Alexander Lukashenko commissioned in phases by 2015 to reduce the number of children's homes and boarding schools for at least 50% and a priority to arrange children without parents to raise a family (for adoption, guardianship and in foster care, family-type). Or executable tasks, given by the state?
According to the Chief Information and Analytical Department of the Ministry of Education, on January 1, 2010
- by GUARDIAN CARE 10231 was a child,
- in foster care — 6630 children
- in children's homes of family type — 851 child
- 373 children living in children's villages.
This is the most suitable conditions for their education, close to the average family. But the country's 34 children's homes where there are children in 2267, and 21 dormitory with 3830 kids.
Chief specialist of the Ministry of Education summarizes:
"18,000 plus 6,000 internatavskih and orphanages — is 24,000. It is now our quantitative portrait of an orphan. "
Today the task to arrange somewhere to just over 6,000 children. But most of them do not have a chance to get into a normal family, said pradstaznitsa Ministry of Education:
"I'm not afraid to say no to the adoption of children. Queue — 142 families to adopt a child. No children — do not give up on them, they are taken from the hospital. There is a paradoxical situation: the 6000 children in boarding schools, but from 7 to 17 years — 90%. And if a 7-year-old hypothetically could be somehow adapted to the family, I can hardly imagine possible take the family 15-year-old girl or a 17-year-old kid. "
22-year-old Yuri — from a large family, parents deprived of parental rights, and all five children were in Ivenets boarding school. Fate of Man has created quite well: he pyatsikursnik Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radio Electronics, have already found a job by the programmer. Jury is convinced that children should grow up in families, not in state institutions:
"In general, this is the right direction. And possible. The most basic thing — is to start from a young age. Children take control and organize a family with children aged from childhood. In my opinion, that is a problem is when the children reach 15-17 years of age in the dorms grown, they have a lot of complexes, and they find it difficult to adapt. "
6416 Belarusian children live in families adoptive parents. In 2009 alone, 582 children were adopted, said an employee of the Ministry of Education:
"We have arranged them in the best, the most favorable and most economical form for the country. But it is not a panacea. 15-year-old boy in the adoption does not addicted, neither family could not persuade or he will not go.
In globally do not adopt older children. Therefore, the developed these very different forms. "
All of these forms have their pros and cons. One of the options — family-type orphanage. Not every child fits, so to speak, an anthill. But there are times when children can not make a different:
"If five children, one smaller than the other, without parents (they have been deprived of parental rights), who in two-three-room apartment will take these five? But the family type, which is based on the fact that he would take all the "bush", that this form is very suitable for large families. And for the child who lived alone all his life in the family or as a couple with a brother or sister — a form of psychologically very hard. "
The most popular option — foster families. They brought up more than 10,000 children. But if a family Let's not 360,000 for the child, and at least twice that in the opinion of the expert, could would be easy to close the majority of children's homes and boarding schools.
"Why, if today is at least 2-fold increase cash benefits for the child in custody with the family, we will have all of the family members and relatives of children in boarding schools. Because today is the primary motive, according to which, for example, an older sister who had just itself on its feet, unable to take his brother out of the hostel, is summed up in this mundane material of … . "
Children's homes are often necessary sessions with a psychologist, treatment lyagapeda, vitamins, special food — and to the current 360,000 by not razgonissya.
If even in healthy kids have a chance to get in a family or family-type orphanage, a children's village, the sick children or children with so-called mental development features rely on is not necessary, I am convinced Nicholas Kukso, which is more than 40 years working in Ivenets orphanage. There were ordinary children from large families whose parents are deprived of parental rights, and children with mental development. According to the teacher with many years of experience, close or significantly reduce the number of orphanages unreal:
"This is not the way out. These children than the state are not wanted. After all, even the parents themselves betrayed and handed over to the orphanage. Their parents — usually alcoholics, so the children in the orphanage are sick and helpless. No one will take, first, the children in the family, because it is very difficult for them to care for and nurture. "
It is extremely difficult to orphanages and children adapt to society. A former pupil of Ivenets boarding Jury says:
"I know a lot of examples with my classmates at a boarding school, which was not settled in life."
No one disputes that the complete family — it's the ideal form for the child. But if a child is in a difficult position, parents drunk beaten, kicked out of the house, a new family it urgently not satisfied. It is a long, complex and even extremely delicate process … But the government agency (though, as they say, prison), they will be received in time of need at any time. Do not have lost these orphanages and quite wealthy EU countries, although the European Union and declared it. Therefore, and in Belarus, probably not soon disappear orphanages.