1991 year was the beginning of new era in world history that began with the collapse of the USSR in the country are independent. With its disappearance, and ended the longest war of the twentieth century, which was fought between the East and the West and won the title of the "cold war." Secret military actions took place in over 46 years, not only on earth, and the sea, and air. Start a cool war — 1945. The goal — the struggle for world domination of the capitalist and communist superpowers.
To speak out against each other, neither the U.S. nor the Soviet Union could not because all the confrontation and resulted in a cool war.
In all these years the Americans conducted a wide-ranging intelligence activities against the Russian Union, breaking with all this air, sea and land borders. Not without provocation. It is clear that the Soviet Union could not afford conducting similar activities with impunity, because such provocations often ended in local struggles. To a large extent they were carried in the air.
Since 1945, the South American aircraft carried out reconnaissance Russian Far Eastern territories, namely, Kamchatka, the Bering Strait, Chukotka, and the Kuril Islands. And it had its own premises. The war between America and Japan in the Pacific has entered a stage terminates. Acts Yankees in the air dramatically activated.
Despite the fact that during the second world war America and the USSR were allies, it did not prevent the Yankees feel very at ease in the air, quite often flying over the Russian military bases and ships. You need to keep in mind that most likely the South American pilots who commit such flights were not thinking about the problems of high politics, suggesting that the principles of military brotherhood important than most. But the leadership of both countries were necessary for reasons of conflict and swagger, as you are aware, for a long time to find them was not necessary.
At the end of May 1945 the Pacific Fleet anti-aircraft artillery fired on two U.S. military aircraft B-24. The incident occurred in the region of Kamchatka. Two months later, a similar situation occurred with another South American aircraft P-38, while in the same area. But because the fire was not conducted to failure, then no aircraft damage have not received. But the Americans responded even tougher. In August 1945, the South American aircraft of the Air Force fired near the island Stone Gavryushkin two border Russian boats, killing 14 and injuring eight people from the crew. Fully one can imagine that the South American pilots took Russian ship for the Japanese, but the first victim of war is cool there.
At the end of the war in September 1945, violations of air borders lasted. Previously, Americans like their actions could explain the conduct of operations against the land of the rising sun or bugs.
So Makarov, for the period from May to September 1945 was recorded 27 cases of violations, which involved 86 aircraft B-24 and B-25. Since the surrender of the Land of the Rising Sun and up to 1950 such provocation was already 46 with the role of 63 aircraft. Moreover, only for the period from 27 June to 16 July 1950 was recorded 15 air violations.
First air collision happened in the Far East, in the same 1945, when coercion landing made by one of the American bombers. It happened on the Korean territory, near the town of Hamhung, where at that time there was a large air base Russian Air Force. Americans, violating an agreement on air corridor, proparhali on it, going to Manchuria for the prisoners. Management airbase reconciled with that situation, but arrived in the city claimed the Commission to take action to stop such flights. In November, one of the American aircraft, which makes another flight over the Russian base, intercepted 4 fighter "Cobra" R-39 and forced him to land. When the South American pilots refused to do the requirements of Russian fighter jets, one of them fired at a South American plane, which was a prerequisite for a fire engine. Americans were required to land. None of the South American crew was not injured. Noteworthy that fire on Russian aircraft had not been opened. Later, the B-29 was sent to Moscow for testing.
In the postwar years there has been a violation of the Union and the Russian border in the north-west, from Norway and Finland. The smallness of the quieter southern cordon was in the country. And then there were violations of the air border, in the main, of the territory of Azerbaijan. In 1947 he was captured by the crew of the 1st of aircraft provocateurs. So, from Iran appeared single-engine aircraft of the Air Force of this country. He made a landing near the town of Nakhichevan. The Border Patrol has detained its crew. Explained to the pilots that flew from Tehran to Tabriz, but lost their orientation and therefore fell into Soviet countryside. Maybe it was true, but the plane was owned by the Iranian intelligence, and also was armed. Also in 1947 were recorded three more variants of violations by Iranian and South American aircraft in the same area.
Later aerial provocations were more often, and the consequences of them have been more tragic.
