In this issue, you will see the photo album of Russian 80th and ready to learn that talking about the Armed Forces of the USSR, Great Russian Encyclopedia.
Text: Big Russian Encyclopedia
The Armed Forces of the USSR — Russian military organization of the country, set up to protect the socialist achievements of the Russian people, the freedom and independence of the Russian Union. In cooperation with the armed forces of other socialist states, they provide the security of all socialist countries from encroachments aggressors.
2. Stroybatovtsy at BAM.
Soviet Armed Forces are divided into types: Strategic Rocket Forces mission, Army, Troops Defense Forces, Air Force, Navy, also contain the Rear of the Armed Forces, the military headquarters and Defense civilian clothes. Branches of the armed forces, in turn, are divided into combat arms, kind of forces (Navy) and special forces, which organizationally consist of units, units and formations. The structure of the Armed Forces also includes the boundary and internal forces. The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union have a common system of organizing and staffing, centralized management, unified principles of training and education of personnel and training command personnel, the overall order of service privates, sergeants and officers.
4. Sappers in action.
Soviet Armed Forces are divided into types: Strategic Rocket Forces mission, Army, Air Defense Forces, Air Force, Navy, also contain the Armed Forces Rear Services, headquarters and troops plainclothes defense. Branches of the armed forces, in turn, are divided into combat arms, kind of forces (Navy) and special forces, which organizationally consist of units, units and formations. The structure of the Armed Forces also includes the boundary and internal forces. The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union have a common system of organizing and staffing, centralized management, unified principles of training and education of personnel and training command personnel, the overall order of service privates, sergeants and officers.
7. Fire during a training exercise.
The specific management of the Armed Forces by the Ministry of Defence. He governs all kinds of Armed Forces Rear Services of the Armed Forces, the military headquarters and Defense civilian clothes. Each of the Armed Forces of the corresponding controls in-chief, who is deputy. Minister of Defense. Border and internal troops ruled accordingly, the Committee of state security with the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. In the Ministry of Defence includes the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR, managing commanders in chief of the Armed Forces, Department of Logistics of the Armed Forces, the main and central control (the Main Personnel Directorate, The General Accounting Office, the Office of affairs, etc.), as the military authorities and institutions plainclothes Defense . The Ministry of Defense, among other tasks assigned to: the development of plans for the construction and development of the Armed Forces in peacetime and wartime, improve the organization of troops, weapons, military equipment, providing the Armed Forces with weapons and all kinds of material supply, management of operational and combat training of troops and a number of other functions defined by the requirements of the protection of the country. Management of party political work in the Armed Forces of the Central Committee of the Communist Party produces the Main Political Directorate of the Russian Army and Navy, working as a department of the Central Committee of the CPSU. It controls the political authorities, army and navy party and Komsomol organizations, provides party influence on all aspects of life of military personnel, directs the activities of political agencies and party organizations to increase the combat readiness of troops, strengthening military discipline and political and moral state of the personnel.
8. The crossing on the pontoon.
9. Gun crew during a training exercise.
Real and technical support of the Armed Forces of the produce of management, Logistics and Services, subject to the Deputy Minister of Defence — Chief of Logistics of the Armed Forces.
Territory USSR divided by the military neighborhood. Military District may encircle areas of several territories and republics or regions. To perform the duties of allied joint security socialist countries temporarily in the GDR, Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia has a group of Russian troops. In the branches of the Armed Forces, military area, groups of forces, air defense area, fleets made military councils, which have the right to examine and resolve all the fundamental questions of life and activities of the corresponding type of the Armed Forces, a neighborhood. They are solely responsible to the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the government and the Minister of Defense for the implementation of decisions of the Party and the government in the Armed Forces, as Minister of Defence.
