It's no secret that the gun the second world war forged the Cooperative efforts. Russian Alliance and Germany helped each other arm, and the industrialization of the USSR, the need for a great war, would have been impossible without the help of Western professionals.
For these services the USSR was calculated by selling confiscated from public grain to the West, which resulted in millions of deaths from starvation.
About this in his article in the Department of Economics is responsible editor of the magazine "Expert" Maxim Rubchenko
Do not get caught terms of the Versailles peace is so cruel to Germany or start Lofty depression 10 years later, Stalin's industrialization could not be.
Economic and political problems in the advanced countries offer developing countries a unique opportunity to gain access to advanced technologies. A striking example of this in the first half of the twentieth century — the Russian Alliance.
As a result of the First World War, Germany was faced with the real prospect of extinction. Same ability to defend their country from the Germans were not, as a contract of Versailles, signed June 28, 1919, limited the size of the German army purely symbolic dimensions of 100 thousand people. In addition, Germany was not permitted to carry out any military training was in schools, also have a languid artillery, tanks, submarines, airships and military aviation. She is deprived of the right of accreditation in other countries own military missions, German citizens were not allowed to enroll and receive military training in the armies of other countries.
Because back in 1919, the German army chief of staff, General Hans von Seeckt had concluded that a cramped military cooperation between Germany and Russia. "We will have to put up with Russian Russia — choice we have. Exclusively in a strong alliance with Great Germany has the prospect to regain the position of the majestic power. Britain and France fear the union of both continental powers and try to prevent it by all means, so Makarov, we must strive for it in every way "- he wrote in a memorandum to the German government first in 1920.
That summer was accomplished secret meeting Chairman Revolutionary Military Council of Leon Trotsky with the former Minister of War Enver Pasha of Turkey, where the Turkish general said that the Germans had asked him to convey to Moscow proposals on establishing long-term military cooperation. The proposal received the Bolsheviks Germans can be very useful: the tragic failure of the Polish campaign, headed by Tukhachevsky and Stalin showed all the feeble hand of the Red Army and forced Moscow to thoroughly engage military construction. Help the Germans in the present case was not a price. Head arms of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) Jerome Uborevich expressly stated that "the Germans are for us so far the only outlet through which we can learn in the military services abroad, besides the army, a number of issues having a very notable achievement . "
Since the end of 1920 between Russia and Germany, Russian began covert talks about the establishment of military-technical and economic cooperation. First of next year at the War Office in Germany on the initiative background sect was created "Zondergruppa P" (Our Fatherland), and in the spring of 1921, its first commissioner, Colonel Otto von Niedermayer majors with the German General Staff Chunke F. and B. Schubert made a study tour of the defense of Petrograd factories and shipyards that Russian side hoped to return and upgrade using the German capital and professionals. Niedermeyer accompanied the Deputy Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Russian Lev Karahan. Germans was disappointing conclusion: the state of affairs in the defense of Petrograd factories and shipyards catastrophic, so frisky about establishing the manufacturing process can not be considered.
Yet by the middle of 1921, the "Zondergruppa P" reached an agreement with German industrialists that the firm Blohm und Voss (submarines), Albatros Werke (Air Force) and Krupp (weapon) will provide the Russian Federation "as its technical strength and the necessary equipment. " To finance the planned projects in Germany was even a consortium led by Deutsche Orientbank, which included all the country's banks naikrupneyshie.
At the end of September 1921 in Berlin at the apartment of Staff Major General Carl von Schleicher held talks hidden commissar of foreign trade with the Krasin Reichswehr led by von Seeckt, during which was approved by a pattern of cooperation. "Zondergruppa P" Russian side gives orders to create planes, the heavy artillery and other items of military equipment, guarantees payment also provides loans for equipment replenishment Russian factories. Russian side will engage to fulfill orders as directed by the German firm "Zondergruppy P" and to guarantee a specific role of the German military and technical personnel in the performance of its orders for Russian plants.
