The capital passers-by who hurry about their business Independence Avenue, are unlikely to know that this avenue was once called the street on March 25. And for her not too long a story renamed as many as 10 times! Historical maze of alleys and dead ends at the main street of Minsk Minsk dweller like native Leonid Mariners.
Michas Scoble: "Leonid, you Investigate Bolshevik repression, issued about two dozen biographical reference books.'s And this year released a capacious that" Repressed medical and veterinary workers. "And suddenly — the main street of Minsk. Either these topics somehow related?"
Leonid Mariners: "It just so happens that while working on a biography of Stalin's repression during the dictatorship of the citizens of Belarus, including Minsk, I repeatedly came across the eye two words: Sovetskaya. Scary In the 1930s, the street was not the Soviet of the house in which would not have visited uninvited overnight guests in blue breeches with red tabs. And once I commanded me: "You just have to tell about the persecution of the totalitarian regime of the residents of Minsk's main street, the main artery of the city, to find out why in the 20-30's name on it life was much more dangerous than almost half a thousand other streets on the so-called numbered lines. "In addition, it was found that the OGPU in 1922, it took one of the best buildings in the Soviet. And interestingly, gradually, in the process, I learned : A lot of people have been arrested in 1919, between the Germans and the Poles. "
Scoble: "In our previous studies you define 6 waves of Bolshevik terror — in 1930, in 1933, in 1936-38, in 1939-41, in 1944-45, in 1947-49. So it turns out that was the seventh and, more precisely, the first wave — in 1919? "
Sailors: "I myself was surprised. When gathering information, read everything possible encyclopedias, reference books, which are only found, and have never found any mention of the persecution in 1919. Already confused. And I had already been collected numerous biographies repressed it that year. So, really, it is necessary to enter a new date for the first wave of mass arrests and executions — 1919. After the Germans appeared in Minsk "their", which were worse than others, worse than the invaders, worse than the most bitter enemies. since January by July 1919 the Bolsheviks shaken up the entire Minsk arrested, robbed, shot, took hostages. most important thing is that the people who suffered then, they will not rehabilitated until this day, because they are not officially repressed. And that thousands of people! Bolsheviks during 1920s changed the ethnic group of the Soviet street. If, for example, in 1915 more than 90% of the street was Jewish and Polish, after it became a Russian-collective farm. "
Scoble: "You said you practiced hostage. What do you mean?"
Sailors: "Let's say you have a house to the Soviet. And here you come to the secret police and demand that this week you paid them, for example, 50 000 rubles."
Scoble: "For what?"
Sailors: "For the fact that you have a home. Suppose one-story wood and — does not matter. When the house is worth 10,000, where to find 50,000? That no one was interested. You are laying the house, sell the property, collect 15 thousand … And you say, you still have three days, and while your children we pray thee … How do you like this alignment? Therefore, sometimes the owners of houses just ran away. Comes security officers, and in the house only a wife and 5-6 children. If you do not have to who tear off the money and took away furniture, grocery stores. And all this without any receipts. Here is a concrete example. Bolsheviks arrested noblewoman Jadwiga Kostrovitsky. During an exemption demanded one million rubles! If, for example, she sold her house, she was able to pay only a third of the amount required. Where you could get that kind of money? requirements were specifically overwhelming. owners to bring under complete confiscation and repression. Bolsheviks did not spare anyone. "
Scoble: "But let us return to the main streets of Minsk. Throughout its history, it was renamed many times. According to my calculations — six times."
Sailors: "More. Prior to July 1919 this was a street Zakharievskaya. Founded in 1801 and, according to some versions, named in honor of the first governor of Minsk Zahara Emmanuilovich Korneev. During the Polish occupation on 8 August 1919 to 11 July 1920, received Zakharievskaya name of Adam Mickiewicz. After — again Zakharievskaya. since November 1922 — the Soviet. During the German occupation — Gavpshtrase — Main Street. A March 25, 1944 Main Street in the capital city was renamed the street name on March 25, however, only a few months. Upon arrival Red Army — the street name on March 25 once again become the Soviet. in 1937, renamed Stalin Avenue. In 1961, Stalin was Lenin Prospect Avenue, but kept the name of the Soviet section of the street from Myasnikov, a former Novo-Moscow, to the street Sverdlov. since 1991 year — Prospect Skarina, from 2005 — present Independence Avenue. So ten times the main street was renamed. "
Scoble: "On the street on March 25 the first time I heard."