12. Against the background of the monument to Motherland in the hero city of Volgograd.
The Armed Forces of the privates, sergeants and petty officers of the Russian draft is held by people on active service component, in accordance with the USSR Constitution and the Law on Conscription, 1967, the honorable duty of the people of the USSR (see Conscription in the USSR). The call is made by order of the Secretary of Defense all 2 times a year: in May — June and November — December. On active duty are encouraged to male citizens who have reached the age of 18 days of the call, the service life of 1.5 to 3 years depending on their education and the Armed Forces. An additional source of acquisition is receiving military personnel and persons employed in the stores in order to volunteer positions warrant officers, and re-enlist. Officers are equipped with on a voluntary basis. Officers prepare secondary and higher military schools of the respective branches of the Armed Forces and the armed forces, the officers, political officers — in the highest political and military schools. For the preparation of young people for higher military schools have Suvorov and Nakhimov schools. Increase
training of officers is conducted at the highest rates of improvement officers, as in the system of combat and political training. Guiding team, political, engineering, and other officers are trained in the military, air, naval and special academies.
14. Communicate with the commander.
15. The festive ceremony of taking the oath.
History of the Russian Army and Navy began with the formation of the first socialist country. Russian people after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 had not only to build a new society, and protect it with a tool in the hands of the internal counterrevolution and repeated attacks of international imperialism. The Armed Forces of the USSR Communist Party created specifically for the hands. Lenin, on the basis of the provisions of the Marxist-Leninist theory of war and the military. Resolution of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets on October 26 (November 8), 1917, in the formation of Russian government was created by the Committee for Military and Naval Affairs in the VA Antonov-Ovseenko Krylenko, PE Dybenko, with October 27 (November 9), 1917, was called by the Council of People's Commissars of the Military and Naval Affairs from December 1917 — The College of military commissars, from February 1918 — 2 Commissariat: for Military and Naval Affairs. The main armed force to overthrow the rule of the bourgeoisie and the landlords and the conquest of power by the working people were reddish Guard and revolutionary sailors of the Baltic Fleet, and other soldiers of the Petrograd garrison. With an emphasis on the working class and poor peasants, they have played the most important role in the victory of the October Revolution of 1917, to protect the young Russian republic in the center and on the ground, in the defeat in late 1917 — early 1918, the counter-revolutionary rebellion Kerensky — Krasnov at Petrograd, the Don Kaledina , Dutova the southern Urals, in ensuring the triumphal march of Russian power throughout the territory of Russia.
17. Army initiative.
"… The Red Guards fought in the noble and great historical cause of liberating the working and exploited from the oppression of the exploiters" (VI Lenin, Fuller. Works. Cit., 5th ed., V. 36, p. 177).
First, in 1918 it became natural that the forces of the Red Guard detachments also revolutionary fighter and sailors apparently not enough for reliable protection of Russian country. In an effort to crush the revolution imperialist countries, first in Germany, made an intervention against the young Russian republic, merging with the performance of internal counterrevolution: White Guard riots and komplotami SRs, Mensheviks, the remnants of various bourgeois parties. Were required frequent armed forces capable of protecting Russian government against numerous opponents.
15 (28), 1918 People's Commissars adopted a decree on the development of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) and January 29 (February 11) — Decree on the development of the Workers 'and Peasants' Reddish Navy (Red Navy) on voluntary basis. The specific control the formation of the Red Army was made All-panel constituted SNK 15 (28), 1918 at the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs. In connection with the violation of the armistice by Germany and the transition of its troops in the coming of the Russian government on February 22 asked the people with the written decree of Lenin-appeal "The Socialist Fatherland is in danger!". This decree was the beginning of the mass entry of volunteers in reddish Army and the formation of many of its parts. In commemoration of the general mobilization of the revolutionary forces in the defense of the socialist fatherland, and courageous resistance to the invaders units of the Red Army on February 23 every year is celebrated in the Soviet Union as a nationwide prazdnichek — day Russian Army and Navy.
23. In the army bath.
24. Physical preparation.
During the 1918-20 war plainclothes construction of the Red Army and Red Navy conducted only in severe criteria. The country's economy has been undermined, railway transport disorganized army with food supply is erratic, weapons and uniforms were not enough. The Army did not have the necessary number of command personnel; means. part of an old army officer was on the side of the counter-revolution. The peasants, of which the main equipped with private and NCOs, ruined the 1 st World War 1914-18, is not inclined to go into the army voluntarily. These difficulties were compounded by sabotage of an old bureaucratic apparatus of the bourgeois intellectuals and kulaks.
