The war in the eyes of the German pilots

Rapid advance deep into the Soviet Union Hitler nearly all contributed to effective service operational intelligence

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The German air force seized control of the air already in the first days of the war. Pre-emptive attacks on Russian airfields knocked out thousands of Russian fighter jets, bombers, attack aircraft. Communications have been violated, burned ammunition depots. Control of the troops was disorganized. Leading the desperate battles of the Red Army, being without air cover, suffered heavy losses.

During the first week of the war on the ground and in the air were destroyed about 6,000 Russian aircraft. During the second day of the war the loss of Air Force totaled 600 aircraft, the loss of the Luftwaffe — 12 aircraft. Statistics from that shot one of the managers of the Red Army Air Force Lieutenant General Kopec.

Rapid advance deep into the Soviet Union Hitler nearly all contributed to effective operational intelligence service. Including — aviation, the main element of which were reconnaissance aircraft-Hs 126 and Fw-189 — eminent "frame." Tracking movement of Russian troops, they made one goal bomber squadrons, aerial surveys conducted, provided communications, adjusted artillery fire.

"Focke — Woolf" 189-series began to be developed in February 1937, they had to change the short-range scout Hs 126 ("Henschel"). Scout had asymmetrical placement cockpit: on the right wing. The engine was located in the bow of the center wing.

First plane was ready to head series first car in 1940 was armed with 2 MG17 machine guns in the wing roots and portable MG15 machine gun to protect the back of the hemisphere. By plane bomb rack mounted 4 of 50 kg. Razvedoborudovanie consisted of a single camera. Troop tests began in autumn 1940, and at the front of the machine began to arrive after the attack on the USSR. The first part, which received FW 189A, became the 2nd brigade of the 11th reconnaissance.

In the upcoming plane was in service almost all short-range reconnaissance. Good view from the cockpit and excellent maneuverability as well as possible consistent with its intended purpose. However, on the Eastern Front FW 189 has mastered another specialty. Several cars were handed over to one night fighter squadron 100 squadron. The detachment was called "Train Night Hunter" and was intended to deal with the Russian PO-2, are plagued by railway transport Germans.

Winter coming of the Red Army in 1941 led to a languid losses in personnel, the Luftwaffe was prepared to feel a shortage of crews and aircraft, for this reason a number of reconnaissance units were disbanded. The newly made Nahauflklarungs-gruppen consisted of 3 squadrons (in practice, very few bands really had in its composition three Staffel).

In December 1941, the 9th German Army under the blows of the compounds General Konev left Kalinin. In the conditions of the terrible winter of training aircraft for flight caused a lot of difficulties. In the intelligence units of the Luftwaffe was a shortage of spare parts, fuel and people. These problems have caused yet another reorganization, during which again reduced the number of independent squadrons, now in combat units dominated planes Fw-189A-l (later-Fw-189A-2).

As they say, the German military historians, flights to the near exploration on the Eastern front became more and more dangerous and more dangerous. In some units the crews of scouts cut down to 1 person, many observers had to put things on the Short-term pilot training. Flight training observers yesterday was obviously not enough — the loss continued to rise. For this reason, newcomers have time to do only one or two sorties before they were shot down.

Undertaken in May 1942, the coming of the Wehrmacht in the Kharkov region temporarily suspended the head of the Red Army in the southern sector of the Eastern Front. The Germans got a break, during which were able to make up for losses in men and material. Scouts Fw-189 was shown in some cases higher. combat survivability.

May 19, 1942 two MiG-3 stormed German spy on the Taman Peninsula. Russian fighters damaged the left engine, "frame", knocked out all defensive weapons, though, the scout was able to land on the best airport. During the landing gave way left main landing gear was crushed and the left wing of the plane, but plane in the short term repaired by replacing the engine, landing gear and the wing of the plane.

In September 1942, on the Eastern Front had 174 spy Fw-189.

Brutal battles of Stalingrad in the late summer of 1942 once again put on the agenda the question of the day or just big losses in the German armed forces. Very very hurt Luftwaffe reconnaissance units. September 18 "frame" under the guise of 4 fighters engaged Bf.109 adjustment of artillery fire, when a group of German planes stormed Russian fighters. The first injured his "frame" Ivan Baluk, finished off the scout team leader Mikhailik Russian fighters. Fw-189 rolled over on its left wing, then fell to the ground crew of the plane died.

Another double girder scout Russian pilots shot down for the next day, September 19. In the battle of Stalingrad, the loss of Luftwaffe reconnaissance units in men and material averaged 25%. The Command of the Luftwaffe once again had to reorganize.

