The successes of the Russian army in the Baltic and on the Karelian Isthmus made conditions for the upcoming Advent to Sweden, but those plans were interrupted by the war with the Ottoman Empire. Sultan pressure Swedish monarch, the French ambassador and the Crimean khan decided to go to war with the Russian government.
Poltava victory produced the Istanbul dual memory: on the one hand — a complete rout of the "invincible" Swedish army inspired the Turks respect to the "Muscovites", but on the other — has increased the terror of severe neighbor. Our home had approaches to the Sea of Azov, a strong fleet in the south and could not get access to the Dark Sea. In Istanbul they feared for their holdings in the northern Black Sea region and for the Crimea. On these horrors played Karl XII and the Crimean khan. As a result, Russian command had to postpone its so perfectly have established operations in the Baltic countries and plans to invade the Swedish empire. The main force was necessary to jibe south for operations on the Danube front.
Background to the conflict
It should be noted that our homeland during the Great Northern War, tried to maintain good relations with Turkey, in order to have a free hand in the war with Sweden. In the course of walking and open bribery of Turkish officials — Russia's Pyotr Tolstoy salting generously distributed funds and fur. Even before the Battle of Poltava in the capital of the Ottoman Empire has been sent a document with the signature of Peter, who confirmed the terms of the peace treaty in 1700 (about the world for 30 years). In addition, Peter gave the order to send 10 ships to be scrapped Voronezh and the Azov fleet, which caused enormous gratification in Istanbul. After the 1700 peace making RF with Turkey and the Crimea were relatively normal, although they can not be called neighborly. For example, the Crimean Tatars have repeatedly violated the Russian border.
Carl tried to drag Turkey into the war with Russia back in the years 1708-1709, but without of success. Poltava has changed the situation, some of the Turkish elite was afraid of a sharp increase in Russia. In August 1709 the Russian salting in Turkey PA Tolstoy said Chancellor GI Golovkin, "behold the Turks, the king's majesty — is now a strong favorite of the Swedish people and longs to arrange everything on their own in Poland, and later, having already no obstacle can start a war with them, the Turks. " Carl after the defeat at Poltava fled into the possession of the Ottoman Empire and organized camp in Bender. He proposed an alliance with the Porte Sweden, but the Turks doubted and took evasive position. "Peace Party" was harder, and 3 (14) January Istanbul confirmed their commitment to the peace agreement in 1700. This caused a huge satisfaction Peter in Moscow and Krakow organized pyshnovatye festivities.
But, unfortunately, at this point has not been set. The situation remained uncertain. There was a strong "party of war" — it came Vizier and the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray II. In addition, the Turks had a desire to show out of Charles's own possession, that he continued an active war with Russia, and Turkey was left behind. Carl was in no hurry to leave Bender, his messengers — S. Poniatowski and I. Potocki — were intense talks with the Turks. Carl made a plan for the simultaneous invasion of Poland to the north and the south. Of Pomerania and Saxony and Bremen on Poland had to hit 18 thousand housing Krassau. A district of Bender and Ochakova speak Turkish army. These forces should be enough to defeat the forces of the Polish King August II and the Russian Auxiliary Corps. After that Charles wanted to return to the throne of Poland Stanislaw Leszczynski and again knocked on Russia.
Soon, the Port began to lean towards a war with Russia. Vizier Numan Koprulu Pasha practically issued an ultimatum to Russia. He said that the Turkish Carl "escort" to 40 thousand people pass through Poland in Pomerania. Russian subsidiary body "suggested" not to interfere and to leave Poland. Russian intelligence in August, said that in the Ottoman Empire are preparing for the invasion of the Polish countryside.
