September 7, 2012 13:00
The idea of the famous science fiction novel by Alexander Belyaev "Amphibian Man" soon may be a reality. Scientists have developed an innovative method of breathing for divers. We will Aquanaut artificial gills and breathe it will zhidkostyu.Issledovaniya shown that mammals can survive, breathing oxygen through a special liquid solution. The photo is breathing rat PFC solution. At the top of the layer of water, which is easier than PFC floating fish.
Conquest of the water element will be possible thanks to a new technology by which a diver will get needed oxygen from a liquid solution, and carbon dioxide should be allocated through artificial gills directly into the sea water. The author of the concept is the Arnold Lande, a retired surgeon, specializing in cardiothoracic operations. He has applied for a patent for an invention, which, in his opinion, could be a reality within a few years. It will, he hopes Lande, a revolution in the history of deep-sea diving.
Conversion to Ihtiandra
Picture this. On board the ship divers prepare to dive. The doctor sets the femoral vein two long catheter tubes are connected with artificial gills Aquanaut in a backpack. Now his blood circulates through the device, which absorbs the dissolved carbon dioxide in it. The diver wears a mask and make sure that the oxygen supply system, begins a dive. In water, it connects to the screw torpedo backpack, which contains oxygen tank and battery power to the gills and other equipment.
At a depth of 10 m, where the pressure is 2 atmosphere, the air in the mask is replaced with a special liquid, which can dissolve large amounts of oxygen. With the help of a local anesthetic diver easily overcome involuntary reflex contraction of muscles of larynx, which in normal circumstances would not let him drown. As soon as the lungs are filled with a solution, a reflex contraction stops, the oxygen enters the blood, and at this time, artificial gills begin to clear it of carbon dioxide. Breathe liquid solution (that is, to ensure its circulation in the lungs) is difficult, but a special device, called Breastplate makes this task easier.
Deep diving record
Traditional diving equipment. Because of the risk of decompression sickness, even highly skilled divers today rarely go deeper 70m world record — 330 m
Atmospheric (normobaric) diving suit. He is a rigid structure, and supports the internal pressure of 1 atmosphere, allowing the dive to great depths. Atmospheric diving suits
is in the Russian Navy and permit working at a depth of 610 meters
The method of long stay. This method involves a preliminary compression diver. He goes to the bell, which gradually increases the pressure to a level consistent depth. Bell dipped to a predetermined depth, and directly from a diver goes into the water. Upon completion, he returned to Bell, where he slowly returned to the usual atmospheric pressure. The process can take anywhere from several weeks to several months (often this operation is carried out in a stationary chamber on board under the supervision of physicians). Record dive-710 m
Now the diver is ready for diving, where the pressure is measured in hundreds of atmospheres. The grout in the lungs will not be compressed, so they are not threatened tremendous water pressure. Aquanaut an opportunity to work for a few hours, after which it rapidly and without interruption to the surface.
If he used the immersion gas mixture based on air, it would be suicide. Air contains 80% of nitrogen, and with increasing pressure as scuba diving to a depth of this gas into the tissue of the body. If in the process of ascent pressure drops too quickly, nitrogen begins to flow into the bloodstream like a man soda bubbles and prevents nutrition of tissues with blood rich in oxygen. This leads to the development of decompression (decompression) of the disease, which can cause brain damage, paralysis and even death.
But with the new respiratory system "bends" the diver is not threatened. He breathes only pure oxygen through the solution, and its rise to the surface can take place quickly. For 10 m to the surface one takes the position head down to gravity liquid left lung and he was again able to breathe normal air mixture. On board it for a while receiving oxygen through a mask while the doctor disconnects it from artificial gills.
Animal studies show that deep dive kislorodoobespecheniem through the liquid in principle possible. Professor Thomas Shaffer, Director of the Research Center pulmonological Nemours (USA) conducted experiments with hamsters who breathed through oxygen-enriched solution of perfluorocarbon (PFC). Anesthetized hamsters were placed in a pressure vessel, which was produced by a pressure equivalent to the water pressure at a depth of 300 meters, "We removed the hamsters from the tank and returned them to the conditions of atmospheric pressure less than a second. All animals survived. Deep immersion liquid breathing is possible, but, of course, this is due to a number of risks for the divers, "- says Thomas Shaffer.
Arnold Lande does not believe that breathing in the liquid will be the biggest problem, "Studies 1960-1980-ies have clearly shown that breathing in a special liquid-perfect way kislorodoobespecheniya divers when diving to great depths."
