Question, have either not have, it seems, is no longer in dispute and disagreement, "Have!". Urgent need for a real ocean-going fleet for Russia yavna: specifically in the oceans is a crossing, and often clashing interests of all large modern states. Even in peacetime, the presence of combat-capable ships that can quickly move to any point on the globe and produce a military presence for quite a long time, often turns out to be a decisive argument for the settlement of those or other political issues and disagreements.
The same category also includes a demonstration of the flag, and a deterrent, and that is important — the control and protection of trade routes. The efficiency of the fleet of ocean grouping in actual combat not only undeniable, and has been confirmed many times the actions of U.S. troops in a huge number of local conflicts as nedavneshnego past and present.
Fundamental aspects of
All the above functions could do and did the fleet of the USSR. But consider naval experts, vsepolnotsennym ocean fleet to call it still can not. Russian fleet development strategy as opposed to a South American carrier strike groups (CSGs) has focused on the mass production of submarines. This decision almost everything was half-hearted: AUG task against the enemy has been resolved, but in the end the Russian command acknowledged that without specific support from the air combat capabilities of the fleet is very limited.
In South America, we can follow the example that only one aircraft carrier provides ample opportunities for info and battle management tool carrier aircraft distant Airborne Warning and Control (AEW & C and Y), a massive ground attack cruise missiles as well as the forces of attack aircraft, air defense management greater efficiency, if regular ship systems "land-to-air", the embodiment of electronic warfare, anti-submarine warfare and air refueling. Current conditions bezotstupno dictate the need for such ships in the ocean lays claim to the title of the fleet.
In the Soviet Union have come to this very late, when even catch up with the other powers were incredibly hard, but still can be. The collapse of Russian Union and the ensuing decline of the power of the Russian fleet not only buried the Russian program from the construction of aircraft carriers, and deprived the country of its ocean-going fleet.
Back in the present. In recent years the Russian Navy began again to increase its presence in the world's oceans, although very limited powers. Let us recall the role of Russian ships in the international exercise "FRUKUS-2009", "Ionieks-2009", "Pomor-2010", "FRUKUS-2010», «BLACKSEAFOR-2010", "Ionieks-2011", "Baltops-2011" "Bold Monarch-2011", "RIMPAK-2012", and numerous friendly visits to Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, Denmark, Greece, France, Libya, Syria, United States, and anti-piracy campaigns in the Gulf of Aden, and probably the most severe since the war cool show of force when the December 6, 2011 to the coast of Syria went ship aircraft carrier group led by the languid aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov Russian Navy."
Even greater interest are invisible to the eye hikes. Most recently, on November 7, near the east coast of the United States was found Russian nuclear submarine (APL) Project 945, earlier, in 2009, shook the public submarine project 971. Seafarers are convinced that those 2 incidents is not limited to hiking and Russian submarines in the Atlantic are held frequently.
Yet even significantly more frequent trips Russian ships of the world's oceans do not give reason we talk about revival, and a lot of work to be strong. What should be the Russian real ocean fleet?
The first and most important aspect, which is now actually not in dispute — is the presence of an aircraft carrier air wings with vsepolnotsennym and nuclear power plant. Next — the formation of this group of ocean escorts. At best, it should be the ships of the 1st rank — missile cruiser (RRC) to support air defense and anti-ship attacks, large anti- ship (BOD), which carries anti-submarine submarine warfare (ASW), and up to four destroyers (EM). Another important detail is the uninterrupted service of the support vessels: tankers and transports weapons.
The third element must be tough puzzles awareness and accurate implementation of the concept of carrier battle group. Fourth requirement — established system of command and control fleet, specifically aimed at the distant ocean zone. 5th — the presence of Prof. personnel, and as it should, and complex learning centers in all the required fields.
Must be a bad break: all of the above is less than the desired minimum and there are a huge number of additional reasons, without which the creation of ocean-going fleet very little problem.