Our homeland was trying to resolve the matter peacefully. 17 (28) July sent a letter to Peter Sultan Ahmed III, in which warned that the presence of 40 thousand troops under Charles would be taken as "a clear break of the world." Our homeland has agreed to escort three thousand, and from the Turks, Crimean Tatars and not inclined "to the destruction of the world." Samples of the Russian Federation to resolve the matter through diplomatic were taken in Istanbul, as a weakness. The Turks have behaved more and more than tough. Royal couriers arrested at the border and thrown in jail. Cases with Turkey were suspended. Agents said that Bender is already 10 thousand troops, artillery contracts, special on engineering. 18 (29) October 1710 Peter sent the latest letter to the sultan, which asked about the intentions of Ports in respect of Charles and claimed the immediate expulsion of the Swedish king with the Turkish countryside. The governor promised that in the unlikely event Our homeland will manufacture and military forces to push the boundaries of Turkey. Istanbul ignore this message.
Russian salting Tolstoy was arrested and imprisoned in the castle Semibashenny, but he was able to say that the war has begun. The Turks were busy with the war in Lebanon, because the main striking force of the first had become the Crimean Tatars, Polish supporters Stanislaw Leszczynski, Cossacks Constantine Gordienko, Ukrainian Cossack Hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine Philip Orlik (he was elected to replace dead Mazeppa). A formal declaration of war was followed by 20 November 1710.
Plans of the parties, the concentration of forces
In December 1710 the Crimean Khan Devlet II Giray hordes Bender met with the Swedish monarch Charles XII and Hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine Philip Orlik. It was decided to attack the Right-Bank Ukraine, the combined forces of the Khan's son Mehmed Giray Orlikovsky with the Cossacks and the Poles (enemies of the Russian tsar). Immediately to the left-bank Ukraine were to attack the forces of the Crimean Khan together with the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
The Russian government has received the message about the beginning of the war with Turkey, immediately responded. Field Marshal Sheremet was ordered to begin redeployment of 22 infantry regiments under the command of Repnina and Allart in district of Minsk and Slutsk. There also through Smolensk had to head recruiting recruitment. Began redeployment of artillery under the command of Bruce. The commander of Russian forces in Poland M. Golitsyn was instructed to concentrate their forces in Kamenetz-Podolsky, on the border with Moldova. For the growth of its forces from the Baltic sent Ingermanlandsky and Astrakhan shelves. Golitsyn had to prevent the passage of Charles through Poland, and you try to take the Kamenetz-Podolsk detain him. Retreat he had a right only when there is "excessive Turkish forces." Golitsyn and the Russian Ambassador to Poland also instructed to follow the mood of the Polish nobility, do not let them go to the Turkish or the Swedish side. Kiev governor Dmitry Golitsyn and Hetman Ivan Skoropadskyi were ordered to defend Ukraine and the Sea of Azov. Admiral Fyodor Apraxin along with Kalmyk troops responsible for guarding the south-eastern borders of the country. For airlifted troops from the Baltic states were planning to deploy food stores in Kiev and Moldovan border. Peter significant attention on the training of troops sent to fight a new opponent. Taking into account the fact that the base of the hostile army was the caval
ry, the governor gave the order to focus on the fire training dragoons. Turkish and Mongolian horsemen were going to oppose gun and artillery fire of infantry, protected slingshots.
Turkey's entry into the war on the side of Charles fundamentally changed the military and political situation. I had to temporarily abandon the active hostilities against Sweden and bring the main effort against the new enemy. In order to cover the main group of the Russian army from the likely impact forces Krassau from Pomerania in Poland made a separate enclosure. For its formation sent six thousand troop of dragoons foreman Yakovlev, and transferred from Livonia 8-10 thousand dragoons Bour. The remaining forces in the Baltic led Menshikov. Riga garrison had to make up for the 10 th Fighter from internal garrisons and recruits.
In addition, Peter has tried to resolve the case through peaceful negotiations. He was in January 1711 sent a new letter to the Sultan of Turkey, offering not to go to war. And this letter remained unanswered.
