Military stare at the emergence of new technologies, namely, the emergence of advanced batteries, micro-generators, fuel parts, solar energy sources, superkondesatorov that are designed to store energy.
A complete set of combat fighter weighs a lot, but the fighting tasks involve in the current time and the wearing of a huge number of new electric devices. The use of more efficient equipment and technologies of intelligent power management to a large extent would facilitate the mass of this equipment. Because there was the need to find and explore new technological developments. In turn, a more advanced military modernization program notes, takes center stage development and energy management.
Standardization of processes and integration into NATO is very complex, so there is not a single NATO standard connectors or the voltage supply systems of the fighter. Because usually, the developers their main efforts toward the development of distributed and centralized systems of energy savings.
A distributed system is characterized by the fact that any single piece of equipment is armed with its battery, and communication with other parts are only for data transfer. Centralized system characterized by the fact that the set of BATTERY, which it comes, is integrated into the man-pack energy system and is integral with the individual electronics.
Through a centralized system can reduce the burden on the person, as the amount of logistics operations, which can be obtained from the use of battery instead of a single rechargeable unit that is the source of energy for the equipment. To embed them to be effective, it is necessary that all devices have the monotonous stress, or had their own system of regulation of power or a power management unit. The introduction of centralized energoskhem more suitable for use in modern developments, namely in electric tissue and flat wiring.
Consumer of electricity in the current time is also a small gun. It's no longer a new rifle scopes, laser pointers, the illumination device, image intensifiers and thermal imagers. Many soldiers do not exclude the ability to upgrade weapons and improvements to the integrated data communications and power supply. For example, the program of modernization of equipment the soldiers of Australia LAND 125 includes a sophisticated rifle Steyr F88, curb battery pack that provides power to auxiliary devices.
ISSE DE & S (Department of Defense integrated soldier system of England) and the company ABSL Power Systems have been developed jointly by lighter batteries for radio spectrum with ultra BOWMAN, which have a longer life. The batteries are based on the compound of lithium-carbon monofluoride in the near future which finds more and more applications.
In chemical reactions oxygen battery used, resulting in generating electricity. Lead-acid batteries, for example, oxygen is produced through the electrolyte of sulfuric acid. In the lithium-air batteries oxygen comes from the atmosphere, thereby decreases the mass of the battery. In theory, lithium-air batteries are getting huge energy density equal to 1000 W / h per 1 kg of the element, but in practice such type of battery is not yet achieve this density. In addition, these batteries are not able to provide the highest output power, and in practice, rechargeable models are not yet implemented. In addition, there are some problems with service life and safety, so as lithium is a highly reactive substance, and can ignite or explode if damaged or ill-advised appeal.
British Ministry of Defense in the current time is programm RBDS, which has its own purpose of lowering the load on the soldier to 25 kg. In the framework of its development laid the individual energy conservation and electrical systems. The end result should be the creation of integrated architecture and electrical energy systems, which will rely on the main power supply, having a power density of the order of 600-800 W / h per kilogram. The first models were made in 2011, and working standards may appear in a couple of years.
The program provides for RBDS review implementation of various concepts in order to achieve a stepped configuration energy density energy sources.
It must be said that scientists and industry groups involved in the research work of different technologies, namely, software agents that are able to make the mental control of energy saving, as fuel cells, a promising chemical compounds fotogalvanisticheskie arrays, energy storage, electric fabric and micro-motors.
For example, one program, MO England biomechanical study conducted energy storage, which consists in that the movement of the body is used for energy release, which is used to operate the individual station. Study "Solar Soldier" has been researching layered photovoltaic device that supplies power to devices. In addition, there is another direction of research, which is focused on the development of rapidly deployable printed antennas that can be worn on the body and using them to accumulate radio frequency energy. The need for high power at certain time intervals rather short compels attention given to promising supercapacitors.
A huge amount of research on advanced batteries is focused on the use of lithium-air systems, which we mentioned above. Given that the application of practical lithium-air systems irrationally, in the last couple of years, the world has new batteries that have lithium-ion composition. They are lithium-zhelezofosfatnye non-hazardous batteries that possess the highest peak power and maximum energy density. In the middle of the manufacturers of such batteries is dominated by American company A123 Sustems and Canadian Phostech Lithium. The peculiarity of the new batteries is that they hold even greater energoplotnostyu because the charge exchange will be able to achieve a reduction of logistical problems.