In addition, the Russian side to restore the industry committed itself to the trusts, which would include the main enterprise for the production of the heavy artillery (Perm 'Motovilikha "Tsaritsyno and factories), aircraft (Moscow, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl), gunpowder, ammunition, etc.
"Junkers" in Fili
The biggest project "Zondergruppy P" in Russia was the construction of an aircraft factory by Junkers. November 26, 1922 in Moscow between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Junkers company had signed three contracts: the production of iron and aircraft engines, the organization of air traffic transit Sweden-Persia, an aerial survey in the Russian Federation. In accordance with the first of those contracts in rental use Junkers absolutely handed Russian-Baltic plant in Fili, near Moscow (at the moment it's Plant. Khrunichev) that "the concessionaire receives and Tools".
Production programm is set at 300 aircraft per year, the Russian side pledged to purchase every year for 60 aircraft. At full capacity the plant was to be released in three years — to January 29, 1925-th.
In the short term Junkers managed to move into the modern Russian aircraft factory on those standards with a staff of more than 1,300 people. But the Germans summarized financial situation. The order for the delivery of 100 aircraft Russian Air Force was placed on a rigid price, based on the hourly wage of 18 cents gold, but the introduction of the New Economic Policy in the USSR and inflation undermined the entire calculation so that the cost of aircraft was twice the agreed prices. Russian side still claimed bukovkoy perform the contract: "You committed themselves to a rigid aircraft on order value and assumed the risk of loss, the contract is the contract." And at the same time accused the Germans in the missing capital investments in plant equipment. Junkers this accusation categorically torn: "We, from the standpoint of personal industrialist, invested huge sums."
Russian government to find fault with the fact that the company failed to "concentrate in Fili supplies aluminum and duralumin in an amount sufficient for the production of 750 aircraft and 1,125 engines, in other words, our main task — to have a significant base for the real Iron aircraft inside the Union has not been achieved," terminated all contracts with the Junkers. The company quickly found itself on the verge of bankruptcy, and only critical loan of 17 million marks, provided by the German Government, "in recognition of Dr. Xyugo awards in the German Junkers aircraft," rescued her from complete elimina
tion. But watching the creation of a serial aircraft company could no longer and had to significantly reduce the business, focusing only on the development of new types of aircraft.
What's all the same for the plant in Fili, he was allocated grants in the amount of 3,063,000 rubles for the years 1924-1925 and 6,508,014 rubles for the years 1925-1926. The exciting thing — the need for subsidies command of Russian Air Force to explain the fact that "powerful factory in Fili, part of a general plan for the development of military air force is conserved." These words are not realistic regarded differently, as a direct admission that its primary obligation — to build in Russia a modern aircraft factory — Junkers fulfilled. A nagging Russian officials for minor items of the contract have been substantiated only one — an unwillingness to pay money for the work. Such a trick in relations with Western firms — "bourgeois" and "imperialism" — the Bolshevik government uses more than once.
In general, Junkers, we can say lucky: in 1928, so as not to pay under the contract electrical company AEG, the professionals of this company's Russian "authorities" arrested for sabotage in the sadly famous "Shakhti case." Russian engineers were held in the case, shot and Germans Russian authorities graciously permitted to return to Germany, but, obviously, without payment made work.
Despite the sad experience of Junkers and AEG, the German company continued to operate in the Russian Russia. Company Stolzenberg stablishing creation of charges and artillery gunpowder factories Chrysostom, Tula and Petrograd, together with the Germans Start of toxic substances at the plant "Bersol" near Saratov, Carl Walter built a plant in Tula, where the cutting was performed barrels for rifles and machine guns. The company Mannesmann repaired at the Mariupol metallurgical plant. Ilyich mill-4500, which was bought by the factory before the revolution and destroyed during the Revolution and civilians of the war. In 1941, this figure under the noses of the Germans was taken to the Urals, and, according to some professionals it also now rolled armor for T-90 tank.
