XXI century science does not recognize such a thing as telepathy. However, enthusiasts have not given up trying to read minds from a distance. And despite official skepticism, these studies often find a patron in the military.
If the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, published in 1956, opened the letter 't', where we read: "telepathy — unscientific, idealistic fantasy." That was the official position of our state. But in reality, the ratio of the authorities to the problem of transmission of thought at a distance was quite different.
Unknown to the public in the secret laboratories were in full research on this phenomenon.
Their scope can be seen even by the anxiety that showed CIA experts regarding Soviet experiments in telepathy in the early 70's of the XX century. According to them, the study of "anti-scientific, idealistic fantasy" the Soviet Union was isolated from the state budget from 60 to 300 million rubles a year. DIA even held at the direction of President Gerald Ford's analysis of parapsychological research in the USSR.
The outcome of this "revision" of today are already known, since according to the law on freedom of information, they have been published. The report stated: "… the success of Russian parapsychological research are enormous.
Soon, they may allow them at a distance to know the contents of top-secret U.S. documents, track the movement of troops and ships of the United States, to cause instant death of any person in the distance, disable any equipment, including spacecraft … "frightened Americans, not to be outdone in this area, even launched an alternative research program, which was closed until the early 90's. Why are they so afraid of? It's been a few decades, but no scientific breakthroughs in the field of parapsychology has not happened! But let us return to the history of the question of telepathy.
The first studies of … 1875. The famous Russian chemist A.Butlerov, engaged in the study also thought-transference, proposed to explain this phenomenon electroinduction hypothesis.
…1886. British researchers E.Gerney, F.Mayers F.Podmor and puzzling phenomenon to describe the transmission of thought at a distance for the first time used the term "telepathy."
…1887. With expanded justification hypothesis Butlerov made professor of philosophy, psychology and physiology of Lviv University Yu.Ohorovich.
As you can see, parapsychological research did not begin yesterday, and took them to scientists from around the world. For example, few people know today that in the 1919-1927 academic V.Behterevym years at the Leningrad Institute for Brain Research conducted serious experiments in telepathy. Simultaneously, the same experiments were conducted B.Kazhinsky famous engineer.
Recall the science fiction novel A.Belyaeva "Lord of the World" (1929): in the hands of immoral people is an invention that allows you to read and write the thoughts of men, and send by special emitters faultless mental orders.
The plot of this piece is built entirely on the scientific ideas of Bernard Bernardovich Kazhinskogo. To emphasize this, Belyaev give a name to your main character — Kaczynski, changing only one letter in the name Kazhinskogo.
Results from Bekhterev and Kazhinskim, according to our data, confirmed the existence of phenomena of thought transference. Roman A.Belyaeva also not go unnoticed. And in 1932, the Leningrad Institute of the brain derived from a People's Commissariat of Defense mission to intensify investigations regarding telepathy. Scientific management was entrusted to Professor L.Vasileva.
The corresponding order was received and the Moscow Laboratory of Biophysics, headed by academician P.Lazorevym. Executor threads ordered by the military, and therefore received the "secrecy" was Professor S.Turlygin. Keep the memories of these people.
"We have to admit that there really is a physical agent, the interaction of two sets of organisms with each other", — stated the professor S.Turlygin.
"No screening, no distance is not worsened results" — recognized and Professor L.Vasilev.
It would seem that the existence of telepathy (and after a very serious research) has been scientifically confirmed in the Soviet Union before the war. So why, in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia of 1956 says that "telepathy — is anti-scientific, visionary fiction"? The reasons for this can be called a set. First, scholars and scientists, in their own words, the experimental confirmation of the existence of the phenomenon of telepathy, and failed to give at least some reasonable theoretical explanation of the nature of this phenomenon. Therefore the official science was easier to disown telepathy than recognize it and be trapped, then if it turns out that the successful results of the experiments were flawed.
Second, the existence of telepathy is conclusive of the materiality of thought, thus entering into an ideological conflict with one of the tenets of Marxist-Leninist philosophy of the primacy of matter and consciousness secondary.
Third, the military is still hoping that will be able to use telepathy to their advantage, so do everything to stop even talk about it. The facts show that they belonged to the existence of the phenomenon of thought transference away seriously. For example, in September 1958, by order of the Soviet Defense Minister Marshal R.Malinovskogo held several private meetings on the study of the phenomenon of telepathy. Attended Head voennomeditsinskogo management professor L.Vasilev Professor P.Gulyaev and other specialists.
…1960. At the Physiological Institute (Leningrad) organized a special laboratory for the study of telepathic phenomena.
…1965-1968 years. In Akademgorodok near Novosibirsk Institute of Automation and Electrometry USSR performed an extensive program of telepathic human studies and animal.