26. Veteran and recruit.
From January to May 1918 the Red Army and Red Navy were equipped volunteers, team composition (to the commander of the regiment) was selected, the number of voluntary parts was very poor. By April 20, 1918 Reddish Army consisted of 196 thousand people. Picking Army volunteers and election of officers of the establishment could not provide the mass of the standing army, which was necessary in an international environment and in the criteria for scaling plainclothes war. March 4, 1918 for the management of military operations and military organization was formed by the Supreme military advice. April 8th CPC adopted a decree on the establishment of township, county, provincial and district commissioners for Military Affairs, May 8 instead of the All-Russia panel on the formation of the Red Army was created by Russian General Staff (Vseroglavshtab) — the highest executive body in charge of mobilization, formation, equipment and training of troops . Decree of the Central Executive Committee on April 22, was introduced universal military training of workers (Universal Military Training), commanders were appointed bodies the military. Due to the shortage of trained personnel in the command the army and navy were involved former officers and generals, was formed by the institution of military commissars.
28. Military ID.
July 10, 1918 5th All-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted a decree "On the organization of the Red Army" on the basis of universal conscription of workers aged 18 to 40 years. The transition to of mandatory military service has permitted dramatically increment the number of Red Army. By the beginning of September 1918 in its ranks, there were already 550 thousand people. September 6, 1918 simultaneously with the announcement of martial law instead of the Supreme Military Council was created by the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic (RVSR), whose function is operational and organizational control of the troops. In September 1918 RVSR were transferred to the functions and personnel of the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs, and in December 1918 — the People's Commissariat for Maritime Affairs (joined the RVSR as the Marine Department). RVSR ran through the Army's own members — Chief of all the armed forces of the Republic (the Commander in Chief: September 1918 — II Vatsetis, from July 1919 — SS Kamenev). September 6, 1918 was set up field headquarters of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic (February 10, 1921 combined with Vseroglavshtabom in the Red Army Headquarters), a subordinate commander in chief and the troops engaged in the preparation and control of military operations.
31. Political information.
Party-political work in the army and navy carried out the RCP (b) by the All-Russian Bureau of Military Commissars (created April 8, 1918), which is April 18, 1919 by the decision of the 8th Party Congress was replaced by the Department of RVSR renamed as May 26, 1919 in Political Management (PUR) at RVSR, just a department of the Central Committee of the RCP (a). The troops of the party-political work carried Political Departments and party organizations (cell).
In 1919, on the basis of decisions of the 8th Party Congress ended the transition to a constant mass army, with a strong proletarian, politically conscious, core HR personnel, a uniform system of acquisition, measured the organization of troops, centralized management and the current party-political apparatus. Construction of the Armed Forces of the USSR took place in a bitter struggle with the "military opposition", which opposed the creation of a standing army, defended the remnants of the guerrilla forces in the management and conduct of the war, underestimated the role of old times of military professionals.
By the end of 1919 the number of Red Army headed for 3 million people., To illumine 1920 — 5.5 million. The proportion of workers was 15%, farmers — 77%, other — 8%. Total for 1918-20 was formed 88 infantry and 29 cavalry divisions, 67 squadrons (300-400 aircraft), a range artillery and armored units. There were 2 spare (spare) Army (Republic and Southeast Asian. Edge) of the Universal Military Training and in which trained about 800 thousand people. During the years of the war 6 plainclothes military academies and more than 150 courses and schools (October 1920) prepared from the workers and farmers 40 thousand commanders. On August 1, 1920 in the Red Army and the Navy had about 300 thousand Communists (about half of all of the party), is a cementitious core of the army and navy. About 50 thousand of them fell in the death of the brave plainclothes war.
In the summer and fall of 1918, operating troops began to be reversed in the Army and the fronts led by the Revolutionary Military Council (PBC) of 2-4 members. By 1919, there were 7 illumine fronts, either of 2 — 5 armies. Only the fronts were 16-18 combined armies, one Horse army (1st) and several individual equestrian buildings. In 1920 was formed 2nd Cavalry Army.