Friedrich Krupp company on the basis of a prisoner in the July 1923 contract on the reconstruction of Russian military factories and supply of artillery shells the German army, the Bolsheviks to assist the creation of a modern grenades and artillery shells. The Germans have provided funding for the project and by providing 600 million dollars on building production and paying a $ 2 million advance payment for the order.
Designer Ford and Stalin
Experience problems using the advanced countries for their own purposes, the acquired Russian Union to work with Germany, the Bolsheviks really needed, when in the West the economic crisis.
In 1926, the U.S. economy had recorded the first signs of a looming recession — started to visibly shrink the volume of construction. With neuvvyazkami immediately faced construction and engineering companies, including well-known Bureau of Albert Kahn, Inc. in Detroit, where the founder of the Albert Kahn became famous as the "architect of Ford." Even with him, the 1st of the largest industrial architects of the twentieth century, the famous special on the design of modern factories, orders declined rapidly, and by the end of 1928 went down to zero.
Bankruptcy seemed inevitable, but in April 1929 the office of Kahn entered a stranger, who introduced employee "Amtorg" — is formally a private joint-stock enterprise in reality is the unofficial trade and diplomatic Soviet consulate in the United States. Guests are invited Kan commissioned to design the tractor factory at the cost of 40 million dollars (it was the Stalingrad Tractor Plant) and promised to the concurrence of new orders.
The situation was not clear enough, as between the USSR and the USA was not diplomatically relations. Kahn asked for time to think it over, but the stock market crash in late October, which marked the beginning of stateliness depression, put an end to all his doubts. Soon the Russian government received from the Albert Kahn, Inc. the whole program from Russian industrial building in Union, known in Russian history as the "industrialization of the Soviet Union." In February 1930 between "Amtorg" and Albert Kahn, Inc. contract was signed, under which the company Kahn became the principal adviser of the Russian government for industrial construction and has received orders for the construction of industrial companies at the cost of 2 billion dollars (about 250 billion dollars in today's money).
Since the complete list of the construction of the first five in this country have never been published, so far it is not clear precise number of Russian companies designed Kahn — in most cases they say about 521 or 571 site. This list, of course, includes the tractor factory in Stalingrad, Chelyabinsk, Kharkov, auto factory in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod, blacksmith shop in Chelyabinsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Kolomna, Magnitogorsk, Nizhny Tagil, Stalingrad, machine tool factory in Kaluga, Novosibirsk, Upper Salda, castings factory in Chelyabinsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Kolomna, Magnitogorsk, Sormovo Stalingrad, mechanical factories and workshops in Chelyabinsk, Podolsk, Stalingrad, Sverdlovsk, thermal power plant in Yakutsk, rolling mills in Novokuznetsk, Magnitogorsk, Nizhny Tagil, Sormovo; 1 & # 8722, First Municipal Bearing Plant in Moscow and much more.
We are, in general, does not go that Albert Kahn, Inc. designed from the ground up each object. He is only tolerated in Russia ready projects U.S. plants with the same South American equipment. Company Alberta channel plays the role of coordinator between the customer and the Russian hundred square meters of the western (at first mostly American) companies supplying equipment and advising the construction of individual facilities. In fact, through a channel in the USSR tech powerful stream of American and European industrial technology, and all naikrupneyshie construction in the USSR by the channel is almost gone global. Thus, the technological project of the Nizhny Novgorod Automobile Company completed the Ford Building — American company Austin. Capital Automobile (AZLK) was built in 1930, too, on the model of Ford's assembly plants. Construction of the 1st Municipal Bearing Plant in Moscow (GPZ-1), which designed the canal company was done with the technical assistance of the Italian firm RIV.
Stalingrad tractor factory, designed by Kahn in 1930, built in the United States, dismounted and transported in just 6 months, collected under the supervision of American engineers, was equipped facilities in more than 80 U.S. engineering companies and several German companies.
