The uprising in 1863: The New ideologeme in the information war against Russia

Slightly RF managed to repel the attack information, tselivshie in memory of the Russian war in 1812, emerged as a new historical question — Polish rebellion 1863, which at the moment are trying to make the features of strong anti-Russian ideologies. In 2013 in Poland will be held mournfully celebrations to mark the 150th anniversary of those events, but at the moment theme of the Polish uprising of 1863 is gaining popularity in the Polish media …

The story reports on the events in 1863 is plain: Polish patriots fought for "God, Honor and Fatherland", but punitive apparatus Russian Empire managed to ruthlessly suppress their freedom gusts. Ruthlessness was the lot of Russian nobility and selflessness — the rebels. With all this zeal to recreate the leaders of the rebellion within the Commonwealth in 1772, in other words, to the capture of the Lithuanian, Belarusian and Little Russian countryside, ignored the Polish propaganda as an inconsequential moment. Subject Polish patriotism overshadows everything without reserve, and promotional benefits outweigh the advantages of historical truth.

The main fight revolt 1863 was taking place in the North West province of the Russian Empire, that is, in Belarus and Lithuania. In the South-Western Region (Little Russia) clashes with the Poles were more sporadic in nature, and the number of Ukrainians who had joined the rebels, was negligible. In the middle of the Lithuanian and Belarusian gentry champions of Poland was larger, but they are actually all been Polonized Catholics and vaguely remembered his Belarusian or Lithuanian origin. Because we talk about the support of Little Russians and Belarusians rebel forces is not necessary.

On the contrary, farmers played the role of spies in the Russian army, and the occasional stray themselves in self-defense units, not allowing the Poles to come to the village to replenish supplies.

One of the errors of the Polish rebels was that in their own appetites they went very far away, intending to "swallow" the land where the Poles were a minority. "Liberation" rebellion 1863 was so far not for everyone, but "freedom fighters" fought for freedom not everyone. Non-Polish Orthodox peasants preparing fate be under the yoke of the gentry in the church. Slogans about freedom noticeably fade, if you look closely at them intently.

Poles published a huge number of leaflets calling for national and political unity of Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, and even the Jews as fellow citizens, and stressed that their spiritual and political guidance would have to act, the Commonwealth, and not Russian Empire. Typically, a Polish appeals this was "the nations of Lithuania and Russia," without specifying certain ethnonyms (Little Russians, Belarusians, Lithuanians). This Poles sought to unite all ethnic groups, to merge them into a single political entity. For example, Jews were called "such as the Poles, but the other faith." Polish documents of the time say that the place name "Ukraine", "Lithuania", etc. not suggest the formation of their ethnonyms ("Ukrainians", "Lithuanians"), and are only territorial names of the regions in which resides the same Polish (from a political point of view) the population, as well as in Poland.

Few researchers are turning their attention to such time as the emergence of the Polish political thought since the term "Kresy Zachodni" ("Northwest Territories"). We are used to hearing about "Crecy Wshodnia" (so called Poles were part of the Polish country the land of Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania). But in 1860 Pole Armenian Ian Zahariasevich for the first time introduced the concept of geo-political discourse of "western territories" under which the supposed Polish lands, which turned out after 1815 under Prussian rule. The concept of "western territories" was a carbon copy of the term "eastern territories", which appeared even earlier. Yet representatives of the "Polish Western thought," defended the value of the expansion of the Polish influence in the west, the eastern policy of excluding Warsaw geopolitical miscalculation, as quantified Polish ethnic element prevailed in the Greater Poland, located in the west of the country, while in the east of the Polish minority was in a foreign ethnic environment. This explains the successful assimilation policy of the Russian government in the east and moderate results Germanization of the Polish element in the west.