There is also another trend in the development BATTERY, which is to merge 2-technologies — the capacitor and battery. Condenser — a pair of conductors, insulators are broken. Between these conductors accumulates potential difference, which is an electronic static. When the positive and negative terminals are connected, the capacitor is discharged. Capacitance is measured in farads, but soon appeared multifaradnye capacitors, which contain a large electronic charge in a small volume, can be rapidly discharged and recharged. Their drawback is the inability to hold a charge for a long time. Thanks to such features supercapacitors can supplement the battery when the impulsive need the highest power to a small temporary clearance.
The introduction of energy as a whole is very fundamentally, regardless of the type of power architecture. To this day, the men have learned to be more appropriate to use the energy, controlling power consumption by turning the equipment off. Together with those automatic control system will give the opportunity to extend battery life and reduce the level of workload.
In particular, fundamentally efficient power management for soldier in a combat situation. For example, in Afghanistan, the Marines and communications experts who conduct a two-night patrols over rough terrain, may be up to 11 pounds of batteries. With all this in fact half of the mass BATTERY used for protection, while the radio is used to meter only 39 percent. Another 22 percent are divided between universal battery, radio frequency, commercial elements.
In order to reduce the weight of the BATTERY, commissioned by the British military ABSL Power Systems Ltd created a new device that is able to extract energy from
the rest of the shrunken non-rechargeable batteries. The device name which the SPC, except for extracting energy from the batteries, can do the same thing with the other likely sources of energy. This device can be connected to BATT mc and give the right amount of energy to recharge your device. In addition, the device can be connected to the solar panel, then it will turn into charger device battery.
On the battlefield has long been used portable generators, internal combustion engines equipped by small sizes. Such generators are economical and reliable, but they are hard to move because of the rather big weight. It has become a prerequisite for the scientists and the industry turned to developing a small generator or even micro-generator. The first type of device is very close to the engine drones, and may soon appear on the market. As regards the second type, this microelectromechanical system, which are made with the introduction of technology for semiconductors.
Thus, now held Cubewano development aimed at creating a device which, when a small weight (about 10 kg) would output power of 2 kW. Such a device could provide energy to a group of 8-12 fighter for 72 hours. Sonic rotary engines from the company's use spark ignition, and can operate on a different fuel.
As for internal combustion engines MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), then it has conducted research aimed at addressing issues of sealing, carburetion, lubrication, ignition, engine diagnostics, control and heat build additional systems.
Rotary engines MEMS, developed at the Institute of Berkeley, are able to produce about 26 milliwatts of power. The same example program exists in the Cambridge Institute. In addition, Berkeley has also held development minirotornogo motor which is able to produce 10-100 watts. These engines would come to replace the BATT.
With regard to fuel generators, they have long been at the center of attention of the military. This is based on more than the highest, compared with chemical compounds, energy-dense fuel. Fuel cells are capable of producing energy until they receive air and fuel. Some time it seemed that such elements will press the battery, becoming more desirable portable energy sources. But in practice, this did not happen due to problems with the supply of fuel. In addition, the problem lies in the supply of hydrogen necessary for compounds with oxygen and generate current. Hydrogen is very difficult to transport, so it is explosive and has a low energy density. Storing it in a watery condition is also associated with certain neuvvyazkami because it requires very low temperatures and the highest pressure. All these properties make hydrogen very impractical to use, especially on the battlefield.
Fuel cells can operate entirely on kerosene or diesel oil, but this requires additional processing of petroleum products, as required for this equipment is very valuable.
As a result, these prepyadstviya led to the development of what is now the main parts of fuel for military focused on the use of alcohol fuel, namely, ethanol and methanol.
Fuel cells are located in the center of 2-D laboratory British Defense Technology and Science: applets RBDS-CV to lower the burden on the individual soldier and an energy source Personal Power Source.
PPS are participating in the development of the company Qinetiq and ABSL, who are working on a 2-systems with fuel cells: Strand A and Strand B. First system designed to highlight the power of about 7.2 kW for 2-days. Its introduction may be in a power portable electronics and communications equipment, namely, BOWMAN C4I and FIST. Source weight is about 1.4 pounds, and he has the power output of 250 kW per hour per kilogram.
Companies are co-developing and the second source, which is an association of BATTERY and fuel parts. Protonnoobmennaya membrane as a source of hydrogen uses hard dim boron hydride-oxide. Weight of the second source is about 6.3 kg, and its energy is equal to power of 220 kWh per kilogram.
There is also another promising fuel element, proposed by SFC Energy — it's lightweight portable device for military use under the title JENNY 600S. It used to develop the direct oxidation of methanol. You can wear it on your body, too use for the work of remote devices.
At the current time to find which of all these technologies is the best, unrealistic. They all are in the process of development and improvement, and totally possible that in the future may be the emergence of devices that will be joining in the technologies themselves.