The risk of decompression sickness with traditional diving equipment has meant that divers rarely dare to dive deeper 70m
While no one can say what the maximum depth to be used to lower the invention Lande. According to him, mile — is real.
It would seem that the problem of decompression sickness can be solved simply by providing the diver to breathe pure oxygen instead of air or breathing gas. Unfortunately, the oxygen in large quantities — it is poison. Slightly better and replacing passive atmospheric nitrogen chemically inert gas — for example, helium.
The only solution — it vysokonasyschenny oxygen grout. We do not fish, we do not have gills, which could absorb from the ambient water oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Besides oxygen in the water is ten times lower than in air. So getting into the human respiratory system, water or other foreign objects and substances leads to the cessation of respiration and asphyxia, that is strangulation. In addition, regular or salt water is different in composition from the blood, and osmotic effects on the alveolar level, lead to the destruction of lung tissue and the blood itself. But in quite a different light react to perfluorocarbon in which the oxygen content can be up to 20 times greater than in water, and three times more than in the blood.
Carbon dioxide is removed from the blood of artificial gills
PFCs are chemically inert and nontoxic. When it fills the lungs, the blood flows sufficient oxygen to the same solution protects the lungs from damage caused by pure oxygen in a gaseous form. At the moment, a lot of experiments conducted on mice and other small mammals. Animals fully immersed in a container with a solution of PFCs and breathed, but eventually tired, because the density and viscosity of the solution requires much more muscular effort. Arnold Lande this problem is going to solve by using the belt-cuirass.
Breastplate of works by ventilator that helps paralyzed patients breathe easier breath by reducing the pressure on the chest and exhale — by creating excessive pressure. Breastplate owes its name to the classic Roman armor, it surrounds the chest and provides the diver's ability to work within a few hours.
Synthetic gills will extract oxygen from seawater
The dream of a free movement of the water can become a reality if you learn how to extract oxygen directly from seawater, and thus eliminate the need for cylinders with breathing gas or oxygen. Arnold Lande has to this effect by the idea. The concept is based on the properties of hemoglobin, the respiratory pigment of our blood, which is in a neutral or alkaline medium absorbs oxygen and releases it in an acidic environment. To create synthetic gills Lande plans to use hemoglobin alligators, which in cold sea water works better than the hemoglobin of mammals.
The principle is that the carbon dioxide through their gills leaks from the blood into the sea water, the second time as oxygen, on the contrary, from sea water through the gills into the blood. Under the influence of carbon dioxide from the blood hemoglobin diver begins to release oxygen. And through a unique system of multiple reservoirs separated by porous membranes, oxygen is gradually absorbed into the constantly changing their concentration of hemoglobin solutions. As a result, oxygen enters the PFC solution, the diver breathes.
Before breathing liquid can be applied in practice, diving, have to solve another problem. Need to learn to clean the blood of carbon dioxide, which is usually out of the body during exhalation. If the concentration of the gas in the blood becomes too high, it can lead to death.
This will help avoid artificial gills. Their principle of operation is based on the application of membrane through which carbon dioxide diffuses when its concentration on one side of the membrane is higher than the other. As a result, carbon dioxide derived from the blood of the diver in the surrounding marine water. In practice, the gills are composed of bundles of hollow fibers, each of which is a separate membrane. To prevent blood clots and blood clots, fibers will be large bore.
The heart of the highly trained diver pump about 25 liters of blood per minute through the body. Numerous experiments have shown that for effective removal of carbon dioxide through artificial gills will be enough to pass only 5 liters of blood per minute — just as much as can be easily derived from the large femoral vein and put back. Arnold Lande believes that if some effort focused on improving the concept, his method could become a reality within a few years.
First, all of the experiments and tests will be carried out on animals in the laboratory. Lande plans to leverage existing technology: improved cuirass formerly used in medical experiments on animals, and adapt it to the goal. You then need to make artificial gills, so they can absorb carbon dioxide from the blood.
The next step will be experiments under pressure — in a pressure chamber, which is used for the treatment of decompression sickness. Further experiments will follow in the pool. If the first phase of work will be successful, the animals will move into a deep pool. In a series of experiments, the final plans Lande load test using a mini-submarine boat on the sea bottom and test the system of fluid breathing and artificial gills. "If they do not die and will not be injured as a result of diving to great depths, we can proceed to test the system with divers" — says Arnold Lande.
In experiments on humans security will be doubled by duplicating critical systems. Plans to join two independent systems for both gills thighs — one for insurance in case of failure. Of course, the dive with gills require consent diver. But on this occasion Lande did not bother. To him already addressed some brave souls who do not mind to try to dive deeper than it has ever been able to man.