In the course of the counter-offensive of the Red Army advanced on the Germans abandoned airfields unfitness "frame", but continued to help the surviving aircraft surrounded the 6th Army under General Paulus.

December 17, once again distinguished fighter pilot in Mikhailik languid combat, shot down "frame» («P2 + BV»). On the same day in Davydivka corrected firing artillery scout Fw-189 of NAG-16. Scout accompanied fighter Bf. 109. German planes stormed a pair of Russian commande
r Ivan Maksimenko, slave — Chumbarev. Chumbarev wasted spent the entire ammunition, then rammed the frame by cutting off his own propeller fighter a tail prop Fw-189. The crew of Scouting — Chief Sergeant Major Mayer, non-commissioned officer Corporal Schmidt and Owl — unable to leave the plane as it fell.

By the beginning of February 1943 the Luftwaffe lost on the Eastern Front, nearly five hundred aircraft, and almost a thousand people crews. Blizhnerazvedyvatelnye division lost about 150 aircraft, in the main — Fw-189.

The defeat at Stalingrad marked the beginning of the Wehrmacht retreat of the entire Soviet-German front. The retreat caused another reorganization of units near the aviation intelligence, had armed aircraft Fw-189.

Most units near the Luftwaffe reconnaissance aircraft was on the wane, while the activity of Russian fighter jets grew, and the accuracy and density of antiaircraft fire intensified. All the crews of German intelligence officers often had to engage in aerial combat, and in 1943 an average of 90 sorties Fw-189 accounted for one brought down by ground fire "frame."

Since May 1943 Fw-189 aircraft began to fight the lure partizanami.Snachala July, German forces began last for a strategic war coming on the Eastern Front — "Operation Citadel". Scouts tried otsle ¬ ALIVE move Russian troops. In the battle of the Kursk arc distinguished pilots armed fighters Yak-1 squadron "Normandie" of the armed forces of the Free French. Pilots Lefebvre and La Poype stormed and shot down one Fw-189, the second scout squadron at the expense recorded Litolff and Castelo, third — Marcel Albert and Albert Preciosa.

July 12, the counter-offensive of the Kursk area defected troops of the Red Army. Scouts Fw-189 revealed the dislocation of Russian connections, but the Germans did not have the reserves to plug all the holes in his own defense. After a day or two after the start of the counter-offensive Reddish Army freed from Nazi invaders town of Orel and Belgorod.

Large discrepancies for the crews of scouts have become the new Russian La-5 fighters in silhouette is very similar to the Fw-190. Now, "frame" tried to cross the lines at the maximum low-level, but still an advantage of the numerical Russian fighter jets along with increased air defense of ground troops put an end to a fine of scouts. In particular, tight German fighters, accompanied Fw-189, had after the occurrence of the front of Yak-3, at low altitudes had an advantage over the absolute least how Luftwaffe fighter. Russian pilots belonged to the Fw-189 with respect. Pilot-shalt ¬ tor Semenov's own recollections ¬ tions, said:

— 'Rama', adjusting artillery fire, very bothering our ground troops. The aircraft of this type was a complex target for fighter pilots. Shoot down the "frame" — not an ordinary task even more difficult than Bf.109 shoot down fighter or bomber Ju-88.

It seems responded on German Fw-189, and the big-name ace Alexander Pokryshkin, who considered knocked down "frame" the most impartial indicator of skill as a fighter pilot.

Closer to the end of the war planes Fw-189 were required to perform night reconnaissance missions, why on some machines to install special equipment. In most cases, the "frame" conducted a visual reconnaissance.

Since the summer of 1944 Fw-189 aircraft used for problems of tactical air support is not probable, because the "frame" became a priority target for the Red Army Air Force fighter jets. In some cases, Fw-189 were involved in conducting psychic warfare-drop leaflets. There is a legend that the Tipo during the 1 st of these flights the crew of "frame" shot down Russian fighter … leaflets. "Rama" throw out the cardboard in front of his nose Russian cargo plane, the pilot lost spatial orientation and can not cope with the management; fighter crashed.

In winter 1944-45 Fw-189 aircraft operated priemuschestvenno over Poland and the "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia." Part warped intelligence Germans threw in Polish and Czech airfields during the retreat.

.Several Fw-189 (clear about the eight planes, two of them — the Czech production), German troops threw on Norwegian airfields. Most of the aircraft were utilized by the British in the autumn of 1945, the informal one Fw-189 passed the Norwegian Air Force, this car was removed from service in May 1946

Survived only one Fw-189 W.Nr. 0173, which flew some time in England.

Based on materials from the website www. wunderwaffe.narod.ru

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