In the struggle against the interventionists and White Guards priemuschestvenno used an old army weapons. Together with those emergency measures adopted by the Party to establish the military industry and an unparalleled heroism of the working class have allowed to go to an organized supply of the Red Army, weapon, ammunition and uniforms Russian production. The average monthly production of rifles in 1920 amounted to more than 56 thousand pieces., Cartridges — 58 million units. In 1919 the company built 258 aircraft and 50 aircraft repaired.
Together with the creation of the Red Army was born and developed Russian military science, which is based on the Marxist-Leninist teaching on war and the army, the practice of the revolutionary struggle of the masses, the achievements of the past military theory, creatively recycled to the new conditions. Were published first statutes of the Red Army, in 1918, — Tired of domestic service, Getting tired of garrison duty, Field fatigued, in 1919 — Disciplinary fatigued. A huge contribution to Soviet military science were Lenin's position on the nature and disposition of the war, the role of the masses, public order, the econ
omy in achieving victory. Already at that time, clearly manifested the relevant features of the Russian military art: the revolutionary creative activity; intransigence to the template, the ability to determine the direction of head impact; reasonable combination of offensive and defensive operations, pursue the enemy right up to its complete destruction, etc.
After the victorious end of the war, civilian clothes and applying a decisive defeat of the combined forces of the interventionists and White Guards Reddish Army was transferred to a peacetime footing, and by the end of 1924 its population was reduced by 10 times. Immediately to the demobilization was carried out to strengthen the Armed Forces. In 1923 he was re-established joint Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs. As a result of the military reform 1924-25 was shortened and updated central office, introduced new units and staffs, improved social structure of command personnel, developed and implemented new regulations, guidance and control. An important issue of military reform was the transition to a mixed system of manning, which allows you to have a little peace time army personnel with low costs of funds for its maintenance, coupled with territorial militias interior districts (see Territorial militia unit). Personnel remained most of the formations and units of the frontier districts, technical and special forces of the Navy. Instead of Trotsky (from 1918 — People's Commissar and chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic), who sought to tear reddish Army and Navy of the party controls, January 26, 1925 Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs was appointed Mikhail Frunze, after the death of which became the People's Commissar Voroshilov.
After the victorious end of the war, civilian clothes and applying a decisive defeat of the combined forces of the interventionists and White Guards Reddish Army has been translated into a peaceful location by the end of 1924 its population was reduced by 10 times. Immediately to the demobilization was carried out to strengthen the Armed Forces. In 1923 he was re-established joint Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs. As a result of the military reform 1924-25 was shortened and updated central office, introduced new units and staffs, improved social structure of command personnel, developed and implemented new regulations, guidance and control. An important issue of military reform was the transition to a mixed system of manning, which allows you to have a little peace time army personnel with low costs of funds for its maintenance, coupled with territorial militias interior districts (see Territorial militia unit). Personnel remained most of the formations and units of the frontier districts, technical and special forces of the Navy. Instead of Trotsky (from 1918 — People's Commissar and chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic), who sought to tear reddish Army and Navy of the party controls, January 26, 1925 Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs was appointed Mikhail Frunze, after the death of which became the People's Commissar Voroshilov.
1st Union law "On of mandatory military service", adopted September 18, 1925 the CEC and SNK has consolidated the activities undertaken in the course of military reform. This law defines the organizational structure of the Armed Forces, which included ground forces (infantry, cavalry, artillery, armored forces, Army Corps of Engineers, Signal Corps), Air and Naval forces, the forces of the Joint Municipal Political Administration (OGPU) and convoy protection of the USSR. Their number in 1927 was 586 thousand.