There is evidence that the first official victim of the war there were cool in 1950, when the South American PB4Y aircraft violated the boundaries of Russian air space in the base of Libau in the Baltic Sea. Raised the alarm La-11 fighter jets intercepted it. But as the South American pilots refused to make the team Russian pilots, so there was nothing left but to open fire. Americans returned fire. As a result, PB4Y was hit and fell into the sea. All 10 crew members were killed. It should be noted that these South American military machine has already appeared a couple of times before, because Russian side ambushed. Russian commanders spoke of what had been shot down a B-29, while Americans still recognize the loss of PB4Y.
There is also information on what the Americans carried the loss to Russian borders before. For example, in 1949, over the Black Sea South American plane was shot down a B-25 that dropped 3 paratroopers on the Russian countryside, and he tried to hide in the neutral waters. His intercepted two Russian fighter and shot down. South American crew was picked up by Russian border boat.
More evidence of dogfighting times of war kept cool for 50 years. It is clear that there is no clear statistics, and can not be, but all the same some data even from time to time appeared in print. So, according to some sources, for 10 years, starting from 1950, the South American planes 81 times trying to break the Russian air space, of which 20 returned combat vehicles. According to U.S. sources, the U.S. began exploration on the Russian territories in 1949, using a specially converted bombers. Prior to 1960, did not return 17 such aircraft.
Other sources of rumors about another digit. Thus, only for the period from 1953 to 1956, 113 Americans violated the Russian air borders.
Unable to avoid the mistakes and disastrous for the Russian side. In the summer of 1954, when the next South American scout has appeared on the radar, and then went into neutral waters, was hit by a private plane Tu-14, which in the group with vorachivalsya school bombing. The entire crew died machines. But the pilot who shot down his own plane was not brought to justice, as the Tu-14 was produced by a series of small and therefore was little known to the major parts of the aircraft
Like America, NATO also has a huge number of reconnaissance aircraft, most of which was in the vicinity of a particular Russian borders. At the same time, the CIA had its own air reconnaissance, military department — his own. Any one of them had its own puzzles, tactical and strategic.
It is worth noting also that the aircraft involved in the exploration and neutral countries. In the Russian press publicized got two options with the Swedish military aircraft that were shot down by Russian fighters in 1952. DC-3 aircraft were part of the Swedish radio interception units were equipped with the most modern equipment to listen to the talks held in the radio over Russian territory. Moreover, the Swedish aircraft, not counting the active aerial and electronic surveillance of the Baltic coast, assisted by anti-government forces in the Baltic.
In addition, at the Russian border appeared as spy planes and states such as Britain, Iran, Germany and Turkey. Although they appear very rarely, the potential of air power in these countries was growing up, that did not allow Russian troops to relax.
It should also be noted that the South American planes have learned to harm the Russian Armed Forces, even without crossing the borders of the Union. For example, when one of the Russian batteries in Baku was going to hold firing of 130-mm anti-aircraft guns, the South American plane, fitted out a strong radio electronics, started with the Iranian base and just flew along the Russian border, creating interference. In response to a similar "rudeness" Russian troops began to cause harmful interference to one of the U.S. bases, which was in Iran, which essentially made it more difficult to take-off and landing aircraft. A week later, the "struggle of interference" ended by mutual agreement.
But if, before the mid-50s Russian troops somehow managed to delay the inviolability of the borders of the country, in 1954, the last limit is dropped. A prerequisite for that was the emergence of armed Western intelligence automatic drifting balloons (ADA), which was able to rise to great heights, making itself Makar, hard to reach for the fighters. They were equipped with a new reconnaissance equipment and launched from bases in Norway, Germany, Italy, France and Turkey. ADA could reach a height of 30 km, because even Russian MiG-15bis, Yak-25 and MiG-17P, which operated at an altitude of 15 km, were not able to get them. Because balloons are successfully carried out reconnaissance over virtually the entire Russian territory. Soviet air defense forces had no choice but to fix their appearance.
True, some ADA all the same have been shot down. The first of them was destroyed in 1954 under the Chernivtsi at an altitude of 10 km with the MiG-17P. After a certain number of days of Russian pilots again tried to shoot down a balloon, but now they did not.
The period of greater activity of ADA began in 1956, when only two months violated the Russian border around 3 thousand balloons. And for 20 years, 4112 has been fixed balls, of which 793 were shot down.
Apart from this, a lot of problems of Russian air defense system brought the British spy planes "Canberra", the South American RB-57 and U-2. Later there and RB-57F. They all operate at altitudes difficult to intercept.