In February 1711, it became clear that Turkey is ready to put up to 120 thousand people, and together with the forces of Crimean Khan, the armed forces of the enemy will rise to 200 thousand. The essence of the strategic plan of the Turkish command was that, in order to concentrate the main forces in the area of Bender and the Lower Danube, and then deploy the coming toward Bender — Iasi — Kamenetz-Podolsky, and further into the Commonwealth. Charles was to follow with the Turkish army to unite with the forces Krassau in Pomerania. In order to divert the main Russian force was applied to two auxiliary impact — on the Left Bank and Right Bank Ukraine. Planned attack on the Azov and Taganrog, and Voronezh.
Russian military command has decided the question of which strategy to choose — offensive or defensive. Expect an invasion of its territory or to move the fighting actions on the ground the enemy. In general terms, the plan was ready by the end of 1710. Peter decided to lead an army and go into a decisive coming to thwart the plan Turkish command and Carla. The final version of the plan was adopted by the council of war 1 (12) in January 1711. Decided to cover the border with a subsidiary body of the Crimean Khanate and start coming on the Danube. So Makarov, the Russian command was going to prevent the enemy to occupy Moldavia as a springboard for the invasion of Poland. The Russian plan almost everything was focused on the fact that Moldavia and Wallachia are some good allies. Delegation of Moldovan and Wallachian boyars "pestered" of, begging the king, that the Orthodox Power has taken them into its own structure (both Christian principalities were vassals of the Ottoman Empire). Ruler of Wallachia Constantin Brancoveanu back in 1709 promised 30 thousand troops and food supplies if our homeland will perform against the Turks, and promises to take the principality under their protection. In April 1711, Peter I signed a contract with hidden Lutsk Moldavian ruler Dimitrie Cantemir. Cantemir became a vassal of the Russian Tsar, had promised his troops and aid in food supply, getting credit for the privileged position of Moldova and the ability to pass the throne on heritage. In addition, expected that Turkey will act against Serbs and Montenegrins, pulling on some of the forces hostile army.
The outbreak of war
In January 1711, the Crimean khan moved 80-90 thousand troops to Ukraine. Horde was divided into two parts: on the left bank of the Dnieper Khan led to 40 thousand soldiers, on the right bank of Kiev went Mehmed Giray with 40 thousand Tatars, who teamed up with the Cossacks, supporters Orlik, Poles, Swedes and a small detachment.
In the Left-Bank Ukraine was no significant Russian forces 11 thousand soldier, Major-General FF Shydlovsky stood in the Kharkov region, Apraksina of Voronezh and five thousand of the Don Cossacks. Devlet Giray, without meeting much resistance, went to the district of Kharkiv. He planned, joining forces with the Kuban hordes stab at Voronezh, Voronezh shipyards and destroying the fleet. But the Nogai were detained by Allied RF Kalmyks. Crimean army faced Izyum Belgorod and defensive lines. As a result, in the middle of March the Crimean Tatars in Crimea retreated.
In the Right-Bank Ukraine, the combined forces of the Crimean Tatars, orlikovtsev, Cossacks and the Poles also had success initially. They seized a number of fortifications, but soon began differences between them. Poles and Cossacks were arguing about the future of Ukraine, the Crimean Tatars to motivate more people capture and deportation to implement a slave than war. In late March, the snow-white garrison church (1 million people) hit the storm and made successful forays, the Crimean Tatars have suffered huge losses. Golitsyn soon forced the enemy to withdraw to Bender.
At this time the main forces of the Russian army under the command of Sheremeteva moving from the Baltic to the Ukraine. 12-13 (23-24) on April Lutsk a council of war. It focused on the timing and places where the forces of supply dilemma, the preparation of ships to cross the Dniester. May 30 (June 10), the troops were assembled in the town of Bratslav the borders of Moldova.