In the 30-ies. based on the success achieved in the construction of socialism occurred imminent improvement of the Armed Forces, their territorial unit has completed recruitment to meet the needs of national defense. In 1935-38 was a transition from territorial and personnel system to one unit of the Armed Forces personnel. In 1937, the army and navy, there were 1.5 million people., In June 1941 — about 5 million people. June 20, 1934 the CEC of the USSR Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR abolished and renamed the People's Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs of the People's Commissariat of Defence. In November 1934, the Military Council was created by the People's Commissariat of Defense, in 1937 the military councils in the area, in 1935 the Red Army Headquarters converted to the General Staff. In 1937 he created the all-Union People's Commissariat of the Navy, the Political Department of the Red Army was renamed the General Directorate of political propaganda and political control districts and departments of political connections — in the departments and offices of political propaganda. May 10, 1937 decision of the CEC and SNK introduced the institution of military commissars, together with the commanders responsible for the political and moral state of the troops, operational and mobilization readiness, the state of guns and military equipment, in 1938 established the Supreme Military Council of the Red, Army and Navy.
September 1, 1939 a law was passed "On Universal Military Service", abolishing the previous restrictions in an appeal to the army and the navy for certain categories of the population and who proclaimed military service honorable duty of all people of the USSR, irrespective of their social class.
Improved social composition of the army, from 40 to 50% of the fighter and junior officers were members of the working class. In 1939, there were 14 military academies and military colleges 63 Army and 14 Navy 32 flight and flight-technical schools. September 22, 1935 were introduced individual military ranks (see the title of the military), and May 7, 1940 — generals and admirals title. Technical equipment of the Armed Forces of the prewar five-year plans (1929-40) up to the level of the armies of the advanced capitalist countries. The Army in 1939 compared with 1930 increased the number of artillery, at 7, including anti-tank and tank — 70 times. Number of tanks from 1934 to 1939 grown by 2.5 times. Together with the quantitative increase in weapons and military hardware was better quality. Noticeable move was made to increase the rate of small guns. Growing mechanization and motorization of all arms. Troops Air defense
, engineering, communications, chemical defense armed with new technical means. On the basis of success in aircraft and engine-building got the future development of the Air Force. In 1939 compared with 1930 the total number of aircraft increased by 6.5 times. The Navy has unfolded construction of surface ships of various classes, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval aircraft. Compared with 1939, the volume of military production in 1940 increased by more than a third. Through the efforts of companies design bureaus Mikoyan, M. Gurevich, A. Yakovlev, SA Lavochkin, Ilyushin, VM Petlyakova and other employees and the aviation industry have been made different types of fighters: Yak-1, MiG-W, LaGG-W, dive bomber Pe-2, Il-2. Design teams J. Kotin, MI Koshkin Morozov, IA Kucherenko put into batch creation of the best in the world of heavy and medium tanks of the KV-1 and T-34. Design offices VG Grabina, I. Ivanov, F. Petrov and others have made new and unique types of artillery guns and mortars, many of which came on the total mass creation. From May 1940 to the beginning of the war of 1941-45 majestically Russian artillery park has increased more than 1.2 times. Constructors YA Pobedonostzev, II Gwaii, VA Artemyev, FI Poyda and others have made a tool for reactive volley fire on the area. A large group of engineers and scientists — Krylov, PN Papkovich, VL Pozdyunin, VI Kostenko, A. Maslov, BM Malinin, VF Popov et al , has developed several new models of warships, which were put into mass creation. Have gained great success in 1940-41 factories for production of small guns, ammunition, fuel and lubricants, etc.
Increased technological equipment is permitted on the eve of war do much better organizational structure of troops. In the infantry divisions were included tanks, powerful divisional artillery, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery, which significantly increased their firepower. The future development of the organization received a reserve artillery Head Command (RGC). Instead of separate tank and armored brigades, which in 1939 were the main compounds of armored forces, formation of larger connections — armored and mechanized divisions. In a paratrooper steel forms the Airborne Corps, and Air Force — running from 1940 to the Division. The Navy has been organized connections and associations, intended for joint operations with the Army and to conduct independent operations.