Only 5 days in July 1956, they produced five breakthroughs in the Soviet area to a depth of 350 km. In the same year appeared "Lockheed» U-2, which arose over Moscow and Kiev, Crimea and Minsk, the Far East and the Baltic States, Siberia and Central Asia. All samples are to "get" tall spy planes were inconclusive. And only in November 1959 "antidote" was found. It was at this time to adopt Russian air defense system was adopted by the anti-aircraft missile system S-75 "Desna". He has shown to be effective on November 16, when he was shot down south american balloon at an altitude of 28 km.
S-75 was used not only to protect the borders, and particularly the most fundamental objects in areas of the country. Slightly later on arms began to arrive, and the Su-9 fighter-interceptor with a ceiling height of 20 km. But their number was still not enough for the realization of reliable protection. For example, in 1960, the aircraft, "Lockheed", taking off from Pakistan, broke the Soviet border in Turkmenistan and headed to Baikonur. Samples were prepared to intercept it with a 2-MiG-19, but one of the aircraft was destroyed, because the interception was canceled. When you return, "Lockheed" back over the territory of Turkmenistan, he tried to intercept two MiG-17s, pursuing even spy on Iranian territory, but without result.
In May 1960, still managed to defeat the U-2, but no casualties on the Russian side has not done. Near Sverdlovsk was alerted to two MiG-19 and Su-9, but none of these fighters to intercept enemy failed, but coped with this problem of missile troops. However, overdoing: in the rush began firing their own, resulting in a MiG-19 was destroyed and the pilot died.
Large, international scandal broke, then U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower forbade flights "Lockheed." Silence lasted for more than 2 years. At the end of August 1962, they again appeared on Russian territory in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and Chukotka.
Apart from these high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft over Russian territory and appeared nevysotnye machine: RB-47 Stratojet and RB-45C Tornado. Thus, RB-47 more than once arose over the Japan Sea and the Caspian Sea, near Vladivostok. In July 1960, one of these aircraft crossed the border near Arkhangelsk. For his capture was used MiG-19. As a result, the South American plane was shot down from the 6-person crew had survived only two.
When armed Russian troops appeared anti-aircraft missiles, and interceptors of the latest generation, high-rise breaks boundaries ended. But this does not mean that violations of air borders over. In the inventory of NATO planes appeared distant radar that can conduct reconnaissance even being outside the appropriate country. It was enough to be near the Russian border to lead a successful exploration of the hundreds of miles inland.
Disk imaging of the confrontation of America and the USSR in the 60s remained strong enough, so by order of Leonid Brezhnev was introduced strict censorship of the press. Any incidents that have occurred on the Russian border, were classified. Because the only source — this is the Western media. So, for 3 years, from 1967 to 1970, the South American side for more than 10 times violated Russian air borders of the Union. Among them, and the case of the DC-8, which in 1968 crossed the border near the Kuril Islands, the name of carrying 100 American fighter. Were sent to intercept the air defense fighters. After investigation and the establishment of the events and the aircraft itself, and the men, and the crew were given the South American government.
At the end of May 1978 in the waters of the Norwegian Sea was lost Russian Tu-16R Northern Fleet Air Force. The fact that the same happens with the scout is not clear anything. The latest information that you got from the board was that the pilots found the South American "Essex". There is a hypothesis that the Tu-16-R was knocked Yankees, although the latter denies any involvement in the disappearance of Russian aircraft.
In the Norwegian Sea was gone the next Russian plane 95RTs Air Force Tu-SF in August 1976.
When making a departure for aerial reconnaissance in the Atlantic, the Tu-95RTs tried to seize the South Americ
an F-4 "Phantom" with the result that some of them crashed into the tail wing of Russian spy. South American pilots ejected and Russian — barely made it to the base.
In violation of the Russian border, and another related incident, which ended with the death of hundreds of people. In September 1983, the Russian air space violated South Korean Boeing-747, which is very much like a scout RC-135. When the on-board radar blip appeared, the pilot of the Su-15, which was sent to intercept, identified it as the RC-135. What happened next, no need to remember …
Once in service in the Russian Union has new fighter-interceptor MiG-31, which are among the best in the world, the Yankees no longer hunt conduct aerial surveillance over Russian territory. Americans recognized the domination of the Soviet Union in the air, focusing on the development of ultra precision tools.