All projects Albert Kahn in the Soviet Union following the Stalingrad tractor factory, developed branch of his company, opened in Moscow and is running Moritz Kahn — brother of the head of the company. In this branch, wearing a modest Russian title "Gosproektstroy" worked 25 leading American engineers and about 2.5 thousand Russian officials. At the time, it was the great architectural firm in the world. During the three years of the "Gosproektstroya" through it has been more than four thousand Russian architects, engineers, and technicians who studied South American science to design and build. Incidentally, at the same time in Moscow, the Central Bureau worked languid Engineering (TSBTM) — vtochnosti the same "production and training" branch of a foreign company, but its founder was a German Demag.
Payment and retribution
In general, the way the Soviet-American cooperation will soon appear severe obstacle: the Russian government has terminated the currency, which was the main source of export grain. In August 1930, when it came time to pay the U.S. firm Caterpillar 3,5 млн dollars for equipment and Kharkov
Tractor Chelyabinsk, Rostov and Saratov also combine factory, Stalin wrote to Molotov: "Mikoyan reports that harvesting grow up and take out every day 1-1.5 million pounds of bread. I think this is not enough. Now you need to raise the same rate of daily exports to 3-4 million pounds at least. In another risk to remain without our new metallurgical and machine-building (car factory, Chelyabzavod, etc.) plants … In short, you need to violently force the export of grain. "
In total, from 1930 to 1935 the Soviet Union had to pay 350 million South American firms bucks (more than 40 billion current dollars) loan plus interest thereon of approximately the same amount at the rate of 7% per annum. 25 August 1931 Kaganovich, Stalin wrote: "Because of financial difficulties and unacceptable criterion for credit in America to speak out against any new orders for America. I propose to forbid giving new orders to America, to break all kinds have begun talks on new orders and the ability to break existing contracts on orders of old times with the transfer orders in Europe, either on our own factories. Do not propose to make any exceptions to this rule for any Magnitogorsk and Kuznetsstroya nor Harkovstroya, Dnieper, Amo and Avtostroya. " This meant the end of cooperation with Kahn, who completed his puzzle in the eyes of Russian government: designed and built a network of new industrial companies, also formed the orders for production equipment, which now would be passed to any company. And in 1932, the Bolsheviks refused to renew the company Kana contract.
Objects designed by Kahn continued to build. For example, March 22, 1933 AVIAMOTORNAJa Trust was awarded a five-year contract for technical assistance with the company Curtiss-Wright (United States) providing a production company "turnkey" aircraft engine air cooling capacity of 635, 725 and 1000 horsepower. Thus began the construction of the Perm aircraft engine plant (plant number 19). 5 April 1938 by its director W. Oak wrote in the People's Commissariat of heavy industry: "The contract with the company" Wright "gave opportunity to the plant quickly learn to create a modern massive engine cooling air," Wright-Cyclone "and without reducing the rate of production, to run across each year to the latest more modern and powerful motor model. During the conduct of the contract we have received from the office of the richest technical material, greatly accelerated the development of the Russian aircraft engine. Company "Wright" Radzivil reacted to the fulfillment of contractual obligations, the implementation of the contract proceeded satisfactorily. We believe that the extension of the contract for technical assistance with the "Wright" will be useful. "
As you know, in the Perm factory was released first aircraft Russian M-25 engine capacity of 625 liters. s. (A copy of "Wright Cyclone R-1820F-3 '). In addition, this company was naikrupneyshim aircraft engine plant in the years majestically Russian war.
World Russian construction industrialization
In 1928, the Leningrad Municipal Institute for the design of new metallozavod was developed and posted a draft of the Ural Machine-Building Factory, established for the production of excavators, crushers, blast furnace and steelmaking equipment, rolling mills, hydraulic presses, etc. When preparing the project "took into account the success of Western European and American technology in the field of mechanical engineering languid. " In other words, the designers initially relied on imported equipment. Applications for its delivery were targeted in 110 foreign companies, and they all expressed their willingness to assist in the building of the Union of Russian naikrupneyshgo machine works. All the more so that the funds for the construction of "Uralmasha" Russian government has decided to spare.