Indeed, a comparison of the number of Russified Poles and their fellow Germanized will not be in favor of the latter. Germans, Poles have become even more complicated than Russian. Alexander Green, Dmitri Shostakovich, Nikolai Gogol, Stanislav Shumovsky, Ivan Sikorsky — these are just some of the most recognizable Poles, who were Russian. On the German side of the constellation such names could not be found. In an unsuccessful attempt to digest the non-Polish population, "Crecy Wshodnia" claimed Ya Zahariasevich, Poles wasted spending their own cultural and political life, fighting with windmills, while the West Germans quietly Germanize Polish lands.

Another fact made Ya Zahariasevicha emphasize the importance for the Poles "western territories": Polish statehood arose specifically there in the era of the Piast dynasty (because in the modern consciousness of the Polish concept of "western territories" is "statist" semantic meaning, while the concept of "eastern territories" — culture). And if the "eastern territories" — the cradle of Polish culture, the "Northwest Territories" — the cradle of the Polish state.

The emergence of the term "Kresy Zachodni" means that even in the Polish geopolitical thought of the XIX century. there was no specific idea where to go Poland — "east" or "west, and the samples were spread by the Polish authorities and the Polish rules on the non-Catholic lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth perceived Ya Zahariasevichem and his associates as a gamble doomed to failure. And strategically and tactically, claimed Ya Zahariasevich, Poland profitable to promote its influence in the west, as and this will give an opportunity to gain a foothold in the Baltic, where the reference Fri German presence was Königsberg (Polish Krulevets).

Already at the time of the birth of its own, "Polish Western thought" has faced significant opposition from supporters of the Polish-German alliance aims to fight against Russia. Put forward the concept of merging Duchy of Poznan (at the time — a part of Germany) with Galicia (was part of the Russian Empire) into a single Polish geo-political body. Considering Berlin as anti-Russian support, opponents of "Poland's western thought" avoid sensitive issues in relations with the German authorities. Their opponents are quite rightly pointed out the disastrous selectivity pro-German concepts — the return Poland Poznan, but eternal oblivion accessories Poles Mazur, Pomerania and Warmia — strategically fundamental areas for acquisition Baltic Sea basin as a powerful Poland can not exist without access to the Dnieper, but without access to the Baltic.

According to J. Zahariasevicha and his adherents, that should not be forgiving the Germans only for the patient to bite Russian, then do not listen, and the Polish uprising of 1863 set a target not only the "liberation" of the Polish people, and the enslavement of the people of Western Russia (North-Western Territory and South-Western region of the Russian Empire).

In
the modern consciousness of the Polish term "CRES Wshodnia" linked to cultural nuance, the fact of the historical long-term residence in the territories of Poland. "Kresy Zachodni" no longer relevant, as has long been returned to Poland. "Kresy Wshodnia" Polish again and did not like and did not appear within the Commonwealth in 1772. The aspirations of the rebels not only in 1863, and the 1794-th and 1830's, and have remained the aspirations, and the history of the Polish uprisings turned into anti-Russian propaganda tool.

Polish uprising — is not only a part of the Russian imperial history of the XIX century, and the history of Poland, the Poles are free pochetat participants. But any state, if aimed at building rovnenky and equilibrium relations with its neighbor, would not stand and inflate the facts of mutual strife. So did Russian Alliance, avoiding awkward facts in the history of Russian-Polish relations. At the official level, so did the socialist Poland. Segodnyaschy Poland in the same way treats the Polish-German affairs. Foment anti-German sentiment in the country Warsaw unprofitable. Germany — economic partner, from whom in Poland depends almost everything. Gromozvuchno mark, for example, each anniversary of the Silesian uprisings 1919 — 1921 years. Poles are not collected. They are able to do so at the local level, but timidly and without echoing anti-German attacks.

Another thing is our homeland, in relation to which the West never showed and shows no love of peace. Polish uprising 1863 city as it approaches its 150th anniversary will be used extensively to pump more and more angry anti-Russian hysteria. Moscow and Russian historians should be prepared for this.

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