November 18, 2012 22:36
When the fall of 1958, Cardinal Roncalli was elected to the papacy, becoming the head of the Vatican, he took a chance to take the name of John XXIII and successfully ruled until 1963. But few know that the same age and with the same name as the Roman church in 1410-1415 he headed the former pirate, a bandit and a complete scoundrel Balthazar Cossa, eventually excommunicated from the throne and was nicknamed Catholic antipope.
Balthazar Cossa, Belante count, a total of 11 years, pirated, life robbed, raped, killed, has twice been convicted by the Inquisition and sentenced to death. But this did not prevent him unlearn the theological faculty of the University of Bologna, long time to be one of the highest dignitaries of the Roman Church to become pope, then be excommunicated from the church, but still end his life Cardinal.
Early career Rhode Balthazar Cossa before birth had over forty generations and led his story from the commander of the Roman Empire Cornelia Cossa already from 459 BC! Once wealthy family by the end of XIV century, pretty poor, leaving behind only the island of Ischia in the Bay of Naples with four or five villages.
So big brother Baltasar Gaspar without hesitation decided to filibuster, quickly becoming the "Admiral of the Fleet."
Younger brother, he was in no hurry to take in his company, but when he saw 13-year-old puppy in, I realized that he is a scoundrel, no less than he.
Since then Balthazar participated in all the operations of the sea and the coast — plundered, burned, drove people into slavery, but most of all he loved to rape women.
During the seven years of this existence, he strengthened and enriched, but the pirate life began to seem dull. And strong advise mother … he entered the theological faculty of the University of Bologna, graduates are renowned throughout Italy and became important dignitaries.
There Cossa quickly became a "star" faculty. He was a consummate swordsman, loved by women and the leader among classmates. As before, do not miss a single skirt, especially choosing the most inaccessible — female nobles, impatiens and wealthy brides of marriageable age.
And in the end, away from chasing after her husband's murder one of his noble mistress, Balthazar was in the house at Yandro della Scala.
Yandro was the daughter of the head of Verona. When her father was killed by his own brother, she ran away from their hometown. Divination and preparations took poison, quickly became famous in this field, what interested the Inquisition.
But Yandro time have successfully prophesied future Cardinal di Santa Chiara, thus became his mistress. Cardinal settled her in his home in Bologna, which happened to be Balthazar Cossa.
Alas, even during the second date and Balthazar Yandro house raided servants Inquisition, calculate the seat witch. Cossa killed two agents, two others injured, but was twisted and together with his mistress brought to court, which sentenced them to be burned at the stake. But escaped punishment Cossa — killing a prison guard, he changed his clothes and was gone. Over the next three days, he agreed with his brother Gaspar of armed attack by pirates 120 jail. Three days later he bribed the commander of mercenaries. That gave him a hundred soldiers — have received, at that time, the whole army, which was capable to capture the entire Bologna. In general, a week after his escape Balthazar released from prison and favorite Yandro.
All are equal before the knife from a career in a pirate gang brother Baltazar refused. Began to create his own army of thugs, what succeeded. From 1385 to 1388 he robbed all the ships it catches in the Mediterranean Sea and the coastal towns of Italy, Spain, France and the African Barbary — the territory of present Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In a short time he has earned not only hatred and anger of ordinary people rich, but also the title of absolute scum of the pirates.
It happened after Balthazar accomplices cleaned out the Muslim and Christian shrines, killed a bunch of priests and that, and other faith on the island of Lampedusa, near Sicily. This island is considered neutral ground and untouchable territory, whose temple as offerings to the Lord brought a part of its production bandits all Mediterranean countries.
It was after the raid fleet Cossey was in a heavy storm. Killing all the court and all the looted goods, including 500 slaves. Along with the boat Kossoy saved only by his mistress Yandro and two close associates. Dangle them more than a day on the sea, is not washed, half-dead on the shore. In the boat, the three men made a vow that if the rescue will be priests.
Farmers, however, have learned the pirates. Brutally beat them and sent to a monastery prison, where criminals waited penalty. A loop saved renegades … Pope Urban VI.
At that time he fought the last effort of the contenders for the papacy, disillusioned and in its immediate vicinity. And when the chief pirate Mediterranean told him that he was ready to atone for his sins by becoming a monk or a priest, vicar of God gladly proclaimed him commander of papal troops.
For over a year Cossa interrupted all the troops who somehow tried to challenge the Catholic throne, and sent to the light dozens of cardinals and bishops — opponents Urbana. And when at the end of October 1389 that my father died in the universal hatred, Balthasar was even luckier.