What we have, and that is built
What did we have on this day? We will understand by Fri
The only aircraft carrier in the Navy, according to the professionals, not the ocean ship. The reason for this is called first prepyadstviya continuing with GEMs cruiser. Wing, "Admiral Kuznetsov" is, according to various estimates, from 10 to 18 Su-33 (in general, in the Syrian campaign on board were only eight aircraft), two Su-25UTG and several supposedly two Ka-27 helicopters. By 2015, the Sukhoi aircraft to replace the means to deliver 24 MiG-29K fighters, four of their combat training.
Yet, even in spite of this, of course, that the value of "Kuznetsov" as a true combat unit now does not meet the needs of the fleet. But as a training ground cruiser can last for a long time yet.
Vsepolnotsennyh construction of aircraft carriers — is only a question of time and abilities. Unfortunately, at the command of the fleet so far there are no definite plans. According to former Commander of the Navy, the design of a promising aircraft carrier to be completed by 2014, specifically construction will begin in 2020.
Apparently, this term should be taken only as a starting point: in the LG-2020 recall of funds for the construction of aircraft carriers and not allocated any harsh work may be funded only to follow a similar applets. Next, the construction period is actually from all sources of high-nature-identical sounds — all within three to four years. In such numbers are hard to believe, remembering quite nedavneshny example — the restructuring of "Admiral Gorshkov" to "Vikramaditya", which lasted from 2004 to 2012. Serious work has been done, but the construction "from scratch" so undeveloped sudopromyshlennostyu our ship may be even more lengthy and time consuming, even more so in a country that so far there are no analogues lost to us Nikolayev shipyards.
But the main factor is not even a question of funds, and the will of management. The final decision to build aircraft carriers at the highest level so far not. And when it will be impossible to foresee. But in addition to actually building the aircraft carrier should think about other qualities. For example, the first need infrastructure: a specially equipped home base, trained technical and support staff, as well as the timely funding of the content and the repairs and upgrades. Another discrepancy is the wing: so far not drafted specialized carrier aircraft, namely the AWACS aircraft and U, EW, ASW, attack aircraft. Part of these tasks can be performed by helicopters, but the effectiveness of, for example,
the Russian Ka-31 — AEW helicopters do not go to any comparison with airborne complex. But about the ongoing development of a promising wing aircraft carrier disk imaging not. Maybe it will be revived and improved an old projects, such as the Yak-44 and An-71.
So Makar, despite active debate at all levels, the construction of aircraft carriers until now poses a significant problem of.
How are things going with the band accompaniment, precisely, ocean-going ships of the 1st rank? On this day in the Russian Navy they were a matter of units:
In sum, — the housing 23. We take into account that not all of them are still in service. In this category we considered:
In the end, the number of ships that have the potential to make a group of escort aircraft carrier, decreases to 17 units. For a number of impressive AUG. But this is achieved by the number of actual bleeding all other fleets that have no ships of the 1st rank deprived of most of its own military capabilities.
Is not it easier to identify and underwater part of the strike group. The number of combat-ready submarines of Project 971 is only three units of 6 to TOFe (K-263 "Barnaul" K-391 "brotherly" and K-322 "Sperm Whale" are in the long-term repair), four of the 6 — to SF (K-328 "The Leopard" is undergoing renovations to upgrade, K-157 "Boar" bred in the reserve). Of Project 945 submarines in service two, as many of the improved 945A. These four ships assigned to the Northern Fleet. There also are serving all four housing project 671RTMK. Two of them (B-138 "Obninsk" and B-448 "Tambov") finish repairs. In the end, the fleet can provide less than 15 submarine torpedo. In peacetime, the allocation of this amount of 2-boats in support of CSG is justified, but in a situation of full-scale war, 13 boats, besides the broken between with 2 fleets, obviously not enough, and such criteria, any military unit in the account.
All these calculations are intended to show only one fact: ocean ships in the Russian Navy damn missing. Of course, the process of typesetting for a promising group of naval aircraft carrier does not have to pass by bleeding the rest of the fleet. It is necessary to introduce a new fleet destroyers and corvettes, and the more robust solution would be to first return to the existing system and requiring repair the body, and only then build new ones.
