Modern military doctrine of the country was founded in the early 90-ies of the last century and is built on the principle of defense sufficiency, which determines the development of the aircraft. As the lead opponent stands Israel, is also not ruled out the threat of military conflict with Iraq and Turkey. The doctrine provides for the introduction of the army in operations to military assistance to Arab countries, as it has been during the conflict in the Persian Gulf in the 1990-1991 year, as in Lebanon since 1976, before the withdrawal of troops in 2005. The military and political control of the country believes that a strong military presence allows Syria to become equal partners in Israel's peace negotiations.
Ground forces of Syria
Higher mix of ground forces, available in peacetime, acts Corps. He is the highest operational and tactical combination. The main tactical formation is a division of the Army. In total, the Army, there are 215,000 people (300,000 more in reserve). In peacetime, they manned three army corps, 12 divisions, 12 brigades, 10 regiments of the Special Forces (Commando), 1 separate tank regiment and one coastal defense missile brigade, operationally subordinate to the Navy.
Of the 12 Syrian armored divisions are 7, 3 mechanized, 1 Division of the Republican Guard (actually a tank), 1 special forces division. Also, there are 4 separate infantry brigade, 3 Brigade tactical missiles (such as "Luna-M", "Scud", "Point"), 2 anti-gang, two artillery brigades and team Border Guard.
Over cooked and militant compound Syrian army is division of the Republican Guard. The division consists of two tanks and two mechanized brigades. On arms division is up to 350 T-72 tanks (upgraded), and 350 BMP-2/3, 30 152-mm self-propelled guns 2S3 "Acacia", 20 122-mm self-propelled guns 2S1 "Carnation", 30 MLRS BM-21 "Grad" , 50 ZSU "Shilka" and other combat and support equipment.
Ordinary Syrian armored divisions consist of two armored and one mechanized brigade, but have a smaller number of tanks to 300 T72/62, and their move to the motorized infantry and armored vehicles BMP-1. In addition most of the artillery in such parts is towed.
Mechanized divisions have in their own part of one tank brigade and two mechanized, armed with 200 T-62/55 tanks, motorized infantry move them in armored vehicles. Artillery regiments of such divisions are equipped with 130-mm towed guns M-46 and 122-mm howitzer D-30.
Syrian army infantry brigades are designed to cover the front on the secondary areas of fighting, anti-tank and artillery brigades are designed to support a mechanized battle. Missile Brigade armed with tactical missiles, designed for application on the enemy attacks with the introduction of weapons of mass destruction.
Total in service with the Army is about 4,800 tanks, in the midst of their 1500-1700 T-72 of various modifications, about 1,000 T-62, 2000-2250 T-54 and T-55, of which about 1000 is on preservation. Due to the fact that the last tanks were delivered to the country during the Soviet period, the Army tank fleet can not be considered modern. But, according to some sources, disk imaging, Syria decides to significant efforts to upgrade the existing armored vehicles.
Over the past decade, it is clear only about 2-large contracts in the interests of Syria Army. In 1995, Ukraine was ordered by upgrading 200 tanks T-55 and T versions-55MB. These tanks have increased the reservation dynamically protect the front and sides of the part, as a set of guided weapons 9K116 "Bastion". At the time of modernization with increased head-booking and equipment subjected to dynamic protection and part of the existing T-72. A number of professionals believes that the T-72 tanks from the Republican Guard divisions may use a set of guided weapons 9K118 "Reflex". In 1998, Damascus signed agreement with Moscow for the supply of 1,000 ATGM "Kornet-E" in the amount of 65 million dollars, as complexes "Mestis-M" in the amount of 73 million dollars.
The main vehicle for the transport of infantry is the BMP-1 (available to 2,450 cars), is also in service with up to 100 BMP-2 and several 10-s BMP-3. Besides the troops, there are about 1,000 BRDM-2, including self-propelled anti-tank and run for over 1500 armored vehicles, including 1,000 APCs 50/60/70 and 500 BTR-152.
Fire support for mechanized units are designed to provide more than 500 self-propelled guns. Among which 50 152-mm self-propelled guns 2S3 "Acacia", 400 122-mm self-propelled guns 2S1 "Carnation" and more than 50 122-mm self-propelled guns SP122 local production. This SPG is a D-30 howitzer mounted on an open set on the chassis of the T-34-85.
In addition to the self-propelled Syrian army has a significant number of towed artillery (about 1,500 barrels). Among them, 10 180-mm long-range guns C-23, 70 152-mm howitzers, guns ML-20 and D-20 howitzers, 800 130-mm guns, M-46, about 500 122-mm howitzer D-30 and 150122 howitzers M-30. In addition about 500 122-mm howitzer is in storage.
Syria also has a significant number of mortars. There are about 100 160 mm mortars, about 10 240-mm mortars, about 400 120-mm mortar battalion and an impressive number of 82-mm mortars.
In addition to the classic artillery armed ground troops is 300 MLRS BM-21 "Grad" and 200 MLRS "Type 63" in China, with the caliber of 107 mm.
