Troops Country pyramids

In the fall of 2008, the armed forces of the Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) conducted a large-scale military maneuvers in the Sinai, the conventional enemy according to tradition was elected Israel. This fact has caused another tension between Cairo and Jerusalem. After about 5 months, in February last year, when the Egyptians, the same place in the Sinai, decided to re-test the readiness of its own army, the name of the imaginary enemy has not been named. And it's not a diplomatic trick: the military, as you know — bad diplomats. The whole course of the February maneuvers, code names, the range of conventional attacks pointed to the fact that last year the Egyptian army was beaten a hypothetical conflict with armed groups, an ally which the IDF (Israel Defense Forces) can not be by definition.

EGYPTIAN MANEUVERS

The Egyptian army is always the number of the strongest in the Arab world. The total strength of the armed forces of Egypt — about half a million soldiers and officers conscripts. In addition, almost under arms are still almost 350 million people in the militias security agencies, border troops and the State Guard. It is logical that the Egyptian armed forces in size are in the top 10 of the world's armies. The base of the armed forces are the Army (NE), including motorized infantry, armored and artillery brigades, airborne units. According to the staffing in the NE includes intelligence, engineering, transport parts, as units of chemical protection and logistical support. At the operational level, the troops are grouped into four military neighborhood, which from the beginning of hostilities in turn fronts.

NE are in service with tanks, combat armored vehicles, self-propelled and towed guns. In the armed forces of Egypt have separate brigade tactical missile complexes "Luna-2M" and ballistic missiles R-17E. The entire park has Russian missile production, virtually unmodified. Egypt's military aviation is represented by 26 squadrons, manned aircraft in the main South American production of the F-15 and F-16. Also, the Americans gave the Egyptians about 200 helicopters. It is seen that most supplied to the Land of the Pyramids of weapons and equipment — an overseas brand. In this case, Washington applies to the Egyptians approved by Israelis option of military assistance. On 2 billion. dollars allocated specifically to Cairo as military aid, the Egyptians have the right to buy only South American weapon, ammunition and army equipment. But if the planes, helicopters and aircraft equipment are available specifically from the United States, the tanks and armored vehicles gather in Egypt for an American license.

Note that the number of languid arms army ARE now much greater than the IDF. Well, the quality of guns coming now in the Egyptian arsenals, not far behind Israel.

Navy Egypt is considered naikrupneyshim in the Arab world and Africa. But his firepower is very vague. Egyptian naval base is 6 old, but modernized and armed with modern instrument of American frigates of the "Knox" and "Oliver Hazard Perry."

Light navy boats represented in China, built on the basis of Russian samples. As for the submarine fleet, it does not hold water, because in the main, designed by the 60-ies of the last century. Even a two-year supply of reversing the Netherlands 2-diesel submarines situation has not changed. Almost all marine mine-sweeping and small landing craft put another Russian Alliance, and three huge landing craft in 1974 has put Poland.

Cadres are almost all

In peacetime, the army of Egypt's largest 5 times the IDF. According to a law passed in 1980, the armed forces are equipped with Egypt on the basis of the principle of universal conscription and voluntary recruitment of contract. The call in time of peace be males between 18 and 30 years old, fit for health reasons. The term real military service — three years, staying in reserve in times of peace — nine years. But in the case of war and general mobilization conscription age limit extends to 50 years. The slope of the appeal to young peasants belonging to the educated strata, it is not hard. The law provides for postponement, shortening the life span for those with at least secondary education.

For certain categories of students, and those with higher education can be a full exemption from the draft. The girls in the local army is not encouraged, but formally the Minister of Defence has the right to declare a set of volunteer women in non-combat military parts and labor battalions.

The service life of regular officers set at 20 years, then three years they are in reserve. Private and non-commissioned officers in the main recruited from illiterate farmers. Because the mastery of them even by ordinary abilities of military service requests of special education in the respective centers. Literate recruits learn specifically in parts.

Officers are preparing a military academy, the military departments and civilian universities. In some cases, the title of lieutenant assigned to particularly distinguished non-commissioned officers. Preparing senior officers carried out at the Military Academy of the General Staff named Gamal Abdel Nasser.

In Egypt army has always been a supplier of personnel in the state-administrative apparatus. The current president Hosni Mubarak — the last military the pilot. Many former military in the middle of the provincial governors, ministers, heads of missions diplomatically. For those coming from rural areas and small towns in the Army almost the only path to a specific prosperity.

The most vserasprostranennym method of control over the armed forces in all the Arab armies, including the Egyptian, have been and remain the highest salaries of military and financial support for the army as a whole. But personally support the hundreds of thousands of troops in the treasury of funds is clearly not enough. Because the formation of a set of military and army units are to discover undeniable class character. Elite units are supplied with significantly better than those in which most of the soldiers represented by former peasants. Hence the frequent riots and the troops. For example, in 1986, 20 thousand rebel soldiers and officers of the mouth of the order. The reason for the rebellion is very basic — the command dramatically reduced the rate of issue of bread. Rebels against the government sent three elite divisions that with neposlushlivymi parts fiercely fell out.

