there is a smooth relationship between the unresolved social and economic neuvvyazkami, malformations of law enforcement, government inefficiency, corruption and conflicts in the state soil. If you look at the history of inter-ethnic incidents nedavneshnih — in fact everywhere we find this "trigger": Kondapoga, Manezh Square, Sagra. Throughout the aggravated reaction to the lack of justice for the irresponsibility and inaction of the individual representatives of the country, lack of belief in equality before the law and the certainty of punishment for the offender, the conviction that all purchased and there is no truth.
When it comes about that in Russia, and in particular on the historical Russian territories violated Russian law, it states that the municipal structures do not make their own direct problems — do not protect the lives, rights and safety of the people. And since most of these people — the Russian, it becomes possible to parasitize on the topic of "national Russian suppression" and clothe justified public protest in the most primitive and vulgar form of inter-ethnic strife. And right on every occasion to wail about "Russian fascism".
Necessary to account for the dangers and hazards are enclosed in situations of potential transition to the stage of the state of the conflict. And the best, the most rigid manner, without regard to rank or title, to evaluate the acts or omissions of law enforcement agencies, authorities, which led to inter-ethnic tension.
Recipes for such situations is not very much. Do not build anything in principle, do not make hasty generalizations. Needs careful clarification of the essence of the difficulties of events, the settlement of mutual claims on each specific case where the involved "national question." This process, where there are not any specific events that should be public, since the lack of RAM disk imaging generates exacerbated the rumors. And only then are critical of professionalism and responsibility of the media.
But no dialogue can not be in a situation of disorder and violence. No one should see the smallest temptation to "push power" on these or other solutions with the riots. Our law enforcement agencies have proved that the suppression of such attempts are managed promptly and correctly.
And the next time a fundamentally — we naturally have to develop our democratic, multi-party system. And at the moment preparing decisions to liberalize and simplify the procedure for registration and operation of political parties, proposals are implemented to establish the election of regional governors. All of this — the necessary and right steps. But we can not allow the 1 st — skills for the creation of regional parties, including in the national republics. This is — a direct path to separatism. Such a requirement, of course, must be presented and the election of regional governors — who will try to rely on nationalist, separatist, and similar circles of power and should be released immediately, within the framework of democratic and judicial procedures, excluded from the electoral process.
The problem of movement and our integration project
Now people seriously trevozhut, and let's face it — annoying, many of the costs associated with the mass migration — both external and internal Russian. Sounds and question — Will the creation of a Eurasian Union to increased migration flows, and means and to the growth of existing problems here. I think that you need to correctly identify our position.
In 1-x, of course, that we need to significantly increase the quality of migration policy. And we will solve this puzzle.
Illegal immigration is never ever be ruled out absolutely, but it can and must be, of course, is minimized. And in this respect — clear police functions and the possibility of migration services need to be strengthened.
But conventional mechanical tightening of immigration policy will have no effect. In almost all countries, a tightening leads only to an increase in illegal bit of movement. Aspect of migration policy is not its rigidity, and its effectiveness.
In this connection should be as true differentiated policy for legal movement — as a constant and time. That, in turn, implies a trivial values and modes are favored in the migration policy in favor of qualification, competence, competitiveness, cultural and behavioral compatibility. Such a "positive selection" for the quality and competitiveness of the movement is in the world. Superfluous to read and that these migrants integrate into the host society is much better and easier.
2nd. We have a pretty intensive development, internal migration, people moving to study, live and work in other subjects of the Federation, in a large town. In this case, it is full citizens of Russia.
Coupled with the fact the one who is coming to the States with other cultural, historical traditions, should to treat with respect the local customs. By the customs of the Russian and all other people of Russia. Any other — inadequate, brutal, defiant, disrespectful — behavior must meet the respective legitimate, but a harsh response, and the first part of the authorities, which are now often just do nothing. Need to look at whether all the necessary to control such behavior rules are contained in Administrative and Criminal Codes, regulations of the Interior. It is a question of tightening rights, introduction of criminal liability for violation of the immigration rules and regulations of registration. At times quite alert. But if the warning is based on a legal provision, it will be more effective. His true usvoyut — not as a separate world policeman or bureaucrat, and specifically as a requirement of the law that is similar to all.