On the way the Soviet-American cooperation appeared severe obstacle — the Russian government has terminated the currency, which was the main source of grain exports
On the way the Soviet-American cooperation appeared severe obstacle — the Russian government has terminated the currency, which was the main source of grain exports
The first water well (with this plant started) during the laying of the factory drilled the Germans out of the office Froelich-Kluepfel-Deilmann the German same equipment as the Russian experts at just do not know how to drill a hole with a diameter of 500 mm and a depth of 100 meters Plumbing manned the pumps of the German Jaeger. Ensure the creation of compressed air compressors companies Borsig, Demag and Skoda. Generating station was equipped with gas generators of the German firm Kohler. Alone crane factory installed more than 450, and they have all been imported in the main made in Germany.
Iron foundry equip the German firm Krigar, and the download of the charge carried cranes British company Sheppard. In the steel shop installed the electric company AEG, also blasting chamber and saw Mars-Werke. Naikrupneyshy Europe's press shop "Uralmasha" was equipped with 2 parogidravlicheskimi presses German companies Hydraulik, Schlemann and Wagner.
Pride of the plant — a machine shop number 1 totaled 337 machines, 300 of them were bought from the "bourgeois". Namely, there was established a unique German lathe capable of processing a workpiece weighing up to 120 tons. Large lathe, also in Germany, which had a diameter of 620 cm faceplate, and one of the gear-cutting machines can handle a five-meter diameter gear.
Uralian plant languid Engineering (UZTM) was commissioned July 15, 1933. From 1928 to 1941 on "Uralmash" worked 311 foreign professionals, 12 of them construction workers, four control units of the plant, 46 engineers, 182 workers of various specialties. Most people were in the middle of foreign nationals in Germany — 141 people.
Another sign of Stalin's industrialization — Dnieper. Its design and construction involved in the South American engineering and construction company Cooper. Preparing the site for construction of the German company Siemens, she also put power generators. Dneprogesa turbine (not counting the one already in our copy) made American company Newport News, which is currently referred to as Northrop Grumman and is naikrupneyshim South American manufacturer of aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines.
Russian commissar of foreign trade Arkady Rozengolts, speaking in 1934 at the XVII Congress of the CPSU (B), said: "As an example of a more modern equipment, which we have purchased, can cause water turbines ordered specially in the U.S., established on Dnieper, with a capacity of 90 Any thousand horsepower. Such massive turbine in Europe there, and they occur in world units. "
In general, all power plants under construction in the famous electrification plan, equipped with imported equipment.
How the Steel Was Tempered
In November 1926, the Presidium of the Ural Regional Economic Council approved the construction site of a new steel plant — the site of Mount Magnet. March 2, 1929 Magnitostroi appointed principal engineer Vitaly Gasselblat, who immediately in a group of Russian professionals traveled to the United States. In order travel plans came as construction projects, as well as the right to combine South American industrial equipment. The main result of the visit was concluded May 13, 1929 the contract between the union "Vostokstal" and the company Arthur McKee of Cleveland for the design of the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine (a bit later with the German company Demag was awarded a contract for the design of the rolling mill plant). Americans assumed the obligation to prepare construction and technological project with full description and specification of equipment, machines and devices to transfer Russian customer own production experience (patents, kno
w-how, and so on.), Send to the Soviet-trained professionals to oversee the construction and start-up facility to allow Russian engineers and workers to develop production methods of its enterprises, to coordinate the delivery of the equipment to Magnitogorsk.
As the layout of the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine Americans elected a plant in the town of Gary, Indiana, owned by US Steel.
July 1, 1930 the first blast furnace was accomplished tab Magnitogorsk. On the festive meeting dedicated to this event under the banner of reddish near the Russian builders were South American engineers Makmorey and Struve. Overall, the construction of Magnitogorsk employed more than 800 foreign professionals and skilled workers from the U.S., Germany, UK, Italy and Austria. Central power station consecutive mount German specialists from AEG, they also predict the strongest Magnitogorsk at the time 50-megawatt turbine generator. The German company Krupp & Reismann stablishing Magnitogorsk refractory creation, and the English Traylor — mining industry.