The forward units of the Russian army successfully crossed the Dniester. Local communities will meet Russian army favorably. Ruler of Moldavia Dimitrie Cantemir sided with the Russian Federation and called for people to revolt against the Turks. But immediately there prepyadstviya: ready food procured was not, it was hard to obtain. Cantemir annexed to the Russian avant-garde only 5-6 people (also poorly armed). It was reported that approximately 40 thousand Turkish army is a 7-crossings of the Danube, Russian troops had to be done 10 conversions. We Sheremeteva was 15 thousand people and at the council 8 (19) decided in June to expect the main forces.
The main forces led by Peter in June were made to the town of Soroca. 9 (20) June moved to Iasi and after a difficult march together with avant-garde Sheremeteva. Supply situation continued to deteriorate. Fields of Moldavia were devastated by locusts. June 28 (July 9) at the council decided to send seven thousand cavalry General K. Rennes to Brailov to capture collected there by the Turks supplies of food. In addition, the raid was the ruler of Wallachia should prompt Brancovan to the side of. The main forces were to go along the right bank to the tract Falchi bars and rods, and from there to the river Siret, where Galati gathered together with a group of Rennes.
After a few days the Russian command received a report that the main power of the Turkish army led by the Vizier Mehmed Pasha Baltadzhi stand in the town near the mouth of Trajan bars. Towards the Turks was oriented squad Janus Ebershtedta background. He received a puzzle prevent the enemy to cross the river. Happy 7 (18), Ebershtedta squad was on the spot and found a Turkish guard, who was preparing for the crossing. The general did not meet its own debt. He stepped back, did not prevent restore the crossing. Also fooled command — he said that the Turkish forces crossed bars, although the main enemy forces reached the river only in the evening and started crossing for the next day. This has led to serious consequences, the Russian army was cut from the squad Rennes. The army at that time was in the area Stanileshti. Peter gathered a council of war. It was decided to retreat to the north along the rod and comfortable place to fight. The property, which slowed down the movement, was destroyed by the Russian army began an organized retreat.
Walked up the rear Preobrazhensky regiment and bombardier company for 6 hours repulsed the attack of Turkish and Mongol cavalry. The movement was short-lived, a few kilometers from the army braked Tracts New Stan
ileshti. Began to build a fortified camp. It was a wrong triangle whose base was drawn to the river rod and the tip of the enemy. On both sides of the triangle placed troops. Inside the order of battle was artillery and cavalry. Closer to the river built a supply train. The right flank was covered swamps, because on this side of limited protection using slingshots. The left wing reinforced not only with slingshots, and continuous trenches.
Soon the Turks surrounded the Russian camp, part of their army occupied the high ground on the other side of the river. 9 (20) July, three hours before the sun goes down 20 thousand Janissaries (an elite part of the Turkish armed forces), the Platform is not the main forces and artillery, went on the attack. Division Allart met them a massive volley of almost point-blank, that chastened opponent. The Turks were confused and retreated. They made a few more attacks, but they fought off an experienced rifle and artillery fire. The Turks lost 7-8 thousand people. The Russian army has lost 2.6 million killed, wounded or taken prisoner. Energetic resistance of the Russian army and the big loss made tremendous negative memory on the enemy. Vizier said assistant military adviser to the Turkish army S. Poniatowski, "… we are in danger of being overwhelmed, and it's inevitably going to happen." But Peter, not knowing the overall situation, the army did not dare to lead a counter-attack and defeat the Turkish forces in parts. Peter and refused to night raids. Some researchers believe that this was a big mistake. Russian demoralization of the army could use the best of Turkish forces and turn the tide in their favor.
By night the battle subsided. Turks began to build fortifications, drove artillery. Began an artillery duel that lasted till morning. Night samples Turks go to the advent were repulsed. The situation was difficult: there was a shortage of ammunition, food, people will not rest more than three days, most of the cavalry withdrew from Rennes. Russian army inferior to those men and the number of gun barrels: Russian regiments numbered about 38 thousand people, with 122 guns, the Turks had 130-135 people (with the Crimean Tatars, their army grew to 200 million) and more than 400 guns. At the same time, the Russian army was severe whole force, with the highest morale. The Turks were depressed bolshennymi losses, and in the afternoon when the Vizier tried to raise fighter in the latest attack, they categorically refused.