The forthcoming development have received military strategy, operational art and strategy. In the middle 30s. developed the theory of deep battle and deep operations, reflecting the high quality in a hardware configuration of troops — a fundamentally new girl theory of operations mass highly mobile, well at the technical level of the equipped armies. The theoretical propositions were tested on maneuvers and exercises, as in the process of fighting the Red Army in the area of Lake Khasan, p. Halkin-Gol, in the Soviet-Finnish War of 1939-40. Anew developed many manuals and instructions. In 1940, the troops received Combat Infantry fatigued (Part 1) Projects Field Manual and the Combat Infantry Charter (Part 2), Battle charter of armored forces, Phalanx got tired, got tired of guard duty, etc. May 7, 1940 he was appointed Commissar of Defence C. Timoshenko.
Despite the measures taken, the training of the Armed Forces to repel the impending German fascism anger has not been completed. The reorganization of the Armed Forces on the latest technical basis for the war was over. Most of the compounds transferred to the new states were not fully staffed weapon and military equipment, as tf. Many commanders of middle and senior managers lacked experience in conducting modern warfare.
65. The military of the various socialist countries.
Lofty Patriotic. war 1941-45 was the most severe test for the Russian people and the Armed Forces of the USSR. The German troops, because of the surprise attack, the long-term preparation for war, two years of experience in military operations in Europe, the advantages in the number of weapons, the number of troops and other temporary benefits could in the first months of the war, regardless of losses, move on hundreds of kilometers into the Russian countryside. CPSU and the Russian government has done everything necessary for the elimination of mortal danger looming over the state. Since the war, organized and carried out in rather short time deployment of the Armed Forces. By July 1, 1941 of the supplies were intended to 5,3 million. The whole life of the country was rebuilt on a war footing. The main sectors of the economy defected to the creation of military products. In July — November 1941, from front-line areas were evacuated 1,360 large companies priemuschestvenno defense value. June 30, 1941 was created an extraordinary body — Municipal Defense Committee (GKO), under the chairmanship of Joseph Stalin. July 19, 1941 the People's Commissar of Defense was named Stalin, who on August 8 was also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. GKO ruled the whole life of the country, bringing together the efforts of the rear and front, the activities of all municipal, party and public organizations for the complete defeat of the enemy. Fundamentally questions of governance, warfare solved the Party Central Committee — the Politburo and the Secretariat of the Organizing Bureau. The adopted solutions were implemented through the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, SNK, T-bills, and the Supreme Headquarters, made August 8, 1941. Strategic management of the Armed Forces of the rate produced by its own working body — the General Staff. A more fundamental questions of war open a discussion at the joint meetings of the Politburo of the Central Committee, the State Defense and Headquarters.
Since the beginning of the war was expanded training of officers due to the growth of academies contingent of students, students of schools and reduce the time of training, the creation of a huge number of courses for the accelerated training of junior staff officers, particularly the number of fighter and sergeants. From September 1941 to distinguished connections began to assign the name of the guard (see Guards Russian).
Thanks to the extraordinary measures taken by the Russian Communist Party and the government, mass heroism and self-sacrifice unheard Russian people, the army and navy by the end of 1941, managed to stop the enemy on the outskirts of Moscow, Leningrad and other relevant principal centers of the country. During the Battle of the Metropolitan 1941-42 was applied first big defeat the enemy in the entire 2nd world war. This battle has dispelled the myth of the invincibility of the German fascist army foiled the plan "blitzkrieg" was the beginning of a decisive turn in the war in favor of the USSR.
In the summer of 1942, the center of military action shifted to the south wing of the Soviet-German front. The enemy rushed to the Volga, the Caucasus oil, grain regions of the Don and Kub
an. The Party and the Russian government has made every effort to stop the enemy, continued to increase the power of the Armed Forces. By the spring of 1942 as part of the Armed Forces was only in the army of 5.5 million people. From mid-1942 the industry began to build up military production, a lot of support the needs of the front. If it was released in 1941 15,735 aircraft, then in 1942 for 25 436 tanks and 6590, respectively, 24,446, Issue ammunition increased almost two-fold. In 1942, the army was focused 575 thousand officers. In the Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 Russian troops inflicted defeat and captured the strategic initiative. This victory marked the beginning of radical change not only in the stateliness Russian war, and throughout the 2nd World War.
