In general, the rise of the revolutionary movement in Chile associated with the rapid development of left-wing thought and organizations representing these ideas, there was more to the 50's. Established in 1956, "People's Front of action" (Frapa), leftists have put forward the idea of a peaceful revolution (at all without eliminating the ability of the armed struggle for power.) Power in Chile at that time was in the hands of the "Christian-Democratic Party", which is cautiously watching the society pro-growth public forces and noting a liking to them by the huge number of public organizations, tried in domestic politics seize the initiative from the leftists. It is expressed in the conduct of a wide range of reforms concerning the life of Chilean workers and farmers. Was carried out land reform, expanded trade union rights are also a number of measures attempted to control for natural raw materials, which were under the control of the Yankees.
Sidedness of reformist measures "of the Christian Democratic Party," and the inability to somehow deepen (given that go completely so make concessions to the working class meant to show weakness), has led to the loss of political influence of the Christian Democrats — in fact it was the main prerequisite for their defeat in the presidential election in 1970.
As a serious political structure of the "People's unity"Began to emerge only at the end of 1969. Base "Popular Unity" was the "Front of the People's Action" (an alliance of the Socialist and the Communist Party of Chile), Constructive party, The Social Democratic Party and the splinter faction of the Christian Democrats' Movement of one national action. " A huge number of programs from Fri formed the unity of the left could be reduced to a few pt. Among them: the struggle against imperialist South American zahvatnichestva, the elimination of industrial monopoly structures and landlord organizations, building a successful run in the socialist countries.
After Allende came to power, the situation in Chile has become destabilized evenly. The irresponsible fiscal policies of the socialist wing extremist "Popular Unity" has led to the widening of the political crisis. Chilean workers resorted to a tried and tested method — strikes and boycott of the production process. So, for example, in the fall of 1972 in Chile began a nationwide demonstration hosts the trucking industry and traders.
On the international front, in Chile it was not too far away radiant. A huge frustration for the U.S. policy of rapprochement caused Allende with the governments of Cuba and the Russian Union. This contributed to the establishment of a de facto economic blockade of Chile were blocked by external cash flows into and frozen credit tranches.
Himself Allende in their political views, more and more drifted towards a constructive ideology of the socialist wing of the "Popular Unity". About disagreements arise inside the government coalition bright they say words of the head of the Communist Party of Louis Corvalan: "The country is going through at the present time a very difficult time. It is difficult not only because we encounter severe resistance from inside and outside of the reaction, and therefore, and for this we have to announce, in all frankness, that the unity of the People stepped severe crisis. "
A certain stabilization of domestic life in Chile was visible by the end of 1972, when the Allende government is reorganizing and increases its generals. In the spring of 1973 holds parliamentary elections, which overcame the opposition (who were not able to type with all this, two thirds of seats in parliament).
Sensing the imminent danger of a military coup, Allende tried to find a way out of the situation and strengthened the military bloc in the government tested in human beings. For example, he declared the Minister of Defence, General Prats, but the general public defiance pressure was obliged to resign August 21, 1973, and on the day following the Chilean parliament approves the "Agreement Chamber," declares the Allende government outlawed the president — and a violator of the Constitution calls on the armed forces to disobey authority.
Place of General Prats (Commander of the Army) at this time is General Augusto Pinochet.
Pinochet in the Chilean army was very decent score. Brilliantly educated officer, disciplined military special, constitutionalist by gaze, he seemed flawless defense minister and patriot of his own country. It is logical that the future development of events has put at the heart of this particular person, who was able to bring order to the chaos of political life.
Next steps in Chile developed quickly. Early in the afternoon on September 11 Allende woke echoing with an urgent message about the beginning of the revolt of the Navy in the port of Valparaiso. After inconclusive attempts to contact the chief commanders of other arms, Allende realized that there has long been a suspect they conspired higher military ranks. Not bewildered Allende made a radio appeal to the population, in which he described the situation and assured that will not go away from the post and gave their lives to defend power, which he was entrusted with the workers.
Around this time, another station was transferred message rebel generals who called Allende to surrender Carabinieri and the guaranteed continuity of Chileans left the course, in case they come to power. A little later in the day stormed the presidential palace La Moneda, where hiding Allende. An armed siege of the palace lasted for about 5 hours during its Alvadore Allende died (so far it is not clear — whether he died in the heat of battle, or else committed suicide), and a huge number of soldiers and officers who refused to support the coup. The fighting in the town lasted for the whole day or, where rebel forces who occupied factories Santiago fought and killed all communists and trade unionists enterprises … Blood on the day was flowing river. The success of the rebellion was absolute: in the process of Chile was ruled by a military junta led by Augusto Pinochet.