And then the Bolshevik cooperation with the "bourgeois" has not passed without incident. Launch of the first blast furnace was appointed to the January 31, 1932. Specialists of Arthur McKee, headed by Vice-President said Hayvenom not appropriate in a thirty-frost, when not completely dried start melting furnace and recommended to wait until spring. But the People's Commissariat of heavy industry has come a sanction to run blast furnaces. As a result, during the first run a pipe burst in one of the wells, then suddenly pulled out of the clutches hot gases. According to the memoirs of witnesses, "there was panic, someone called out," Every man for himself ". The situation was rescued by deputy managing Magnitostroi Genghis Ildrym that the risk of being burnt to death, rushed to the winch and suspended the blast. "
This tragedy served as a pretext for the Russian government to break a contract with Arthur McKee: Americans did their job and were able to move off back home — then it was possible to do without them. After all, if the shaft of the first blast furnace Russian workers under the supervision of the Yankees laid out two and a half months, for a similar operation on the second furnace took 25 days, and for the third — only 20. If the installation of the first and second blast furnace was attended by over a thousand workers, the installation of the fourth — only 200 people. If the construction of the first furnace South American experts at advising all types of work — from concrete foundations to the wiring, then the second blast furnace — only works on the third — just assemble the boot device, and the fourth wave was already one hundred percent built by our engineers . Blast furnaces office McKee after Polga repair work on CMI and now. A first roughing-rolling billet mill number 2 of the German company Demag without annoying worked from 1933 until 2006.
Instead of gratitude — shooting
In the history of Stalin's industrialization is most shocking is that virtually all the major figures of this project were enemies of the people. Were shot first builder and director of "Uralmasha" Bannikov, the first chief engineer Fiedler, his successor Muzafarov, Popov power plant builder and many other builders of the plant.
The well-known metallurgist Abraham P. Zavenyagin read: "Magnitogorsk erected, in fact, the three heroes: Gugel (YS Gugel — Managing Magnitostroi in 1931-1932. -" Expert "), Maryasin (LM Maryasin — builder and chief koksohimstroya Magnitostroi. — "Expert") and Valerius (KD Valerius — Head of the trust Magnitostroi in 1936. — "Expert"). " All three were shot in the late 30's.
Zavenyagin himself escaped only thanks to his personal friendship with Molotov (they became friends in 1921, when participating in the party conference in Kharkov, lived in one room of the hotel). In 1936, Molotov called Zavenyagin, the then Director MMK, saying: "We have decided not to finish. Offer to go to Norilsk chief of construction. " And Zavenyagin traded on the Norilsk Combine Magnitogorsk.
Pet Magnitostroi Genghis Ildrym Sukhanovskaya was shot in the bullpen in 1941. Shot and the first director of the Magnitostroi B. Smolianinov and managing Magnitostroi in 1930. J. Schmidt, the first builders and the famous Brigadier Commander of the Order of Lenin V. Kalmyks. First chief engineer V. Gasselblat died of starvation in a concentration camp near the city Chibyu Wow.
Cleaning and went to other construction sites of the first five. For example, February 14, 1931 the head of the OGPU Vyacheslav Menzhinsky reported in a memo to Stalin: "In addition to the arrests made by the unit of Construction Management Chelyabtraktorostroya cleaned 40 people. and measures were taken to remove from the rest of the construction element worthless. "
As a result of repression 30s destroyed virtually everyone who was directly or indirectly involved in the procurement of imported equipment for these buildings. Hard to get out because of the belief that one of the main goals of the pre-war wave of repression has been hiding the truth about how and by whom the industrialization of the Soviet Union. So that in the history books forever preserved it as "unprecedented feat emancipation of the proletariat, led by the Bolshevik Party and superb Stalin."