Happy 10 (21) July Turks continued shelling Russian positions. He was led from the opposite shore rods and lasted till 2 day or hours. This made the difficult water supply of troops. Was called a council of war: it made the decision to offer a truce to the Vizier, and if you fail to go to a strong attack by all means, "not on the tummy, and to destruction, nobody Mila and no one begging for mercy." The Turks did not respond to the message. Russia continued to strengthen camp and immediately prepare for a breakthrough to the north. The Turks sent a second message, it said that if the answer is again no, the army would attack. Turks are again silent. Peter gave orders to build and launch an attack, but a little Russian regiments were several 10-s yards, the Turkish command said that it was ready to negotiate. Against the negotiations was a representative of the Swedish king S. Poniatowski and the Crimean khan, they believed that it is necessary to wait a few days, then start Russian famine, and they are surrendering. But their world was not taken into account. It was a truce for 48 hours and negotiations began.
The peace agreement
The negotiation was handled by the vice-chancellor Peter Pavlovich Shafirov. He received the greatest opportunity and the consent of the difficult conditions, not including the surrender of the army. The Turks claimed to Azov, Taganrog kill Fortress, Stone backwater, Samara, give Moldovan ruler Cantemir, a representative of the Russian Federation in Montenegro and Moldova Sawa Raguzinsky to compensate not received tribute from Moldavia, to eliminate the Russian embassy in Istanbul, give all the artillery and equipment. Shafirov outright refused on a number of criteria — issuing Cantemir Raguzinsky, artillery, compensation Moldovan tribute. The Turks did not insist. But claimed the hostage as a guarantor of the peace treaty Russia criterion Sheremeteva, his son and Shafirov. At this time in the Russian camp held two meetings, it was decided to go for a break in the event of the failure of the talks.
12 (23) June a peace treaty was signed. It should be noted that at this time Rennes continued to successfully own raid — 14 (25), he stormed Brailiv, acquiring vast supplies of food. After a day or two, Peter ordered him to withdraw. The Swedes tried to change the situation. Poniatowski gave funds Janissaries, so they revolted against the vizier, the means taken and expressed condolences to the Swedes. Carl rode from Bender. Swedish master claimed to break world and give him an army to attack the Russian positions. Vizier refused. Turks decided to deal with small losses — Our homeland agreed to kill the fortress on the border with the Crimean Khanate, lost out in the Sea of Azov. As a result, the main purpose of ports has been executed, and breathe in the interests of Sweden, the Turks do not want. Turkish commanders had so enough that belonged to the enemy nedavneshnemu friendly — the vizier made a gift of 1,200 carts with bread and rice. Shafirov said of the vizier rates that cost them dearly. In the capital of the Ottoman Empire, after learning about the world for a number of days celebrating (this war was not popular).
After the signing of the Russian army of the world with flags flying and drums moved north. Prut campaign has been completed. This campaign has once again showed the highest fighting properties of the Russian army and courage Russian soldiers and officers. She showed an advantage of well-organized and disciplined army of the countless masses of brave but poorly managed by Turkish fighter. Once this operation has identified a number of serious shortcomings: the Russian command at the beginning of the coming of a strange theater of operations without the painstaking exploration and preparation of logistics, supply troops. Very high hopes have been entrusted to the Allies. In a certain respect, Peter repeated the mistakes of Charles (though not with such a devilish result). In addition, a negative role in the war played some foreign officers. Peter after a campaign spent "cleaning" command staff: was dismissed from service 12 generals, 14 colonels, 22 lieutenant-colonel, and 156 captains.
Peter P. Shafirov.