February 7, 2013 5:40
Jules Verne — a name known to all lovers of science fiction and adventure. The protagonist of the works of this remarkable writer — Captain Nemo — scientist-oceanographer and inventor who built a submarine "Nautilus". In the days of Jules Verne that ship seemed incredible and fantastic literary fiction. Interestingly, the legendary Captain Nemo was just a figment of the imagination of the writer, or he had a prototype of real people? To answer this question, examine the facts about some interesting people.
The adopted son of an Indian Raja
Jules Verne's literary talent is embodied in his numerous novels, is a favorite of readers. But in creating their works of writer used not only their imagination, but also relied on solid facts about scientific discoveries, inventions made by prominent people, among them scientists, travelers, political and military figures. The writer even had a special filing, he collected over the years.
This file cabinet is interesting information about Nana Sahib, the adopted son of an Indian rajah. In 1857 he led a revolt of soldiers serving in the British administration — sepoys. These soldiers were from the local population, but vprotsesse services have experience in military affairs, had a gun, and rebelled against British oppression of the Indian people.
Uprising, led by Nana Sahib, seized a large area of central India. The rebels occupied the town of Kanpur. Two years of the struggle was waged against the British tyranny, but performances rebel forces were poorly organized and fragmented, lacking a strategic training and synchronicity. This led to the fact that the rebellion was finally crushed. Nana Sahib was forced into hiding in heavy jungle country and direct local guerrilla groups. Information on the fate of the leader of the sepoys in the files of Jules Verne's not …
Son of "Mr." Y "
Card file contains a card writer with an intriguing inscription "White Raja, son of an English lord N. One of the creators of "The Monitor". The researchers were able to decipher the mysterious record. Mentioned in the card, "Mr. Y" was a military surveyor from England. During the years of his service he has traveled half of Indian lands, and even threw in his lot with the adopted daughter of Raja Duchy Bundelkhand. The family had two children — a boy and a girl. Surveyor sent his son to study in England. The engineering education, the youth returned to their homeland. At that time his father had resigned because he knew that the people's uprising is brewing, and act against the Indian people, he did not.
Unwilling to participate in riots, "Mr." Y "has decided to leave with his family at his home in England. But the family has opposed the move and he went alone. When India Sepoy Mutiny broke out, the son of a retired military topographer was involved in the riots in one area of the country. He was known under the name of White Rajah. Realizing that a popular uprising will be crushed, the young man returned to his hometown of Bundelkhand, took his wife and mother, and they still went to England.
But the British authorities began the search for the White Rajah. Trying to escape arrest, he went to America, where at the time the Civil War broke out. The young man in this fight was on the side of the North.
Residents of the southern United States at that time were working on the construction of a warship "Merrimac," which had a pair of engine and an armored body made of steel. What could be fought with such a "monster" wooden sailboats northerners?
After analyzing the situation, the White Rajah decided to seek help from the Swedish shipbuilder D. Erickson. He proposed a scientist on the means to build a ship that combines battleship and submarine. According to the draft of the White Rajah on the deck of the vessel was to be only the pipe and two turrets.
Having considered the proposal, Erickson made the necessary changes to the project, and gave it to the U.S. President Lincoln. The project was approved. Immediately began construction of the ship.
Meanwhile battleship southerners did the dirty deed. It has already been sunk three sailing vessels northerners. But the construction of a new ship designed by the White Rajah, was coming to an end. The ship was named the "Monitor." As soon as he came to fight, "Merrimack", encountering unexpected resistance not less powerful enemy fled.
That's the man who devised the ancestor of modern submarines, left his place in history. It is a pity that his real name is not known, it is not known and his life. Jules Verne to create novel about Captain Nemo used only a few facts about the White Rajah, which he was able to collect. However, Nana Sahib bul not forgotten them.
Jules Verne underestimated technical progress
It is not known whether the influence on the novel by Jules Verne advances in shipbuilding, but the assumptions of the writer on the subject, put into the mouth of Captain Nemo, were wrong. As mentioned in the novel, the legendary captain, "… in the field of shipbuilding our contemporaries are gone far from ancient. It took several centuries to discover the mechanical power of steam! Who knows whether there will be even 100 years later a second "Nautilus!".
But technological progress has outstripped expectations by Jules Verne. In less than 16 years after the publication of the novel "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" (1870), as in England was launched boat with an electric motor. She was named in honor of zhyulvernovskoy submarine — "Nautilus". Since that time, boat building went rapidly, and in the early 30-ies of XX century were created submarines, not as big as their forefather "Nautilus", and the technical parameters of its much superior. In 1954, American shipbuilders built the world's first submarine with a nuclear reactor — SSN-571. Engine uses a powerful nuclear energy can be fully submerged vessels separate. 1966 saw the release of the sea of the first Soviet nuclear submarine to circumnavigate the globe without surfacing.
Tale "Nautilus", brought to life …
Founded by the talented writer submarine "Nautilus", the first readers of the novel, which was released almost a half-century ago, must have seemed like a fairy tale. On the idea of Jules Verne, the vessel could reach speeds of 50 knots and down to a depth of 16 kilometers. Even after 150 years, mankind has found no such depths in the oceans. The deepest to date is the Mariana Trench, which in 1960 made a descent Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard and Lieutenant Navy U.S. Don Walsh. Bathyscaphe "Trieste", carrying the researchers reached the bottom cavity depth of 11 km.
Getting close to the speed of the fantastic "Nautilus" by Jules Verne could only Soviet submarine Project 661 using atomic engine. Its submarine speed reached 44.7 knots. Of course, modern submarines in its displacement and the number of crew members in the tens of times greater than its literary ancestor ship "Nautilus."