In 1943, spirited pace developed military establishment: aircraft production compared with 1942 increased by 137.1%, combat ships of 123%, sub-machine guns at 134.3%, 116.9% of shells, bombs at 173.3%. In general, the establishment of military products has increased by 17%, and in Nazi Germany by 12%. Russian defense industry has been able to outshine the enemy is not only the number of weapons, and on its quality. Mass production of artillery has permitted strengthen divisional artillery, make cabinet, army artillery and strong artillery reserve of the Supreme Command (RVGK), new parts and divisions of reactive, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery. It was formed on a substantial number of armored and mechanized corps, most of which was reduced in the upcoming tank. Army. Armored and mechanized forces were the main striking force of the Army (to the end of 1943, their composition was 5 tank. Armies, 24 armored and mechanized corps 13). Rose of the air divisions, corps and air armies.
Significant strengthening of the power of the Armed Forces of the Russian generalship and increased its military leaders have allowed the Battle of Kursk in 1943, Nazi troops inflict great defeat, which put Nazi Germany before the war disaster.
71. Soldiers-internationalists and Pioneers.
Decisive victories were won by the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union in 1944-45. By this time they had a great deal of combat experience, and had tremendous power to the beginning of 1945 totaled 11,365 thousand. Bright opened the dignity of the socialist economic system, the vitality of the economic policy of the CPSU and the Russian government. In 1943-45, a year produced an average of 220 thousand artillery pieces and mortars, machine guns, 450 thousand, 40 thousand aircraft, 30 thousand tanks, self-propelled guns and armored cars. In bulk quantity produced new types of aircraft — La-7, Yak-9, IL-10, TU-2, heavy tank IS-2 self-propelled guns ISU-122, ISU-152 and SU-100 rocket launchers BM- 31-12, 160-mm mortars and other military equipment. As a result of strategic offensive operations, including at Leningrad and Novgorod, in the Crimea, in the Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic and the Arctic Circle, the armed forces have cleared of invaders Soviet soil. Developing fast coming, Russian troops in 1945 had the East Prussian, Vistula-Oder, and other operations. In the Berlin operation, they have gained the final defeat of Nazi Germany. The Armed Forces of Liberation met majestic goal — to assist get rid of the Nazi occupation of the peoples of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.
In fulfilling its obligations as an ally, Russian Alliance in August 1945, entered into a war with Japan. The Armed Forces of the USSR, together with the armed forces of the MPR smashed the Japanese Kwantung army, and played a crucial role in the end of the 2nd World War (see The Manchurian operation 1945).
The guiding force of the Russian people in the war was majestically Russian Communist Party. During the war, she went to the front above the 1.6 million communists during the war in the ranks of the Communist Party came to about 6 million people.
75. In Afghanistan gorge.
The Party and the Russian government appreciated the exploits of soldiers on the war front. Over 7 million soldiers were awarded orders and medals, above 11,600 of them — representatives of 100 nations — were awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union. About half of the recipients of soldiers — the Communists and Komsomol members.
77. Wall newspaper.
During the war, the Soviet Armed Forces have acquired a great combat experience. The future development of Russian military science received, especially the art of war and all of its component parts — the strategy, operational art and strategy. Has been extensively developed tactical issues and strategic offensive operations of fronts, which solved the difficulties breaking the enemy's defense, the continuity of the coming of a breakthrough by launching mobile — armored and mechanized formations and associations, merit precise interaction of forces and means, unexpected blows, comprehensive support operations issues of strategic defense and counter-attack
79. In the army canteen.
After defeating the armies of Nazi Germany and imperial land of the rising sun, the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union emerged from the war fledgling organization, the equipped with the latest technology, with a sense of accomplishment to the Russian people and the entire population of the earth. A general dismissal of personnel. September 4, 1945 was abolished SCG, finished their activities Supreme Command. February 25, 1946 instead of the Commissariat of Defense and the Navy created a unified People's Commissariat of the Armed Forces of the SS
81. Young family.