Made in Tomsk: How to produce cables

Continuing hikes in Tomsk enterprises — visit Correspondents' Tomsk Survey "on the famous factory" Sibcable. "


Today in Russia produced more than 20,000 standard sizes of cable, of which 2,000 is made at the Tomsk plant "Sibcable." On average, technological service companies brings to the market from four brands of new products a year. One would think, why so much? We see these "wires" on every corner, and at first glance, they are nothing of each other no different.

But there is a difference. For example, for the miners made cables are covered with semi-conductive rubber that are disabled in the breakdown, preventing sparks. High-temperature oil cable for oil cover teroplastovoy insulation and steel armoring tape, it is able to withstand temperatures up to 150 C. For Railways locomotives used cables covered with fire-resistant rubber, the monthly order for such products at "Sibcable" is more than 1,000 km. Technology of production of cable multistage and time-consuming, and each year brings new customers to the product requirements, especially in terms of fire resistance.

CABLE PRODUCTION

The plant "Sibcable" has three venues: on the street. Pushkin on Frunze Avenue and near the White Lake.

Orderly rows of shops near the number 3 are huge wooden spool with a cable wound on them — this is a warehouse of finished products under the open sky. In stock about 6,000 drums wrapped up by waterproof material, this volume workpieces can quickly and in time to ship the goods to the consumer upon request.

Near rezinodelatelnogo is building a new plant. Now they run out of work in the zero cycle, in June, the workers began to erect a building wall. Launching the project is calculated at the end of 2013. Workshop space will be 2400 square meters. m, the highest point is at 22 meters. In parallel, the tender for the supply of process equipment.

Rezinodelatelny workshop will help make "Sibcable" a major step forward in the development of: the chemical industry every year delivers new materials for the production of cable products to work with them requires special equipment. It will not only help to produce new types of membranes for cable, but will also remove a number of operations carried out by now, thus freeing up extra-time employees of the plant. For example, in preparing the rubber sheathing for cables to drums exist where there is a heating material, the introduction of vulcanizing, after which rubber can be used. During commissioning of the new equipment, this operation will disappear, but instead will use rezinomesitel. Leaders' Sibcable "expects to see the new shop to increase the number of products manufactured by 500 tons per year.

 

The shop number 3, where the cables are made, loudly enough. Rotating wooden spool on which the cables are wound up ready, next machine twists the copper wires in the center of the room, these veins "dressed" in rubber, immediately close the cable is treated with hot water and check for leaks shell electric shocks.

— The process of manufacturing the cable, regardless of its use, in general, looks the same — the director of the General Affairs JSC "Sibcable" Alexey Gordeev. — The basis of cable products — steel, copper and aluminum, recently often used alloys. The wire of the desired metal twisted together, covered with an insulating material, then twisted veins in the overall twist, impose a skin — and cable ready.

Cable for aerial installation of telephone networks typically 4-wire. It is made on the lines, where each wire insulated with polyethylene and polypropylene — frost pads that can withstand up to -60 degrees. Now instead of copper and aluminum wire used for such alloys: alyumomed, aluminum and steel. This trick is called "antitheft" — such Bimetals not be recycled, so stealing them for resale pointless. 

 

Coil placed on the shop floor with the cables of different colors: black, green, blue, orange … These coloring pages are not random, they meet the technical requirements in different fields of application. For example, for miners manufactured cables with sheath orange color to make it visible in the mine. If the shell is black, you can not see in the dark or mud, run over or cut through mine miner, because of what might happen circuit. As noted by the assistant director of "Sibcable" Tatiana Abramova, "Colors understand professionals. You know like in the movies: cut the red and explodes, blue — all will be well. "

Before the cable will be considered ready, he twice tested "for strength." Over time tested drums 50 which is immersed in a water bath, where they lie approximately one hour. First, check to come from the individual wires. At their ends fed 25-fold power supply, to detect any cracks in their coating. If the holes are, then there is a loud "explosion". Then the coil is removed and sent to the core twist. Ready for a new cable tested.

Near the lines are bags of white balls — it's plastic, a foundation for future isolation. It melted and "dress" on cable. As this occurs: the line head split hot metal into two parts — one for the cable is exposed, it enters the head, wherein a pressure of 300 atmospheres molten polyethylene extruded onto it vein, and then enters a second wire of the line — in the tub with water, which immediately cooled. All cable is "dressed".

 

PLANT

The history of the plant "Sibcable" began in 1941, when the Council of People's Commissars adopted a decision to evacuate the two Moscow factory "Electric Wire"
and "Moskabel" in the heartland of the country. Originally intended to place them in Kemerovo, but changed the order of the Economic Council at Tomsk. In the Siberian city opened several shops: wire, winding, enamelling, rezinodelatelny, cable, etc. They all work to this day, but in a modernized version. Because of this, there appeared and workstations.

In April 1942, "Sibcable" made its first product — 10 kg of magnet wire. In Soviet times, Tomsk cablemen worked on public works contracts for the icebreaker to them. VI Lenin, the construction of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, the Bratsk hydroelectric power station and Kuibyshev, etc. Today, products with the brand of the factory, shipped to such enterprises as Railways, "RUSAL", "Severstal", "JAkutugol", "Rosneft", etc. The volume of output by 2010 reached 17,300 tons of cable.

 

Today, "Sibcable" — one of the most successful businesses in Russia. Proceeds from sales of cable for 2011 amounted to 5.624 billion rubles., Of which net profit — 228 million rubles. However, a lot can change after Russia joins the WTO. Factory Director Sergei Markelov expressed a number of concerns that may affect the industry:

— If we analyze the situation when Russia joins the WTO, by the cable industry there are great questions. Even now, with protective tariffs, we have the expansion of China and Malaysia is very high. And when the time comes WTO, tariffs will be reduced very much, and then it will be difficult to compete with their cheap but quality products disgusting. The buyer takes the first that cheap, and then, when everything blows up, raises questions — why it happened. At a meeting with Putin, I gave him an analytical report on this issue, he gave instructions to the Government to address this issue. But while the outlook is not promising. Perhaps in our country will introduce some technical conditions, in which the consumer will not be able to use a cable undue level of quality.

 

However, now the plant is undergoing great changes, according to the preparation and approval of the program until 2014. According to the plans, you will need to build a new facility, renovate old ones, to replace part of the production equipment. Total for this purpose will spend 833 million rubles. For example, the plant is almost completely pereosteklyat "warm windows' facades zashyut insulation, install industrial lights. These measures will help to maintain the temperature in manufacturing plants in the winter to +20 C, instead of the previous 5 C. Also planning to close shop for the production of rubber on the White Lake, after rezinodelatelny build a new shop on the street. Pushkin. In emaleobmotochnom shop at Frunze upgraded wastewater treatment plant, it will be altered by the "plant factory", which allows to minimize the amount of chalk emitted into the atmosphere.

In addition to "Sibcable" is implemented automated information-measuring system for monitoring and metering. It is about 400 meters, more than 800 current and voltage transformers, 2,500 data channels that transfer about 5,500 parameters — all to identify areas of wastage of energy. The total cost of the system is 9.25 million rubles. The resulting economic impact over five years — 29.53 million rubles. For comparison, payments for electricity in 2011 on all areas totaled 27.623 million rubles. — By means of savings the company has fulfilled more than one year.

Text: Eugene Shvetsov

Photo: Maria Anikina

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