Egypt spends a lot of money for the purchase of arms, ammunition and army equipment. Immediately Egypt develops its its military industry.

To "fill a quiver of arrows …"

It should be understood that the military industry of Egypt, naikrupneyshaya in the Middle East, includes all areas of production — from light weapons and small arms ammunition to the tank and aviaraketnoy technology. In the production of weapons Egyptians cooperate not only with the Yankees. In Egypt made mortars, anti-aircraft guns in their development, and tank guns and howitzers — respectively by the British and Finnish licenses. The accumulated experience in manufacturing communications equipment, fire control systems and military optics.

The Ministry of Military Industry (IMP), Egypt operates 16 municipal enterprises producing both military and civilians products. Fundamentally see that the ammunition issued only to companies profit center. Made in 1975, concern "the Arab Organization for Industrialization" (IDF), which included, apart from Egypt, Saudi Arabia (SA), Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), controlled in the Land of the Pyramids nine military companies. In the early 90-ies of the last century, the SA, Qatar and the UAE came out of the IDF, and the IDF at the moment — only Egyptian concern.

Very curious about the actual cause of the collapse of the IDF. Egypt insisted that the Arab countries and even more so the founders of the IDF took their own production. But the Saudis were strongly against such an approach. CA followed the example of Qatar and the UAE. At present, specifically the CA, and not Egypt is the leading positions in the import of weapons, first South American. An aircraft factory in Helwan, which is part of the concern IDF to nedavneshnego time together with Brazil, the Egyptians made the plane "Tucano", referring to a type of combat training. Now there is assembly of aircraft of the same class, but the Chinese.

At the same factory, repaired and modernized aircraft engines aircraft Russian production of the MiG-21, the French "Mirage-3", and a number of U.S. airlines. Began creation training aircraft, which Egypt has developed projects with China and Pakistan.

Takes the usual — started back in the 50s — cooperation with the Spanish and German firms. Recall that the first jet fighter, built in Egypt, was developed by a team of designers in Spain under famed Willie Messerschmidt. The Egyptians believed that the Russian arms deliveries slowed down its own production of military equipment. Cairo now sees fit, in principle, focusing on Washington to seek other abilities for the joint production of armaments. So, today the Egyptian administration is trying to connect to their own development projects programmke supersonic fighter jets to India.

In Egypt remained an unlimited number of Russian military equipment samples. Until now, the Egyptians remain in service aircraft missile systems S-125 anti-aircraft missile "Square" and many others. According to the agreements signed with Cairo "Rosoboronexport", "Defence systems", "Almaz-Antey" and "UKROBORONSERVICE", this technique mend Russian and Ukrainian Khobar (in Arabic — spices). In 2009, Moscow has put the Egyptian army 10 military helicopters Mi-17V5, manufacturing Kazan Helicopter Plant. In today's planned to deliver 10 more. In view of previous deliveries to Egypt's army operation for more than 100 Russian helicopters. The Egyptian military are enthusiastic to advanced Russian air defense systems of production, as the C-300 and C-400.

At the end of the 90-ies of the last century, Egypt was invited to the country of North Korean Khobar, which on the basis of solid-fuel engines were able to bring the range tactical missiles (such as "Scud") of up to 500 km. The North Korean missile carriers "Rodong" is used as a reference for the creation of intermediate range ballistic missiles — up to 2000 km. So Makar, a defensive concept Egypt is fully consistent with the Arabic saying: "Before the shoot, Kick some own quiver with arrows."

Cairo exports its military products in a number of Arab and African countries. Israeli same weapons, ammunition, ammunition and defense technology purchase in 50 countries. So Makar, Jerusalem came in third place in the world (after the United States and the Russian Federation) on export of military products. Jerusalem intensively introduces unmanned combat vehicles — apparently, in 10-15 years, Israeli aircraft on the third part will be unmanned. Cairo unmanned military aircraft has not made. Apparent nuclear ambitions have not been seen in Cairo. Egyptian nuclear programm started to develop at the end of the 60-ies of the last century, but in 1973 it was completely conserved. As can be seen, the Egyptians did not forgets and other Arab proverb: "Do not blades of arrows that you can not reflect."

OFFICERS ALWAYS AHEAD

akonodatelstvo Egypt prohibits the military from engaging in political activities and participate in the work of some political parties. And yet, after all Egyptian presidents deposed the monarchy in July 1952 were from the officer's protection. These include the first President Mohammed Naguib, the second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat and as far a favorite of Hosni Mubarak, incidentally, graduated from the Frunze Military Academy. It is not clear that this tradition will be broken for the foreseeable future.

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