The new head of the Roman church became a friend of his family, and the same age as Peter Tomachelli, who took the name of Boniface IX. He immediately appointed Cossu Archdeacon of the Cathedral of St. Eustache, making its closest approximation, since he could neither write nor read — not that that is not taught in the universities, in the school that had never walked.
Another series of hosts over a dozen years Cossa continued usual things — being a leader of the papal troops, he captured and plundered the city, killing enemies, burned the village, sold into slavery by farmers and feasted in palaces, not forgetting to promote the church service of their old friends, the pirates. In 1402, his friend Boniface raised to the rank of cardinal. A contemporary biographer and Vatican Secretary of Balthasar Dietrich von Him wrote: "Unheard nor incomparable Cossa worked during his stay in Rome. There was everything: adultery, incest, adultery, violence and other types of heinous sin.
In Bologna, where he was commissioned dad stayed only three months to address various issues relating to the church and politics, he managed to seduce more than 200 women. Lovers Balthazar had all women — married women, widows, women and nuns. Some people came to him for love, others — out of curiosity, he raped the third. "
Instead of the deceased Pope Boniface IX became Innocent VII, two years later, the board decided to get rid of the odious figure of the former pirate. But Balthazar Cossa had to poison the head of the Catholic Church, and raised to the throne in November 1406 protege Korrario Angelo, who took the name of Gregory XII. With him he received the official dignity of the first cardinal and a great privilege administrative and financial characteristics.
However, Gregory became impatient dependence on Balthazar, deciding to take a desperate step — anathema Cossu, depriving him of the title. In response Cossa declared himself an absolute ruler and independent areas of Bologna and Romagna, whom he had previously ruled on behalf of the Pope. And then he proceeded to unite the priests and rulers of states, dissatisfied Gregory XII.
And soon, June 15, 1409, twenty-four cardinals gathered in Pisa to elect a new head of the Vatican. Most of them voted for it to become Pope Cossa. But Balthasar believed that his time has not come, and, thanking the participants, nominated Cretan Filarga Peter, Cardinal and Professor, University of Paris, known for his erudition and high morals. Koss generously provided by Alexander V means and dad had completely dependent, essentially controlling the church.
At the height of his fame and sins When in May 1410, and Alexander died, a new conclave, consisting of seventeen purchased Kossoy cardinals unanimously elected and enthroned Balthasar, who took the name of Pope John XXIII.
On the same day he poisoned his old mistress Yandro, which prevented him to indulge in pleasures with other women.
Already seducing his mother and sister, he made his mistress 14 year old granddaughter.
Mainly when elected John XXIII believed replenish the treasury. So he set new tariffs on indulgences for the crimes. Two ducats worth forgiveness for killing his mother, father and sister. Four ducats — the murder of a priest.
Adultery could atone for 8 ducats, and bestiality — over 12.
However, the external enemies papypirata continues to grow, and some of the cardinals of the Roman church still remembered about morality.
In June 1414 the King of Naples, Vladislav surprise attack on the Papal States and captured Rome. Dad pirate fled to Constance, where, collecting council, tried to regain the centralized authority. But the ground went from under the feet of Balthazar — May 14, 1415 at a special meeting of the Cathedral John XXIII was deprived of all rights, and on May 17 was imprisoned in the fortress of Mannheim. The meeting continued with the Cathedral and soon turned into a trial of Koss.
Testimony was more than sufficient. And the former Pope was charged with 54 counts.
In the end, John XXIII declared incorrigible sinner, libertine, a thief, a murderer, incestuous, violators of peace and unity of the church.
The grave of the "red hats" But this situation Baltazar found a way. Bribed the prison, and later kings surrounding areas, Cossa returned to Rome, where, presumably, are not free could arrange a meeting with the newly elected Pope Martin V.
Audience lasted a long time, but after her ex-father-pirate dad got out of hand a red hat and was named Cardinal Balthazar Koss. Until his death in December 1419, he was living in one of the finest palaces in Florence.
In December 1419 the great sinner staged lavish funeral. On the grave of Balthazar Cossa erected a chapel — an outstanding work of genius sculptor and architect Donatello. On his tombstone is cast in bronze and covered with gold leaf mask. Below — the emblem of John XXIII, under which are carved from marble scarlet hat and a papal tiara. The inscription on the plate reads: "Here lie the remains of Balthazar Cossa, who was Pope John XXIII».