Sailors: "The fact is that when the Red Army went on the offensive, the Germans were forced to make concessions in the occupied territories. And the national intelligentsia tried to do anything. At the same plane should be considered and holding of the Second All-Belarusian Congress in 1944."
Scoble: "You studied in detail each of the houses on the main street of Minsk. And institutions placed on it distinctive — Government House, the OGPU, the writer … The Last House is long gone. What can you say about him?"
Sailors: "The House of the writer was in a building built in about the middle of the XIX century by a philistine Burke Gould (opposite the present Central bookstore.) It was a fairly large two-story house with an attic. There were also the editors of" Lima "," flame "," Foals " "Uzvyshsha." It is necessary to explain what a "home" for the pre-revolutionary times. By "House" meant the land, not the house. At one site under one number could be 5-10 houses. So with the writer's house , who had a number 68. At his court were 5-6 buildings built by the same Gould. fact, if you look at the home of the writer, was a one-story building — Minkevich beer and coffee shops of Amsterdam. Opposite was a beer Sudnikava, they fought for each other customers … For some reason the pub Minkevich near the House of the writer rather guys came out of the OGPU, and the pub across the street — the writers. "
Scoble: "Writers go to more distant pub, once again not to meet with the KGB?"
Sailors: "Maybe not to meet with their leadership … I do not know. Generally, all pubs and cafes were called the dining room. I was interested to read:" Dining Room is open from 7 am until the morning. "Later pub where there were writers, closed . postrelyayte writers, there was no one to go … I can still tell you about the two houses, which have survived to the present day. It houses 17 and 19 nobles and Abrampolskaga Vnyahovskaga. They survived only because it stood in the church, and they did not bomb as The church itself. I was interested to learn how to seal the tips of people. example, in the 17 th house in
1917 on three floors of living 8 people. And after 1920 — about 60 people! "
Scoble: "And where was the house of the OGPU?"
Sailors"He stands today. Currently there KGB, or rather, the Interior Ministry and the KGB. Building was built in 1912-13. This was the best house in the town, one of the first houses in Minsk, where there was steam heat, hot shower."
Scoble: "The hard work was, it was necessary to them to rest … Today on Independence Avenue is no single church. And it has always been?"
Sailors"Of course not. Zakharievskaya Street began with the three churches. On it were the Kazan Railway Station stone church, the Kazan railway wooden church. Part of the street, which at the end of the XIX century was called the New Zakharjevskaya, ended in a church. And here I want to tell you an interesting story . was a lieutenant Peter Grigorenko — Specialist vzryvanni buildings. explodes churches in Minsk and Vitebsk. Soviets were paying for a lot of money. Blew church — and it was possible a few years did not work. According to the extermination of Minsk and Vitebsk temples Grigorenko was aimed at improving , then — to study at the Academy of the General Staff. At the beginning of the 1960 General Grigorenko has already been sent to the Far East, where he organized the "Union of the struggle for the revival of Leninism." In 1964 — arrested, forensic recognized crazy prisoner in Lefortovo jail, then — in Leningrad psychiatric hospital. "
Scoble: "So this is the very famous Soviet dissident Grigorenko?"
Sailors: "Yes, he is. Grigorenko After he emigrated to the United States, where he died. Shortly before his death general wrote memoirs, from which it is clear that he was indeed on the verge of insanity, saw strange dreams, no idea on what light is."
Scoble: "Whom God punishes in mind that selects … I once saw a picture Minsk, made June 22, 1941 German pilot. So it today's main avenue — in ruins, and still have the front to the Belarusian capital is not reached. So who destroyed Minsk — tips or the Germans? "
Sailors: "Yet the Germans. I have pictures, which you remember. Unlikely that they can be dated to June 1941, they made later. I compared the pictures in 1941 and 1943, made from the plane. So, those houses that are at the intersection of Avenue with street Volodarskogo in 1941 were still with windows, and in 1943 — no roof, no windows were gone. I think we should take into account such a circumstance more. When, in August 1919 attacked the Poles, then fled the Bolsheviks from Minsk in July. All the cast were saving their skins. So, apparently, it was in 1941. I think they especially do not have time to blow up, the main thing was to go ourselves. But the Germans were not given time to think. "
Scoble"The time frame of your study — 1890-1940 years. Will the sequel?"
Sailors: My book, "The main street of Minsk" will have one more volume, which will cover the period from 1941 to 1991. "