In the internal movement are also important civilized framework. In particular it is necessary for the harmonious development of social infrastructure, health, education, the labor market. In almost all the "migration attractive" regions and metropolitan areas, these systems are currently operating at the limit, which makes it rather difficult situation for both the "native" and for the "newcomers."
I think that should go for tightening registration rules and sanctions for violations. Of course, without prejudice t
o the constitutional rights of people to choose their place of residence.
Third — is strengthening the judicial system and the construction of effective law enforcement. This is fundamentally fundamentally not only for outdoor immigration, but, in this case, and for internal, namely, the movement of the regions of the North Caucasus. Without this can never be achieved impartial arbitration of interests of different communities (as the host of the majority and migrants) and the perception of the migration situation as non-hazardous and fair.
Moreover, incapacity or corruption of the court and the police will always lead not only to frustration and radicalization of the workers of the host society, and to perpetuate "showdown on the concepts of" criminalized and shadow economy in the medium itself migrants.
You can not afford to have appeared closed, isolated national enclaves, in what often are not laws, and various kinds of "concepts." And at first violated the rights of migrants — both from their own criminal bosses and corrupt officials from power.
Specifically on corruption flourishes ethnic crime. From a legal point of view, criminal gangs, built on ethnic, clan principle, is no better than ordinary gangs. But in our conditions ethnic crime is not only the problem of crime, and the problem of state security. And it should be treated appropriately.
4th — it is the problem of civilized integration and socialization of migrants. And then again to return to the dilemmas of education. We should not focus so much on the education system to address the issues of migration policy (it is far not the main task of the school), but the first of the great Russian measurement standards of education as such.
The attractiveness of education and its value — a powerful lever, a motivator of behavior for the integration of migrants in terms of integration into the society. While the low quality of education has always provokes a huge isolation and secrecy migrant communities, but now a long, level generations.
We fundamentally, that workers can adapt to normal society. Yes, in fact, a simple requirement for people wishing to live and work in Russia, is their willingness to learn our language and culture. Over the next year of mandatory need to do for the acquisition or extension of immigration status exam in Russian language, history of the Russian Federation and Russian literature on the basics of our country and the law. Our government, like other civilized countries, is ready to form and provide appropriate educational programs from migrants. In some cases, required all sorts of indispensable additional prof training through employers.
And, finally, the fifth — it is closely integrate the former Soviet Union as a real candidate uncontrolled migration flows.
Specific prerequisites mass movement, and has already been mentioned above — a huge disparity in the development and criteria for existence. It is clear that the method of logical, if not eliminate, at least minimize the migration flows, would be to reduce such disparities. It stands for an unlimited number of different kinds of humanitarian, left-wing activists in the West. But, unfortunately, on a global scale, this is fine, ethically irreproachable position suffers a natural utopianism.
But there is no impartial obstacles in order to implement this logic with us on our historical space. And one of the important tasks of the Eurasian integration — do for people, millions of people in this space the opportunity to live with dignity and develop.
We realize that life is not of good people go to distant lands, and often not too far in the civilized criteria earn for themselves and their own families the possibility of human existence.
From this perspective, tasks that we set and inside the country (with the creation of the modern economy efficient employment, recreation Prof. communities, even development of the productive forces and social infrastructure in the whole area of the country), and the Eurasian integration tasks — is the main tool by which to enter the migration flows to normal. In fact, on the one hand, to put workers back to where they would cause less social tension. And on the other — so that people in their own native place, in your own small home can feel normal and comfortable. You just need to give people the opportunity to work and live a normal life at home, in their native land, the possibility that they currently lack almost everything. In public policy, there can be a conventional solutions. Its elements are scattered in all spheres of life and society — economy, social sphere, education, political system and external policies. We need to build a model country of civilized community with such a device, which would be completely equal and harmonious presentable for everyone who believes Russia's own homeland.
We litsezreem direction of future work. We need to realize that we have a historical experience that no one else has. We have strong support in the mind, in the culture, the identity of which is not present in others.
We will strengthen our "historical government"We got from Protz. State civilization that is able to solve the puzzle organic integration of different ethnic groups and religions.
We have lived together for centuries. Together to overcome the most terrible war. And we will continue to live together. And for those who want or try to divide us, I can say one thing — do not hold your breath …