Closed on parapsychology research conducted in the Moscow Brain Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Institute for Information Transmission Problems (IPPI) of the USSR and in other institutes and laboratories. Secret experiments were conducted with the active participation of the military from using expensive equipment, up to submarines as the site of the experiments. Funds are not spared. And it speaks for itself.
Dips and breaks The results, however, were mixed. Thus, in Moscow on the initiative of the Ministry of Defence on the streets of Nizhny Novgorod was created secret "box number 241." Scientific director of the project was named Academician Joseph Eydeyman, and his deputy — Professor Dmitry Mirza. Experimenters repelled from stories zooferm workers who claimed that if newborn rabbits beat shock even for a hundred kilometers from the rabbit, she feels it. Scientists began experimenting. Rabbits in a cage glued over sensors, and rabbits were brought to Tula to torture. Alas, according to the memoirs of one of the researchers — a doctor Kirill Leontovich, the result was zero.
…1969. By order of the Secretary of the CPSU P.Demicheva held a special meeting of the Commission to investigate the problems and causes of psychic phenomena enhance public interest in them. Gathered the cream of the national psychology — A.Luriya, A.Lyuboevich, V.Zinchenko. Before them was a task to dispel the myth of the existence of parapsychological movement in the USSR.
Results of the activities of the Commission are reflected in the ninth issue of the journal "Psychology Matters" for 1973. Despite the pressure of party ideologues, scientists have not been able to palter. With many reservations it still says: "The phenomenon is …".
Interest in telepathy, then cooled, then come up with a bang. In the early nineties, our state once again became active pay of various experts in the field of "energy-exchange" and "microlepton telepathy." But, alas, capricious phenomenon remained unconquered.
Americans too much hardship with telepathy successful experiments were followed by a complete failure. In 1971, astronaut, U.S. Navy Captain Edgar Mitchell held a session of telepathic communication with lunar ship "Apollo 14." Four people in various American cities recorded mental images "coming" of the cosmos. Overall, the results were negative.
In 1981, the Pentagon drew psychics who have the gift of "dalnovideniya" Search for a mental Douzera General James, who was kidnapped by terrorists in Verona from the Italian "Red Brigades". The attempt was unsuccessful.
Perhaps it is so badly so far and make most people ask, "Yes there is, telepathy?" The situation today is exacerbated by the fact that the wave of public interest in anomalous phenomena research engaged in numerous amateurs. This is even more discredited in the public eye telepathy.
And among the scientists themselves is no consensus in this area. According to Academician VP Kaznacheyev, in ancient times, all our ancestors had the ability to share thoughts without words. For primitive community mental "language" was a natural and unique. Therefore, the ancient people were able to communicate at any distance. Kaznacheeva work formed the basis of a global experiment to "distant transfer of mental images", conducted by members of the Novosibirsk Institute of General Pathology and Human Ecology, and has given interesting results.
This scientific event it involves several thousand volunteers participated scholars and psychics over twenty countries. Telepathic signals transmitted from different continents, in special chambers, isolating the magnetic field of the earth, of the anomalous zones of the planet, such as the "triangle of Perm" or the Cave of Black Devil in Khakassia.
Novosibirsk claimed that the result of this experiment was positive.
Information about an interesting experiment and received from the Institute of traditional treatments Health Ministry.
Stanislav Zenin, head of one of the laboratories of the institute, said that a person is able to "power of thought" to change the structure of water. And this seems to be confirmed by dispassionate devices.
Does this mean that today's science has been unequivocal evidence for the existence of telepathic effect? Alas. The results of these experiments (and Novosibirsk researchers and specialists from the Institute of the Ministry of Health) adopted by their own colleagues, as they say, a hostile reception.
New approaches Despite healthy skepticism in this area today prevails, research is still ongoing.
And from some of the results is simply impossible to dismiss, calling them pseudoscientific.
Thus, a large international group of neuroscientists have recently created an interesting technique of "functional magnetic resonance imaging." In their experiments, the scientists succeeded in using the tracking devices with high probability (75%) to determine whether the subject intended to add or subtract two numbers offered to him. Is not this the beginnings of mind reading technology? At least, many Western experts are seriously discussing the possibility of using it in areas such as the fight against crime and terrorism, saying that the method of "functional magnetic resonance imaging" will away, potential criminal on his "bad thoughts."
Other foreign researchers have come up with devices that allow a person "mentally" to enable or disable devices and even typing on a computer without touching the keyboard. Of course, it's not mind-reading in pure form, but, you see, is already quite close. So close that the neuroscientist John-Dylan Haynes, a professor of the German Institute for Brain and mind of Max Planck, spoke on the need of the legislative ban on the widespread "instrument of mind reading." The scientist believes that society must decide pre-ethical issues related to the "dash telepathy." After all the bad thoughts — this is not a bad thing.
How would we not been told that telepathy exists, research in this area does not stop today. And then, early to put on this topic bullet.
Category: Unexplained Phenomena