At the moment there is construction vehicles only third grade: Project 11661 corvettes (two in service), 20380 (two in service), MRC Project 21631 and 21630 MAC. Ships rank 2 — frigates distant sea zone projects 22350 and 11356R / M — so far not launched on the 1st or before 2014 to wait for them in the fleet is not necessary.
Yet compared with the years nineties and the first half of the 2000s gave way to a positive trend. Russian fleet currently going through a phase of regeneration and renewal in these criteria need to phased construction of small coastal vessels with a gradual transfer of power into the ocean. And by ensuring the immediate needs of the fleet for the defense of the specific boundaries of the country, we can seriously think about building vsepolnotsennyh pervorangovyh destroyers and cruisers. This implies a fundamental conclusion that, at this stage, "aircraft carrier-centric" thinking very little is unacceptable and unfeasible.
But the unusual severity of the issue is not even that assigns. Unfortunately, on this day, and has not produced accurate and specific management concepts and the introduction of martial AUG. Strictly speaking, it is not fully developed the concept and implementation of the fleet as a whole, and this is the main problem of the Russian Navy. In the scheme of the benchmark jobs shipbuilders should look like this: doctrine — the strategy — the ship. But in the modern doctrine of the Armed Forces is no clear understanding of the enemy and the strategy of a possible war. In the end, the situation is awkward: the ships are being built, but why — is unclear. Specifically to overcome this crisis, and is a priority for the management of the fleet. Until then, even the development of promising projects not only difficult, and in something destructive.
Management and staff
Now let us turn to the fleet management system. Unfortunately, after the reform of the army mess in her no end. After the Main Command of the Navy almost removed from the cases, the functions of a particular ship management handed over to the United strategic commands (OSK). Recall that being in the state of USC naval department is almost half the 10-ka officers. Such number is clearly insufficient even for the daily organization of combat duty, not to mention how much-or large-scale operations in oceanic theaters. This part of the management of severe processing needs. According to the views of veterans, the fleet command should operate independently.
The subsequent difficulty in the development of ocean-going fleet — is the problem of personnel. Unfortunately, after massive cuts in the framework of the same reforms were required to leave the Navy officers with many years of experience, including vsepolnotsennyh ocean expeditions. In the end this was reflected in the administrative sphere, and research, and teaching, and specifically on the ships. Return this loss is practically impossible without verbovaniya sent down veterans. According to many sailors, the system of military education in the current state to prepare officers of the same property can not. Reduction factor of the sun will have an impact on the manning of the new ships. This problem is as significant as it is the lack of active ships in the fleet, but, unfortunately, her attention is paid even less.
What result can be summed? If our homeland wishes to remain significant player on the world stage, water navy needed, but making it due to a number of problems. With the current state of the economy and production to overcome them — it's not, and not even the 1st decade. At the moment, the main thing for the fleet — to keep a stable position and slowly increase the power. With all the appeal of its own desire at all costs to have aircraft carrier may be a mere waste of resources, which have not found a practical implementation, and such a silly loss, which at the time were carrying cruiser "Novorossiysk" and "Minsk" — quite young (a little more than 10 years of service) vehicles were sold at the cost of scrap metal in South Korea .
Fleet, is a shadow of its former greatness only to exit into the ocean to go whole way from the very beginning, and sudden movements are not acceptable here — you need a phased development. Need systematic reform and the construction of a modern management system, able to operate with a fleet on th
e whole of the oceans. It is also acute and personnel issues: the basic element of the Navy is not "iron", and people — trained and dedicated his own business.
All these prepyadstviya solved, and the main factor here is the political will of a rigid control. The history of our country more than once is an example, as in tribute to the will of these projects can be completed in one decade. And the management of the country and the Navy's time this will prove, on another critical gap between "potential enemy" is very rapidly become irreversible.