Syrian Air Force and Air Defense
Air Force and Air Defense Forces are accounted for by its own ranks 100,000 people, 60,000 of them in defense and 40,000 in the Air Force. The Air Force made up of fighter, fighter-bomber, bomber, reconnaissance, military transport, training and helicopter aircraft. Is in service with 478 combat aircraft, 106 training, 31 training and combat, 25 transport aircraft. Helicopter fleet consists of approximately 100 combat vehicles and 110 helicopters.
It should be noted that the country's air force have a sufficient number of combat vehicles, most of which are obsolete own. More combat-ready fighters of the Air Force are 48 MiG-29, which in the late 90's and early 2000's have been upgraded with the help of Russian professionals. May be of some value and 20-25 languid fighter-interceptor MiG-25, and up to 50 MiG-23MLD. In addition to their in the Syrian Air Force has up to 150 MiG-21 combat value is compared with the fighters of Israel goes to zero.
Syria strike aircraft has about 40 frontline bombers Su-24, a similar number of fighter-bombers, MiG-23BN and as many fighter-bombers Su
-22. Su-24 bombers capable of flying at ultra-low-altitude terrain following, to develop a supersonic speed, also use guided weapons. Specifically, they are more effective means to impact the country's air force and can operate even in the criteria of enemy air superiority.
Air Force, despite the presence of a small number of relatively modern machines are inferior to the Israeli Air Force, as the quality of the fleet, and on its strength. In addition to all the rest of Israel has the best flight crews and impressive delivery system for the actions of their own Air Force, including the AWACS aircraft, while Syria is obliged to dispense only a system of ground-based radars.
Army aviation Syria has about hundreds of combat helicopters: 55 French SA-342 "Gazelle" and 36 Russian Mi-24, except that it includes approximately 100 transport helicopters Mi-17 and 10 Mi-2 helicopters.
The proximity of Syria and Israel, which has a substantial and perfectly cooked Air Force, has always urged the management of the Arab countries to pay close attention to defense. At the current time, Syria has a significant amount of anti-aircraft missile systems, and an impressive fleet of flak cannon.
Part of the country's air defense presented two divisions, 25 air defense brigades (divisions in the defense and the individual, only about 150 batteries), parts of the radar troops. At the current time in service is 908 SAM launchers (about 600 C-75 and C-125 to 200 "Square", 48 SAM launchers distant radius acts C-200M, 60 SAM launchers "Wasp", and up to 4,000 pieces of artillery defense) . The country is divided into 2 zones defense: North and South. To control the air defense of the country, there are 3 fully computerized CP.
For the most part in service are outdated S-75, S-125 and "Square" (the latter were modernized, improved ability to intercept air targets in the criteria of a strong electronic suppression of the enemy). These air defenses unable to counteract the great modern means of air attack, at the same time, experts note of the problem and the preparation of the personnel of the compounds.
More long-range air defense systems and modern are the S-200M (Vega-M), 2 brigades deployed in the full amount of 48 pieces. Range of their fire exceeds 250 km, in contrast to their own of early analogs, this modification allows us to beat and low-flying targets. To cover the areas of deployment of air defense data Syria A total of 14 panels (60 CP) mobile air defense system "Wasp".
Ground troops in battle and on the march from air attacks hide behind the air defense system "Strela-1" (up to 20 PU BRDM), "Strela-10" (30 CP on the basis of the MT-LB), as more than 4000 settlements of armed MANPADS " needle "," Strela-2 "," Strela-2M ". The main means of mobile air defense for ground forces is the ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" having armed with Quad 23-mm gun mount. Besides the troops have about 1200 towed units, of which 600 have at ZU-23-2, and another 600 by 57-mm anti-aircraft gun S-60.
To sum up we can say that the defense of Syria, though not a new air defense missile systems, such as Buk-M1-300 or C, with proper application is able to provide the level of cover tribute to civilian objects and forces from the air, forcing the opponent to switch from Air Force attacks on ground targets the fight against air defenses.
The naval forces of Syria
Navy Syria's small branch of the armed forces — about 4,000 people. Main objectives — protection of sea lines of communication, defense and marine coast of the country's territorial waters from ship strikes the enemy forces. Navy headquarters is located in Latakia, the ships are placed in three bases: in Latakia (the main base of the fleet), Tartous, and Mina el-Beida. The fleet also includes artillery and missile parts of coastal defense squadron of ASW helicopters, observation and detachment battalion of combat swimmers.
The fleet comes 10 warships, 18 armed boats, four auxiliary vessels, hydrographic 1 and 1 teaching. Warships are 2 frigates (Russian anti-submarine ships 159E project, given the country in 1975), three landing craft project 770 (passed in the years 1981-84) and 5 trawlers, also Russian-made (produced in the 70's and 80's). Of combat boats are 10 missile project 205 different modifications (were delivered in the period from 1979 to 1982), 8 patrol project in 1400 with machine gun armament (delivered from the USSR in 1984-1986).
In the inventory of naval aviation is 24 anti-submarine helicopters (Ka-28 — 4 units, the Mi-14 — 20 units). Part of the coastal defenses are armed with 10 PU mobile coastal defense systems (PU 6 "Border" and 4 launchers "Redoubt", as some 100 missiles of both types), 36 artillery guns of 130 mm and 12 pieces of artillery, 100 mm caliber.
It should be noted that the ships and boats Navy Syria outdated and very worn out, in need of complete renovation and substitution of new vessels.